The article «Living warehouse» (see. Paz, 2013), we discussed how to improve the main indicators of warehouse organization to use the concept of Kaizen. For those uses it, the benefits of this approach are obvious. It allows you to increase productivity, efficiency and quality of work. Where Kaizen is used for the first time, the administration without any major capital investment increases productivity by 30, 50 or even more than 100%. In the article on the illustrative examples discussed concrete steps for the further implementation of this principle.
Kaizen — a humanistic approach, since it requires the participation of everyone. It is based on the belief that anyone can improve their workplace, where he spends a third of life. The basis of the concept of Kaizen and effectiveness of the applicable not only in Japan but also in other countries, is the fact that all human beings instinctively seek to improve themselves.
The main problem in the application of the principles of Kaizen on Russian soil is the high turnover rate (as opposed to the lifetime employment of employees in medium and large Japanese companies) and a small length of service of employees. Based on my experience, the most valuable ideas put forward at the earliest after 3-5 years of work in one place. Since Kaizen starts with identifying problems in the conditions of continuous hiring and firing process is often equated with poor performance that means for the dismissal of employees. Often leadership niggles to subordinates, and those, in turn, hide many problems. It should be a change in the relations between people in the process of working together to create an atmosphere that will encourage the open admission by one and all the problems and developing plans to address them.
In Japan especially appreciated the old and experienced workers. These puts young specialist for training and transfer of expertise. There Passing the baton — a young specialist enthusiasm, the desire to experiment and implement, at the same old specialist — experience and knowledge. They simply need each other. This chain in any case can not break! How do companies ensure that engineers are more involved in work related to the production? Typically, engineers, technologists and programmers are proud distant from production projects. Specialists working in the production often has a lower status than the technical staff at the head office, which is reflected in different levels of pay. A typical employee wants to get to the central research laboratory to gain higher status and salary. This system helps to ensure that the best employees go out of production. Given the importance of cross-functional interaction between the parent company and production enterprises should review the existing order, directing the production of the best technical staff. In the context of the Japanese system of allowances for long service specialist, was appointed to manufacture, not in the least troubled by this, because he knows it will receive the same compensation package, which at the same specialist his own age working at the head office.
Kaizen does not replace or preclude innovation. Rather, they complement each other. The ideal time for innovation comes when opportunities are exhausted Kaizen and Kaizen begins immediately after the introduction of innovations. Kaizen and innovation — the inseparable components of progress. In connection with this huge problem with applying the principles of Kaizen there and very successful companies with highly innovative climate. Most technicians have just completed a major innovative project, consider the proposed immediately after the implementation of ideas and proposals for improvement of errors or deficiencies in this innovative project. There is strong resistance to the process of solving them, because usually those employees who have implemented an innovative project, do the work and to address the problems of small improvements. At best, the project team asks employees to collect all the small pool of proposals to solve them after a while, getting another quite large-scale innovative project and violating the basic principle of Kaizen to address a small but permanent task improvement. Therefore you must be prepared for the fact that the process of improvement should be ongoing and become a business philosophy for each employee throughout the company.
UNITED mechanism for collecting suggestions and ideas
«Everyone hears only what he understands» Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Operations performed during mass production, is often very simple and require highly repetitive skills, which primarily concerns the operations for picking. However, this approach makes the work tediously repetitive. It is very difficult to reconstruct the logic of thinking employee and get to work, not only the hands but also the head, which is born the idea of improvement. In a survey of how satisfied employees with their work in a major US company specializing in the chemical industry, production worker said: «For 20 years, you pay for my hands. You could even use it for free and my head, but you never let me not asked. » It is a clear signal to companies anywhere in the world! Despite the fact that most of the staff is just a performer, which is not always easy to understand and remember the logic implementation of certain operations, and especially to come up with a way to improve them. However, the gift of creativity is every person, which is to discover and develop the company must be using a variety of techniques.
One integral part of the strategy of Kaizen is a system offers. The Japanese system of proposals focuses primarily on moral incentives, allows employees to feel like a full participant in the production process, and not on the monetary and financial incentives, which prevails in the American style of management. The system offers allows for the possibility of a person in accordance with the notion that the work must be no more, and smarter. If the company’s management wants his employees began to «think», striving for continuous improvement of working methods, it must be careful and very sensitive.
The introduction of the proposals in the company usually takes place in three stages. At first, the administration helps employees to file and record all ideas and suggestions, even the most simple and fantastic, to improve its working methods and management. It helps people to think about how they do their work. In the second phase focuses on training employees. To submit better offers, they should be able to analyze problems in their environment, and this requires special training. In the third stage, when employees are not only interested but also prepared for this kind of work, you can put a question about the economic effect of the submitted proposals.
The system offers not only helps form kaizen thinking, but also gives people the opportunity to express their thoughts and discuss them control each other. The system offers offers excellent prospects not only for the exchange of information with the management and co-workers on the site, but also for self-employee.
Managers need to understand that for the implementation of this system will require 5-10 years and all problems faced by the majority of companies are usually associated with the fact that their leaders are trying to skip one or two steps and one leap to the third. This is facilitated by the fact that currently the software market there is a sufficient number of ready-made software products that support the ideas and suggestions. They have advanced functionality, administration tools, support group work. There is a temptation to buy and start implementation of the software at the initial stage of the system offers. However it is better to think about the choice of automation system offers when the number of proposals will be measured in the hundreds, and the offer will be quite complex. At the initial stage it is better to focus on fixing the ideas and proposals in the paper and electronic form. It is necessary to immediately support the proposal if they help address one of the following tasks:
— Facilitation of work;
— elimination of monotonous, hard, tedious work;
— increased productivity;
— improve security;
— improve product quality;
— time saving and cost reduction;
— interference elimination operation.
As a means to use the intellectual level of experienced manufacturing employees in our company has repeatedly developed institutional mechanisms to collect proposals. However, in September 2010 we were unable to get a bright and interesting ideas. The problem was that we used the inefficient approaches. We did not know what to do when the question arises: «How to pay for ideas?», «How to» extend «the ideas of the employees?», «Who should evaluate and select ideas?», «How fast can give feedback to the author of the idea? «. There are currently at our disposal more than 300 ideas, of which not only offers employees to improve any process, but the result of the various proposals on other enterprises. We also have about the same number of improvements with a simple registration in the form of requests for work for employees of administrative units. They also are full of ideas and proposals, but without the additional material incentives. Estimation of economic efficiency in the first step is not performed, since the main task of this stage — to get a proposal or idea.
To improve the effectiveness of the procedure of collecting the proposals we have introduced an element of visual thinking. It’s usually pretty routine and not always intuitive to most employees process. Now, when we add the registration of proposals based on the elements of the following rules, which makes the idea is absolutely clear to all stakeholders, including not only experts in the field, but also employees of related departments. Here are the rules.
REQUIRED IMAGE OF IDEAS
The creative process of registration offer in our bank of ideas, we start with the idea of fixing the project in the form of an existing image. The most convenient way to do this in the form of drawings or photographs that clearly represent the idea. At the same time we have to «kill two birds with one stone» — fix the idea and check it for compliance or viability. Since the Bank of Ideas is not a system of finding a solution (which can be carried out according to the procedure of TRIZ), a decision has to be known at the time of registration or proposals exist in any technical field.
If the analogy can not be found, it is likely to face — a new invention! And so you should hurry up and register it and obtain a patent, or continue searching for analog from other areas.
For example, a proposal from the staff to organize the mechanism of assistance in the collection of applications during peak loads. The project received the name of «ER» (see Fig. 1). The analogue exists, and the mechanism of the organization of ambulance crews have to work, that is, specialist who comes to the aid, should have all the necessary tools and have skills in any of the adjacent areas, ie be a generalist.
Offer «on the preliminary analysis of incoming heading for pre-preparation storage locations in the warehouse in order to prevent delays in product placement» has a name, and an analog visual image «Lighthouse» (see. Fig. 2).
The presence of the image makes it easier to bring the proposals are suggestions or ideas, because the idea becomes a material force when it takes possession of the masses, and, as stated in the well-known Russian proverb, «It is better to see once than hear a hundred times.»
TITLE ideas need to be trendy, catchy,
Bright, short, handsome, well known phrase or saying for example: FORCING, Tetris, Game Four Hands, Goldfish, etc.
In exceptional cases, the name can only reflect the technical essence of the project — «the installation of equipment for the weight of packing headings» but in this case the interest in the project may be reduced, and the complicated transfer of its essence allied units.
There should be an emotionally negative names (as in the case of the visual image), because employees will not participate in projects with the «bad» names. As the famous saying goes, «As a ship call, so it will float!».
IMAGE AND NAME CALLING OFFERS MUST positive emotions picture MUST be in color and bright. For example, in the ideas of improving marine theme should not be used illustrations Grounded or rusty ship, disasters, accidents, etc.
However, there may be cases where the «negative» image is a special condition or reflect the theme of the project, or be encouraged to work on the project, but the number of such projects should be minimalnym. In this case, we proceed from the condition, which is the basis of the second level of the pyramid of needs Maslow («need for security»): an employee taking part in work on the proposal, should be a feeling of security and freedom from fear and failure.
Material incentives —
The employee involved in the work on offer must POOSCHRATSYA MATERIAL (to get bonus). The amount of remuneration is directly proportional to the number and complexity of the proposal. Its absolute size does not really matter, but, as a rule, up to 5% of the monthly income for their active participation in the work of a single sentence. Remuneration shall be paid only in the event of a real implementation of the proposal, but the registration itself «worthless.» The fact that registration entitles the priority work of the author, who becomes executive in charge of its proposal. Sometimes there is the practice of payment for the registration of proposals in the amount of 300-500 rubles. for one sentence. Because of the small amount it does not cause the interest of employees (not a tangible) and can be applied in the case of multiple registration of proposals, for example after an excursion on the enterprise engaged in similar activities.
This is required in accordance with Maslow’s pyramid of needs («the satisfaction of physiological needs»).
ALL THAT gathered to
On all sides CAREFULLY
Suggestions should be grouped in various functional topics. Then, from a group of similar proposals can make a large investment project, or transfer them to a small group («quality circles») to work to address them. When dostaёsh things from different stacks or boxes and laid them side by side, suddenly appear between these items hidden relationship. The same is true with respect to the data when they are «packed» into separate folders and reports, see the whole picture is not possible, but if you get them, they say, in the light of God and spread out, it is possible to identify a close, but until imperceptible relationship.
We decorate your workspace pictures (family, car, pets, beautiful location, flowers, calendars, etc.). In the workplace, the company should hang just «working» images illustrating the great deals! We get used to receiving and more than 90% of the information through the eyes, so the visual image of the strongest. In addition, the text requires the understanding and transformation of the transmission of information that hinders its uptake. The picture immediately ready to accept us. The best way to use the mechanism of our visual system is to fill the picture the entire environment. In other words, use this to every table, every chair, walls and floor, ie both horizontal and vertical space. But regardless of where they hang, they should decorate the situation and be sure to please the eye! Therefore, we have decided to keep the proposal in the «hard» copies (on paper) and in electronic form on the computer. However, at the initial stage of implementation of the system offers a major impact it should have hard copies of A4 size, printed on a color printer. It becomes a convenient process of control over the execution of work on the proposal. During a bypass (a manager using the principles of Kaizen is to half of his working time to be in the workplace, or Gemba) very clearly you can see and track all projects and proposals for each employee and to assess the degree of its success. We sure every staff member in at least one project in the company because there is always a large number of different projects to suit all tastes (for example, the social project «Christmas tree», «arts council», «travel club», «Photojournalist», etc. .). Lack of interest in work on the project says about the problems of a person in the implementation of the fourth level of Maslow’s pyramid — «the need for recognition and implementation.»
It is important that paper copies of the proposals can be rewarding, they can give, transfer to other employees in the event of illness or dismissal of the responsible person. In addition, they can work anywhere and under any conditions. And, you know, it’s amazing what unexpected relationship is sometimes reveal our eyes when they are given the opportunity to cover the whole picture at once.
This rule works on the third level of the pyramid of needs Maslow defines human need for belonging to a social group, the involvement and support. One fact of belonging to any group increases productivity by 20%. Well-known experiments conducted in the 1920s. When after the unification of «special experimental group» montazhnits relay telephone stations, membership in which is different only in that the jobs were located in a separate room, labor productivity in this group increased by more than 20%. Despite the fact that the proposals submitted individually and work on some of them conducted individually as well, need to unite employees in the so-called small groups or «Quality circles» on the basis of association for any of the grounds.
Building an effective system TRAINING
«We all learned a little something and somehow …»
AS Pushkin. «Eugene Onegin»
One of the most important keys to the development of creative skills in Japanese companies are particularly teaching methods and description of the process for production workers. The main emphasis in training is on mentoring and visualization training materials. Education is based on the principle of «better to see once than hear a hundred times.» Typical technological instruction for any warehouse operation used in stock Toyota, is a series of photographs illustrating the performance of specific operations and indicates what to look at their performance. Here are only a very brief explanation in text form. Widespread use of imaging in learning (mentoring — a direct form of execution process visualization) can significantly reduce training time, improve quality, and most importantly — develop the human creative gift.
For the certification of quality management system ISO 9001 in 2006, our company have developed the technological instructions for all warehouse operations. The volume of each of these instructions is at least 10 sheets of A4 typescript. These instructions do not contain any visual image (drawing, photographs or diagrams), and consisted only of text. Training new employees was carried out using these instructions. As a result, the process of learning a new employee was 3-6 months. After drawing up the visual user instructions (see. Box) the learning process now takes very little time. Visual user instructions, we are called «books» and have two levels of operation for novice and professional, which are called, respectively, «the 10 steps of successful picker» and «Secrets of professional mastery.» New employee in a matter of hours after seeing the instruction is ready to perform a particular operation, and the whole process of training we’re running out after 1 month. It is worth noting the interest that arises in the course of training in this format, in contrast to the monotone reading of the text, written by a specialist technology.
The concept of Kaizen can be divided into three large areas that are complex and enhancement:
1. Kaizen for the employee.
2. Kaizen group.
3. Kaizen managers.
Organization of work on construction of the system is an integral part of proposals for the work of the individual employee and for the group of employees for improving processes across the enterprise. In order to make it dynamic and effective leadership requires elaborate plan. Since every company is interested in solving specific problems, the system of collecting proposals should: be as open as possible for all employees; provide quick feedback; allowing each employee to be involved in the process of practical implementation of the idea to have any involvement in the result; to provide tangible and intangible incentives creative initiatives of employees; labeling all the key areas in which the company intends to carry out improvements. Without a doubt, any industrial company will benefit in a situation where will ask their employees to work not only with his hands but also his head!