The origins of Pushkin’s fairy tales.

The origins of Pushkin's fairy tales.

Studying the construction of tales by Alexander Pushkin, convinced that their stories and symbolism really go back to the «old times» but not this continuity makes them attractive to the reader. Intuitively, matching the myths sometimes distant from each other cultures and fusing characters of different characters, the poet as if by magic animates them. The story quickly unwound and the constant edification («good fellows a lesson») acquires magical credibility. Creativity clears the tradition of the accretions of history, so, sharing the heroes, we are an instant, suddenly grasped the beauty of eternal ideas.

The immediate source of subjects for the poet served as an extensive library, fairy tale, heard from the nurse Arina (whom he returned to life), People splint. But Pushkin is not doing research, he cared not so much the content of fairy tales as intonation, — something that is impossible to grasp the remaining passive listener or the reader more. Once neighbors bordering on the estate of Pushkin Mikhailovskoye, were shocked, seeing it in a simple red shirt, sitting on the porch of the church and singing «Verse about Alexei, the man of God», together with the blind beggars. The poet is so joined the fraternity «Kalik turn» that passing folklore collectors P.V.Kireevskomu 40 songs, recorded them in the Pskov region, added: «There’s one, my guess.» Did not find fraud, Kireyevsky decided that Pushkin played it. In fact, so do not try to fake national tradition: he mastered it with a key and as a result became the personification of Russian culture. A living breathing people’s speech is felt most strongly in the tales of Pushkin — a true theater of ideas.

Early poem «Ruslan and Lyudmila» — the only work of art of the last century, in which the motives of Russian fairy tales about Ruslan Lazarevich. Tale of Ruslana first recorded in the 1640s, before the transmitted orally. It goes back to the Iranian epic tales about Rustem, especially prevalent during the Golden rule. Eastern legend merged with its terrestrial epics and Rustem was endowed with traits of the Russian prince. In the XVIII century novel is divided into two options. One tends to chivalry, the other goes to heroic tale.

The leading motives Ruslan is finding the perfect pair. «Is there in this world more beautiful than you, and I was braver?» — He elicits Ruslan had found him and princesses, he heard about a comely damsel without hesitation to part with the old. Battling with the best warriors, warrior himself was severely checked: whether he is worthy of such a beautiful bride? Pushkin’s poem a few shifts in the semantic center Ruslan is narrowing rapidly, but Lyudmila kidnapped and he is reunited with her only in the final, when their love has withstood various tests. Closer to the source of other episodes: a meeting with the head of the heroic, assigning rivals Ruslanova victory, obtaining a miraculous elixir (in the poem — living and dead water in the story — the king of the Free bile).

Fairy cycle 1830-1834 years — a holistic work. «The Tale of the Priest and His Workman Balda» the rhythm reminds buffoon recitative and is based on the fairy tale genre of home. Although purely folk works of lies and injustice severely punished Pushkin softens this rule: it is a pity and perspiring imp, click and get the old rock-pop. The same is true in «The Tale of Tsar Saltan …» when he met after a separation of father and son forgiven for joy evil sisters. The symbolism of this poem is very complicated. Here and Celtic names of the constellations (King Guidon corresponds to Caer-Gwydion, the Milky Way, and from Italian translates as «conductor», «guide»), and evangelical overtones (33 heroes — ’33 Savior’s earthly life), and the signs of the Apocalypse (Tsarevna- Swan with a month under the scythe and a star on his forehead is clearly reminiscent of the «wife clothed with the sun, moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars»). Gnawing pine nuts protein — an allegory of the mind, feeding on seeds of faith («pure emerald») under the Tree of Life. The same strain of the protein, and served in the ancient «Lay», where «a prophetic Boyan, if someone wanted to compose a song, then rushed mysiyu on the tree …» («mys» translates as «protein»).

The action takes place in an imaginary tales world, different from the astronomical model of the cosmos, but no less harmonious «Earth motionless; sky vaults / Creator, supported you, / Do not Padhuga on drought and water / And we do not choke him, / He lit you have the sun in the universe / Yes shining heaven and earth … «This piece recalls the universal temple, the tabernacle of the favorite Rus «Cosmographia» Cosmas Indiklopova. The ocean is in Pushkin, as in Greek mythology, appears pristine and comprehensive strength.

However, in two poems of the sea is missing. The lyric «The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights», the parable of the awakening of the spiritual principle in man (Princess). And — the last poet’s tale «The Golden Cockerel», based on the novel by Washington Irving’s «Legend of the Arabian Astrologer.» The bitterness of the imperfection of human life increases are grim symbols of fratricide, demonic female (Shamahanskaya queen) and the Gnostic allegory Abraxas, inescapable Providence, who was depicted with a rooster head (The Golden Cockerel). A number of places associated with love experiences Dadon, in common with the biblical Song of Songs. «Woe! my death has come! «he exclaims before the tent irresistible queen (compare:» For strong as death, love «). Death Dadon — a direct illustration of the 7th Psalm: «fallen into the ditch which he made: his anger will turn on its head, and wickedness shall fall on his crown.» Cockerel, as we know, «startled» and also pecked Dadon «in the crown.»

The hardest thing to determine the origin of «The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish», and above all — the prototype of the central character -gold Fish. Perhaps the main source of this allegory was the tale of the seahorse and the Golden Fish of the Slavic «physiology». «Physiologist» revealed Christian symbolism of animals; Its ancient lists — Greek, but they is not the legend. This means that either the Slavs have kept it as a part of the older harass or themselves have written this article as the Sea Horse was a symbol of their common and needed clarification.

According to the «physiology» Sea Horse front looks like a horse, and behind -Fish. He — the leader of marine creatures. Each year, it should go to the ends of the earth, inhabited by Zlata Fish, owner of countless treasures. Following the ridge to the «at ground» are other fish and worship their queen, licking her. On the way back to the fish spawn and produce offspring. Fishermen do not touch anyone who carries the eggs, while those moving empty, catch. Interpretation of the parable of the following: the sea — the whole world, Seahorse — a teacher or prophet, fish — the servants of God, Zlata Fish — Christian faith. «Licking» fish, prophet, and the rest of the believers get from it a particle of the Holy Spirit, which then allows you to develop your spiritual fruits and enrich their world. «Marginal land» thought the oceans encircling ring of land, located in the east where the earthly paradise. Fishing, tackle and catch are the first extant symbol of Christianity. It is known that most of the apostles were fishermen, many times Jesus performed miracles with the fish it, and His full name is Greek and means «fish». At a later time with the fishermen to catch the divine inspiration of the «sea of ​​prayers», compared devotees and ascetics. The image of the Fisher King, Parsifal met when he was looking for the Holy Grail, was well known to us at the end of the XVIII century of the Arthurian cycle. Preceded by Pushkin, writer and storyteller Basil Levshin lovingly brought him as a prince Dobroslava in «The Adventures of Balamir.» On the other hand, Pushkin often used allegories of the book «the emblem of» (several times reprinted in Russia since Peter), and there is always varied plot with Cupid (the god of love), which in many ways (networks for the bait, boom) produced in the sea catch .

Considering that the Holy Spirit may be called to praying only sincere love, Pushkin’s fairy tales gets an unusual sense. The old man is a prayer, a spiritual worker, to which sails hard-won award — the gift of the Holy Spirit (Goldfish). However, it is absolutely unselfish: something old Fish asks, will he meekly obeys. Gradually rising, the wife does not share anything with the old man; her greed (in the draft) comes right up to the insane desire to be a «pope». Returning from the beach, the old man saw an old woman sitting on top of some tower of Babel in tiara Catholic High Priest. The brothers Grimm in a similar plot of «butt-fish» the old woman wants to be the place of God. Political satire, directed against the irrepressible ambition, poet combines with sad wisdom: obsessive passions deaf to the trend of the spirit.

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