Their element — CROSS

Their element - CROSS

For true connoisseurs of racing wander in the Technology Park, which houses the machine athletes hardly less pleasure than the contemplation of the competitions. In this sense, the European championship in autocross — a spectacle that will probably have to taste the most fastidious gourmets road. Not to mention the buggy, even in the group of cars affects the abundance of a variety of machines, many of which only the outlines resemble their production counterparts.

Such a diversity of techniques in cross-country there was no accident. On the one hand, so far, none of the companies does not produce cars specifically for cross-country. And on the other — the technical requirements of virtually inhibit creativity of those who took the training for cross-country series, or a sports car. Apart from the general safety requirements and limitations of engine capacity up to 3500 or 2300 cm3 using the boost, the basic requirements are substantially reduced only to preserve the location of the engine and the type of wheel suspension. Even the body and the engine block can be significantly altered.

However, many, such as the Italian drivers Augusto Cesare and Giuliano Maioli, as they say, would prefer not to «reinvent the wheel» and act on the well-proven in the rally «Lancia Delta-C4» and «Lancia Delta-HF4VD» that do not require little specialized training for cross-country. However, these two «Lanci» not at all resemble one another, because they represent different generations of the famous rally cars the company.

By the way, the first of them Finnish driver Markku Alen in 1986 won the title of vice-champion of the World Rally. Now, however, this car was no longer see. Now the rally has a new technical regulation. It allows only a part of production models, with the power of machines is limited to 300 liters. from. However pyatisotsilnye rally briefly monsters hiding in their «dens» and soon moved to cross. Here in the special closed equipped with the necessary safety features tracks they have ceased to pose a threat to the riders and spectators. Yet in relation to competitors in cross-country, and they have not changed their aggressive nature. On the stage of the championship in Latvia, perhaps, no one was surprised to see «Lancia Delta-C4» in the first line of control protocol runs.

According to the chief of the Italian krossmenov Signor Giorgio Buratti, through the use of naturally aspirated inline-four-cylinder engine of this car develops 430 l. from. It is located in the rear of the two-seater body. During the driver can check what is called a «turn on the afterburners» — to increase capacity to 520 liters. c. by increasing boost pressure. However, work in this mode, the engine can limit a few seconds, but that’s enough for experienced athletes lightning fast lane. To fully realize the potential «frisky» motor — drive «Lancia», of course, all-wheel drive, and tame a «herd of horses» help effective disc brakes. Through the use of light alloys and carbon fiber body panels of the vehicle diminished in weight, which, combined with high capacity provides rapid dynamics. Even at high speed wishbone suspension with gas-filled shock absorbers allows the rider to ignore the many irregularities of the track.

On account of the second car, «Lancia — Delta — HF4VD» two gold medals rally championships in 1987 and 1988. Yet she, as a representative of the next — generation series, despite the excellent «family tree» data is modest. Its two-liter inline four-cylinder engine with dual overhead camshafts and is equipped with a fuel injection system, the turbocharger and contactless ignition with an intermediate charge air cooler. It develops about 350 hp. from. and installed in front of the five-door monocoque type «hatchback». All wheel drive. They have an independent suspension type «McPherson» and disc brakes.

Do not lower the rating in motocross competitions at the «Audi Quattro» and «Ford Sierra 4X4» also earned an unrivaled reputation rally. And, apparently, the perfect way to victory at the European Championship — the performance on these machines. However, they are not cheap.

Perhaps it was one of the reasons that last year’s bronze medalist Rolf Volland from Germany opted for the all-wheel drive «Audi-90.»

— From the famous «Audi Quattro,» I have borrowed only a few nodes, — said Rolf — so many had to tinker with relief body. He now has aluminum front wings, three, in addition to the driver, doors and many parts of Kevlar. Mainly due to work with the pressurization and injection capacity of the five-cylinder engine, which is located under the hood of a cross, was able to bring up to 400 liters. from. Specifically to participate in cross-country, where the main role is played by the speaker, not the maximum rate had to choose gear ratios. Now even the last, fifth gear, my car does not reach more than 130 km / h.

Like most Cross cars radiator on «Audi» moved back and installed at the tailgate. In the nose of the car, he is more vulnerable in collisions. In addition, during the arrival of his cell quickly clogged with dirt. Inside, the machine laid pipes connecting the engine to the radiator and the auxiliary electric pump. Another welded pipe made of thin sheet metal is derived from the engine compartment and ends with the filter element. It takes air to the supercharger.

The real surprise was the appearance in this season made Togliatti wheel drive motocross «Samara». It is distinguished by all wheel independent suspension, the original disc brakes, lightweight, with improved aerodynamics and thoughtful design details on the body … it will be discussed in one of the next issues of the magazine.

Many, however, believe that the «debutante» too weak «heart.» Its motor is prepared on the basis of the serial VAZ-21083 with a larger diameter and stroke (working volume of 1600 cm3), develops only 145 liters. from. But it looks like it does not bother one of its founders — Anatol Krivobokova factory racer, found himself at the club «who are over three hundred», and then all four forces. On stage, in Czechoslovakia, surpassing rivals, nimble «Samara» took him directly to the third step of the podium.

There is no doubt that today the initiative in cross-country captured the powerful all-wheel drive cars. But leaders are still afraid of specially trained zadnemotornyh «Porsche 911» and «Volkswagen» with the drive to the rear axle. Perhaps, especially «aggressive» they are on dry highways, where the advantages of the «Quattro» is not so noticeable. The same arrangement, though with less powerful four-cylinder air-cooled engine, and have «Skoda-130LR,» which are the Czechoslovak riders. Only our Crossman ventured to start in the European Championship on the front-prepared «eight». However, while all-wheel drive «Samara» and «Aleko»

Peteris Neykshansa exist in a single copy, they simply have no other choice.

Choice, by the way, there was Alexei Sharov from Naberezhnye Chelny, acting on the buggy.

— So far we do not have a suitable powerful engine — said Alex — so, as they say, not a good life I had to install at the WHA made experimental rotary-piston engine. At least, it is more powerful than the motors specially prepared on the basis of VAZ-2106 or «21083». The engine develops 240 hp. from. at 7500 rev / min, but has a big disadvantage: the reduction of speed torque and power are plummeting. To support its work under optimal conditions, often have to downshift. The machine does not matter obeys the gas pedal, break in a slipping wheel. The need for cross modulating motor preserving high torque over a wide rpm range.

The cross-country buggy, perhaps more than in any other form of motorsport, racing distance racers begins long before he met on the road, when there is a new machine only in plotting or Whatman paper. It is neither an athlete, then myself and the designer and engineer. And if the chassis buggies Alexei Sharov made KamAZ can completely rely on, the rotary engine is clearly not afford to compete with motors such as, say, four «Audi» ex-European champion Austrian Willy Rezelya. This engine is equipped with turbocharging, fuel injection and shestnadtsatiklapannoy head. Its capacity for a volume of 1800 cm3 — 300 l. from.

Do not feel less confident and aspiring to the highest places Czechoslovak riders Bohumil Krzheshtyan and Jaroslav Hošek. They prepared the «atmospheric» engine from the car «Tatra-613» air cooling. With the help of specialists automobile its V-shaped cylinder block, two shortened, and the remaining six larger diameter and make up stroke volume 3200 cm3. When the mass of 175 kg motor power up to 292 liters. from. (7300 rev / min) and the maximum point — 35 kgf m (5500 rev / min). Another Czechoslovak Crossman Jiri Bartos preferred three-liter boxer engine «Porsche», which like «Tatra», a fuel injection system and air cooling. In addition, to improve combustion of the mixture had two spark plugs per cylinder. Thanks to the successful performance and high reliability at krossmenov he received perhaps the most widespread.

A variety of designs are buggy at the European Championships a kind of natural selection, in which the most widely used today received a four-wheel drive car with rear engine capacity of 300 liters. from.

By gearing fixed on the frame of the front wheel torque is transmitted normally without a center differential, by means of the propeller shaft, and smaller than at the rear. The front wheel, as it were «run up» ahead. This is done not only because they account for a smaller proportion of the mass. By this time the distribution is often unpredictable behavior «Quattro» on the track becomes more like the familiar to many drivers ‘character’ of a vehicle with a drive to the rear axle.

In Arm lever type used hydropneumatic elements often borrowed from aviation, and gas-filled shock absorbers in combination with coil springs.

Welded frame made of stainless steel pipes naturally includes a mandatory safety cage, and are substantially lighter and stronger spatial farm.

However, the evolution continues, we krossmenov new ideas emerge. Most recently, for example, on many machines were power steering systems that reduce the load on the hands of the rider from the top of the front wheels. And, say, Peter Mücke from what was then East Germany set on his buggy two four four-cycle engine with water cooling. In order not to invent complex coupling connecting two crankshaft rotation is transferred to roller chains on two sprockets mounted on a common shaft. One can not help looking at the chain drive, remember the first «samobeglye crews» dawn of motorization, although two tysyachekubovye «Yamaha-FZet-R» are developing quite modern 300 liters. from.

However, the unpredictable, the possibility of a sudden appearance on the track of new «actors» and is perhaps one of the most attractive features of modern autocross.

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