Before the rail are important tasks for better meet the needs of the economy and population in transportation. Implementation of these objectives is largely determined by the coordinated work of all parts of the transport conveyor, in which the signaling and communication sector plays a major role.
The main purpose of railway automatics and connection is to improve road capacity and safety of trains. These functions will be more successful, the more reliable devices will work. Reliability also depends on the adopted system of maintenance of theoretical and practical training, observance of labor and technological discipline.
As the main system maintenance units have adopted an industrial method, the most important provisions of which are set out in the order number 24TS on June 24, 1980 «On measures to improve the maintenance and improvement of the reliability of automation, remote control and communications on the railways.» In order to read the name of its main goal — to increase the reliability of the device. It just helps the industrial method.
This method, along with the introduction of new equipment and modernization of existing devices require the creation of a strong industrial and technological base of distance and radical restructuring of technology of repair and maintenance of devices. That is exactly what did pioneering work in new ways — advanced collectives distance Gorky and screening, Artemovskaya, Moscow, Smolensk, Vitebsk, Poltava, Ulyanovsk, Kartli, Tikhoretskaya and others.
The first results of this work were summed up at the school of excellence network in September 1981, which took place on the basis of distance and screening Gorky. Workshop participants noted that the introduction of industrial methods has reduced the number of failures by 1.5-2 times, increase productivity by 5-10%, improve production standards and improve working conditions distances.
By the time of a new school worked only 35 distances. Here were built the necessary industrial, office and household sanitary facilities, repair facilities equipped with machines, mechanisms and the stands, set up stationary and mobile measuring and repair systems. This made it possible to raise the level of equipment and repair equipment, reduce labor costs, improve the quality of test and inspection devices on stages and stations. Many of these distances innovators, engineers and technicians have developed a variety of telemetry monitoring and diagnostic devices for removable engineers distances, duty electricians posts EC and mechanized slides «As a result of the restructuring of the management appeared enlarged divisions — industrial areas, led by as Typically, stood experienced engineers.
Following the School Service signaling and communication of many roads have stepped up work on the introduction of industrial methods. By the end of 1984, it has moved about 38% of all distance network.
However, in the transition to industrial methods allowed and serious flaws appears haste, the pursuit of performance, ignored certain provisions of the order number 24TS. As a result of the transfer of untrained distances causes moral damage collectives discredited progressive method, and the goal is not reached.
Here are some examples. Paul distance of the South Ural road in 1983 worked without marriage, and in 1984, allowed four cases of marriage, one of them special consideration. In addition, it increased the number of failures in the signaling systems and communications fault of the staff.
Yasinovatskiy distance Donetsk roads is not sustainable work and the field of traffic safety and in the old days. There might be cases of marriage, dangerous failures are often violated technological discipline, organization of maintenance does not meet the requirements and local conditions. However, the translation distance in the industrial maintenance method has been made on formal grounds: availability of production and technical base, changes in the organizational structure, good logistics. But linking and restructuring the work of all parts of the production line has not happened, these changes have not reached the consciousness of all officers and employees of the distance, did not take place arrangements that would be clearly defined tasks and ways of achieving them. Therefore, the distance is unstable. In 1984, nearly a third of all cases of marriage on the farm signaling and communication falls on Donetsk road this distance
Not better, and the team of Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk road distance. Worsened in 1984, work collectives Pomoshnyanskoy distance Odessa, Lvov Stryj distance road Belogorsk-distance Trans-Baikal and some other roads where allowed a significant increase in the number of failures in the signaling and communication devices. The heads of these services and businesses need to draw conclusions, analyze the causes of the deterioration of activity distances, switched to the industrial method, to take effective measures to eliminate the shortcomings, enhance operational performance.
Many mistakes and shortcomings lie in reducing the accountability of individual managers distances for the implementation of targets and measures aimed at improving traffic safety, insufficient monitoring of the situation on the neighborhood and teams, easing the work to strengthen labor and technological discipline in the workplace. Some believed that the transfer to industrial methods of maintenance and positive results within one to two years — enough prerequisites for sustainable operation for a long time. There was a sense of complacency.
In a speech at a meeting of the Politburo on Nov. 15, 1984 General Secretary of the CPSU, Comrade Chernenko said; «… In some places appear mood of complacency, complacency, the desire to reduce stress at work. For such sentiments have no place. «
The key to the success of any production process, including the method of industrial maintenance is a strong technological discipline. She is in perfect compliance with the requirements of PTE and regulations, compliance with the rules of maintenance and repair of supported devices. Where these truths are violated, to the disaster remains one step.
The station Tskhakaia Transcaucasian road on one of the arrows to damage the cable. Rectification takes two electrical engineering, in the process of linear control wires pointer electrically reversed. Yes, in all assembly work can be mistakes. But for that and there is usually a mandatory test results in existing signaling systems. In this case, this rule neglected, and therefore violated the technological discipline. Arrow gave a false position control and an opportunity to open the front lights on a busy road.
Often these violations are allowed due haste, the desire to finish the job faster, or simply because of carelessness or overconfidence. Analysis of the violations occurred shows that often they allow people with certain experience, the knowledge, but neglect the requirements of the rules and regulations.
Any violation of technological discipline and a different kind when not schedule maintenance process devices. The station Gachiani the same road for a long time not checked alternating polarity rail connections. Due to improper alternating polarity and fault isolation interface An arrow control section gave a false freeness when the actual employment and station duty officer translated the arrow while finding but it rolling.
Especially dangerous violations of technology implementation, commissioning and maintenance work. The station Vargashi South Ural road while traveling repair work to be able to receive trains on permitting testimony input senior electrician install a temporary bridge, which forgot to remove after use. In the long-term safety of trains at this station was threatened.
A dangerous situation is sometimes due to the poor quality of training in rice railcars administered distances. Last year there were several spoilage railcars in transit when the auxiliary engines required to release spans. This has caused significant disruptions in the movement of trains. The station opened Saykyn Privolzhskaya road entrance freight train traffic on the road, occupied by another freight train. This was the result of a number of violations. It all started because of a violation of labor discipline. In the place of work to disable signaling devices was due to arrive a senior electrician, but for some reason did not come and did notify did not deliver. Electrician, in turn, decided to absent himself for the necessities of own without anyone’s permission. Thus, for switching off devices of addiction and work performance was an electrician. Replacement Engineer distance did not control the work, did not lead off devices t. E. Let the matter slide. After laying the rails electrician connecting to the rails of the bridge cable box, turned it 180 ° and ends of the relay route of administration and the adjacent insulated section appeared razmenennymi places. But even in such a dangerous situation, nothing would have happened if the electrician has checked the results. To do this he had to impose a series shunt the path of receiving and isolated section and immediately started to clear an error made when mounting.
There are cases of violations of the technological discipline that border crime. They are not allowed because of lack of knowledge or erroneous actions, but because of the lack of a sense of responsibility of individual employees for assignments, to ensure the safe passage of trains.
At the junction of Alma-Ata 3639 An arrow isolated section of the road for a long time showed a false employment. In order to find and eliminate the cause of failure to come electrician. However, he decided to go for the easiest way instead of the exact fault location and take measures to restore the normal operation of the isolated section. He set the jumpers on all travel relay three parallel branches, thus creating an artificial supply circuit of the general repeater relays. Taking a freight train at the crossing with another station duty officer was able to arrow below the tail carriage. In fact, the cause of the problem was an elementary section — broken insulation in the shrink band.
A crucial role in the observance of technological discipline to play heads of services and signaling and communication, as well as the commanders of middle managers — heads of industrial sites and Senior electrician.
In accordance with the order number 4C on 10 February 1984 for the officers of the (chiefs and distances) developed the basic standards of personal involvement to ensure the safety of trains. Similarly, for the deputy head of distances and recommendations on drawing up standards on the roads.
The basis of the standards make prophylactic and educational issues, control and audit and organizational work for the implementation of PTE, regulations, orders and instructions to ensure traffic safety, organizational and technical measures to improve the reliability of action automation, remote control and communications.
Some distances leaders complain that the regulations, they say, are too complicated in execution, are time-consuming. What is there to say? First, these leaders forget that the main task of the course — maintenance of devices intended mainly to ensure the safety of trains, and if so, the main question should be devoted to the work and most of the time. Second, some managers can not properly construct a system of performance standards and therefore spend a lot of time is not on their performance, and to prepare for the implementation, ie. E. Transfers and transitions from place to place, the preparation of parallel meetings and conversations and so on. Etc. . Therefore, in the first place is beyond well-formed plan for the implementation of measures envisaged for the coming month. The plan should be drawn up so as to give the maximum being combined events: content control devices with verification steps ALSN, radio signals and visibility; consideration of the analysis of supported devices with the hearing of the head of the production division of preventive and educational work to ensure safety; spot checks to individual conversations, and so on. d. There may be other options for the plan, but all of them should include time management director.
The positive effect of personal involvement of officers of the implementation of measures to ensure traffic safety will be greater, the higher the demands on quality and performance standards. After all, there are still cases of superficial and defective audits of individual objects distances, which are issued by the heads of services for technical audit. These facts took place on October Sverdlovsk and roads. Looking at Simplism management services, individual heads of similar distances and allow yourself. When checking the distances Karshi Central Asian roads and Sverdlovsk Sverdlovsk-sorting the road, it was found that the regulations are approved by the Ministry of Railways do not match, the sudden about verification is not carried out, it is not opened egregious flaws that and find it is not necessary, they are for all to see. The lack of rigor to their subordinates itself and leads to the connivance of the shortcomings and, ultimately, to trouble.
The station Kabakly West Siberian road repair electric had been turned off while maintaining the use of signals arrows № 5/7. Repair work led Chief signaling and communication, and responsible for ensuring the safety of trains under these conditions and was appointed. about. Chief of station. But both his commander duties performed poorly. Repair of electric drives has been organized without the use of a modular method, demolition and painting produced locally Head distance instead of organizing work began immediately to implement it, and the actions of subordinate employees not control, nor does it control the quality of the repair and the technology of its execution. But is the chief distance himself had engaged in repair of electric? No, of course, his task was to organize the repair of devices for the race and monitor compliance with the rules and techniques of its implementation.
Acting. Head station is not required by the assistant station to itineraries for each train preparing to test the actual shooter off position. After removing the circuit layout and the inclusion of control provisions of the shooter has not recovered since the arrow number 5 has not been brought Curbelo in the plus position. When you try to regain control with the help of the translation of arrows from the control panel arrow number 5 transferred to the position of a minus due to the entanglement of wires feeding the electric motor at the time of the connection assembly.
Checking the position of the shooter was absent, and to the input traffic lights approaching train. Senior electrician and assistant station decided to restore the effect of the layout, which was promptly done. Assistant station without verifying the readiness of the route receiving the input light train opened on the first path. But as the arrow number 5 was in minus position, and an arrow in positive number 7, the train was adopted at the second busy road.
Each of the participants of this event could prevent the state of emergency, show it in their actions an elementary sense of responsibility and concern for the organization of the safe passage of trains.
High performance discipline — the key to ensuring traffic safety. This is clearly and explicitly stated in the order number 4C: «Everyone who is connected with the movement of trains should remain aware of the great personal responsibility to the state for the safety of transported cargo, passengers and strictly comply with the Rules of technical operation of railways of the USSR and the job description.»