The history of doping. Anabolic steroids in power sports.

The history of doping. Anabolic steroids in power sports.

first steroid

The testicles are known to be responsible for male sex characteristics and behavior — it was known since ancient times, but in 1849, scientists were able to determine the mechanism of these processes. German scientist Arnold Adolph Berthold found that the testes to secrete some unknown substance into the bloodstream.

Several decades later, the French physiologist Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard, the father of modern research of hormones trying to identify this substance from the concentrated extract obtained from the testicles of dogs and guinea pigs. He argued that the injection of the extract could increase physical strength and mental abilities in people.

The first user of steroids

Athletes already turned to science as a means to improve athletic performance — hormonal studies of Brown-Sekar interested in a future member of the Hall of Fame baseball, feeding James Galvin («Pud»). He became a regular user of the elixir (no doubt containing some androgens) Brown-Sekar, and apparently the first known athlete, introducing steroids outside. In the yard it was in 1889 …

steroids to enhance athletic performance

A few years after «Pud» Austrian physiologist Oskar tot suggested that the injection on the basis of an extract of the testicles to enhance athletic performance, and in 1896 published a paper proposing further research to increase performance in athletes. In the next two decades, scientists have repeatedly seen confirmation of androgenic effects of extracts from the testicles of animals.

In 1927, a chemistry professor at the University of Chicago, Fred Koch and Lemuel McGee researcher identified 20 mg of 40 pounds of bull testes obtained from the Chicago slaughterhouses. Introduction of the extract resulted in the re virilization castrated males, pigs and rats.

However, the chemical structures of androgens have not yet been detected and identified.

the opening of the German scientist

In 1931, a German biochemist Adolph Butenandt managed to select the first androgenic hormones. The discovery caused a considerable stir in the scientific community, in fact the start of the race giving steroid «arms.» The three largest pharmaceutical companies — «Organon»

«Schering» and «Shiba» — saw a significant potential for further research. Chemists working for these large pharmaceutical companies have changed the world, perhaps.

not the way they had imagined.

detection and identification of testosterone

Karoly David and Ernst Laqueur F of the «Organon» were the first research group isolated and identified in the amount of testosterone

10 mg, which required 100 kg (!) Bull testicles. On the opening of testosterone was first announced in the scientific work Crystal male hormone from the testes (testosterone) is more active than androsterone derived from urine or cholesterol, «published May 27, 1935.

A large number of the testicles of animals needed for the extraction of testosterone seemingly giving up on further commercial use of testosterone, but not far off were the opening of other methods for production thereof.

the synthesis of testosterone and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

«Schering» and «Ciba» independently discovered less costly methods for synthesis of testosterone in August 1935.

German biochemist

Adolf and Butenandt

G. Hanisch of the «Schering» August 24, 1935 published a paper entitled «On the conversion digidroandrosterona androstenediol and testosterone in the method for producing testosterone from cholesterol.»

Croatian chemist Leopold Ruzicka and German chemist Alfred Wettstein of the «Shiba» published a paper entitled -Synthetic drug testicular hormone testosterone (androstene-3-one-17-ol)

This contribution to science has been appreciated: in 1939 from the research "Schering «and

Shiba «shared the Nobel for his outstanding discovery.

the golden age of anabolic steroids

The discovery of synthetic methods for the preparation of anabolic androgenic steroids was a huge breakthrough in the world of pharmaceuticals, research in this area began to evolve rapidly. Nobel Prize Ruzicka did not waste time: in 1935 he synthesized several new steroid compounds, including methyltestosterone, and mestanolone methandriol. By 1937 the injectable steroid testosterone propionate and oral steroid methyltestosterone were available in sufficient quantities for use in human clinical trials.

Testosterone increases muscle mass

Charles Kochakyan pioneer researches synthetic steroids in animal experiments with the introduction of testosterone acetate in 1936 proved its anabolic role in the body. The research team Kochakyana first documented scientific link between testosterone and increase muscle mass.

In 1938, a research team of Allan Kenyon confirmed the anabolic effects of testosterone propionate during the experiments on humans.

the use of anabolic steroids in the Second World War

During the Second World War Kochakyan first proposed the use of testosterone to accelerate postoperative recovery of wounded American soldiers. However, there have been no attempts to use testosterone to improve strength and endurance of the army in both the American and German, despite the fact that some authors claim that the Germans made such experiments. But this is nothing more than mythology.

Steroids have become more accessible

The most significant discovery for the introduction of steroids to the pharmaceutical market made a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania Russell Marker: Ruzicka and Butenandt first synthesized testosterone and received a Nobel Prize, and the marker of anabolic steroids made available to a wide consumer. Cost of testosterone, progesterone and other steroids has dropped substantially in 1940, when the marker is proposed for the synthesis of steroid use natural steroid diosgenin extracted from plants instead of the much more expensive synthesis method based on cholesterol. He developed a three-step chemical process by which diosgenin converted to progesterone. It remains only to find an inexpensive plant source of diosgenin. In January 1942, the eccentric Marker organized an expedition in search of plant sources of diosgenin in the jungle state of Veracruz in Mexico and succeeded in their quest — he found the Mexican wild yam, known as «Cabeza de Negro» (Wild yam Mexicana). This kind of wild yam up to 100 kilograms in size. Not rest on this expedition Marker continued searching and eventually found another kind of wild yam — «Barbasko» (Wild yam Composite), which contained four times as much diosgenin than «Cabeza de Negro.» But the pharmaceutical company «Park-Davis’ finance the expedition

Marker to Mexico, refused from the commercial use of his discoveries. President of Mexico considered unreliable financial investment, given its instability and anti-Americanism in the midst of World War II. Marker left the «Park-Davis» in 1943. He spoke with his discovery in other US pharmaceutical companies, but they are all as one, rejected his proposal. In the end, tired of knocking on locked doors, marker in 1944 in Mexico City founded «These who later became one of the biggest players in the market steroids.

popularization of testosterone

In 1945, writer Paul de Kruif notes anabolic properties of testosterone, testosterone propionate and methyltestosterone

In a book titled «Male hormones.» This widely read book helped to popularize the potential of testosterone (anabolic steroids and future) to increase muscle mass among bodybuilders West Coast in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Bodybuilding community as a whole will soon be widely experiment I with anabolic steroids, and its members will be the first who started to use steroids to improve athletic performance. «IFBB Mr. Olympia» Larry Scott admitted that in 1960 he, and almost all of the best performing bodybuilders have used anabolic steroids.

-«Searle Pharmaceuticals’ synthesizes more than 1000 (!) Anabolic steroids

Another giant of the pharmaceutical industry — «Searle farmasyutikale» — an unprecedented effort in steroid research, to get ahead of the competition in 1943, and bring to market new steroid hormones for use in medicine. Of the thousands of potential steroids created «Searle Pharmaceuticals» in this period for the introduction to the market it has been selected norethandrolone synthesized Frank Colton in 1953. Norethandrolone became the first oral synthetic anabolic steroid approved by the Office of Food Inspection and Drug Administration (FDA) under the trade name «Nilevar» in 1956. Only orally active androgens available up to this point was methyltestosterone, which is known, is the methylated version of testosterone for oral administration with enhanced bioavailability. «Mr. Universe» Bill Pearl was one of the first bodybuilders experimented with ‘Nilevar «in 1958. Pearl spent the 12-week course Nilevar «with a dosage of 30 mg per day and increased their weight by 25 pounds — from 225 to 250 pounds. He also was the first to openly admitted steroid use, in particular in preparation for the competition, «Mr. Universe», held in 1961 NABBA.

To be continued…

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