What are the historical roots of the development of rocket technology in the United States?

What are the historical roots of the development of rocket technology in the United States?

If Russia is proud of his compatriot fault. Tsiolkovsky, to create a scientific-theoretical foundations of astronautics, the United States has every reason to be proud of as a design engineer Robert Goddard who carried out the March 16, 1926 the world’s first launch of a registered liquid rocket engine. It does not matter that the missile had an initial weight of 4.65 kg, the flight lasted only 2.5 seconds, the flight distance was 55 m in the process of flight occurred burnout of the nozzle and the rocket fell, this day was the starting date in the subsequent history of the practical liquid rocketry.

Goddard started virtually all enthusiasts of space flight at the beginning of the XX century with the development of the theory of interplanetary flights. The results made in 1912-1916 gg. theoretical studies entered the monograph of Goddard "The method of achieving extreme heights", Published in 1920

After the publication of this theoretical work Goddard decided to focus on the practical development of liquid servant kW. This was a consequence of its output, determined all his future work in the field of missiles: "Rocket is ideal for lifting to higher altitudes and does not require air to create thrust". To this must be added that in its energy liquid rocket capabilities, working on chemical propellants, had undeniable advantages to energy solid propellant missiles that time.

His first experiences in the field of liquid rocket Goddard held in 192061922 years. and he began with the selection of components of rocket fuel, the study of combustion and use of the products of combustion to create jet thrust. Relatively small funds for these works it highlights the various private foundations and universities in the United States. The first results obtained polozhitelnyee not only instilled in Goddard’s confidence in the correctness of his chosen path, but also contributed to further cooperate with the private foundations and universities in terms of financing of the experimental work.

In 1923, Goddard started designing the first liquid rocket engine. It should be noted that all his practical work for the production of rocket engine, and then the liquid propellant missiles he led in makeshift conditions: first, it was the university machine shops, then 6 own workshop with a staff of workers in a few people. The first LRE Goddard had a simple design and several kilograms of thrust forces, as the fuel used liquid oxygen and aviation fuel. Both components of the fuel are of little use for cooling the combustion chamber, which, apparently, and forced to give up the outer wall of the cooling chamber and restrict internal parietal cooling a component of fuel. This method of cooling did not provide the necessary duration of the engine developed by Goddard Throughout his work. Service life of the engine actually opredelyalsyaya time appearance through burnout fire wall of the chamber and did not exceed 15 seconds. One such rocket engine as part of a simplified design and rocket made its maiden flight in the history of the world liquid rocket science. Then, in the work of Goddard lull 6 19286 1933. crisis shook the world economy, went down in history as the US "The Great Depression".

In 1932, Goddard resumed his servant robots, but significant progress is not achieved. Link best one of their engines was developed: in 1933, 6122 kg, 1936 kg 6280, in 1940, 6550 kgf Such small quantities thrust in combination with an unacceptably low values ​​of specific impulse considerably limited the weight of the payload, which amounted to a few kilograms. Unable to Goddard and increase the duration of the engines, which is still determined by the time the occurrence of burnout chamber wall. We created the best examples of their engines this time was 25 … 30 seconds.

Experimental work in the area of ​​Goddard’s rocket engine and liquid-propellant rockets continued until late 1941, when he, in connection with the start of the US war against Japan, was enrolled in the ranks of the US Navy and was engaged in the creation of LRE / accelerators for carrier-based aircraft. Goddard achieved in this field of activity results are widely known not received.

It should be noted some feature in conducting scientific Goddard&research. In most enthusiasts 1920619306z years developing missile technology because of the novelty and complexity of the scientific and technical problems to be solved united in different societies or groups. So it was in the most advanced in this respect, the Soviet Union and Germany. This not only allows you to combine creative forces and ideas of talented people, but also receive state support. Goddard also preferred to work alone, in secrecy, with a limited group of assistants performing under his direction only technical work. According to his contemporaries "Goddard believed the missile to its private nature reserve and those who are also working on these issues, regarded as poachers … That his attitude has meant that he abandoned scientific traditions report the results of their research through scientific journals …". The results of their work Goddard secret even from members of the ‘Society of the American missile", The board of which he was elected. This society was organized in 1930 by a group of enthusiasts&Investigators jet propulsion. Information on the activities "American Society of Rocket" and operates in parallel with it "Jet Propulsion Laboratory" is shown after the story about the work of Goddard.

Reports funded by the universities and the results achieved Goddard presented in recital form without revealing they are specially designed structure. More Bob Leah general nature have published their articles in scientific journals. In the same general form Goddard presented the results of their work at the end of 1935 at a conference attended by representatives of the US Army. His report is not interested in war, and any orders or financing of works to which he could put on a smiling Goddard, from the US military did not follow.

Hiding from the public its development, Goddard at the same time he developed regularly patented technical solutions, patents were classified. Total addressed to Goddard issued more! 00 patents. Without belittling the creative achievements of Goddard, it should be noted that the rocketry in those years was a "clean sheet"Against which virtually any new design was patentable. At the same time needs be noted that among the variety of patented. Goddard designs had a number of fundamental decisions. In 1963, Wernher von Braun said of Goddard’s work: "Its missiles by today’s standards would seem very primitive … but they already had many of the elements that are used in the most advanced rockets and spacecraft". Thus, in December 1930 Goddard carried out controlled flight missile with gas rudder servo in April 1932 6c using gyroscopic stabilizer, in later years used liquid engine turbopump components supply and applied a system developed by him blowing fuel tanks, and driveline and engine mounting. However, it all turned out much later, after the expiration of the secrecy of its patents. In practice it turned out that the most valuable Goddard patented design solutions were developed independently by other designers, primarily in Germany and the USSR.

Due to limited financial and production capabilities, as well as in secret, which was created

Goddard around his work, he was not able to implement many of its design ideas and scientific discoveries. Completed his technical developments had no significant effect on the development of missile technology, not only worldwide, but also in the United States. Information on the application of the Second World War the US armed forces with military equipment of liquid rocket engine is not available.

Also R. Goddard, generally accepted in the world history of rocketry pioneer of cosmonautics in 306406z years worked in the United States and other enthusiasts of practical development of space rockets. And like their European counterparts, they, unlike Goddard, associate to conduct joint work in this new direction of science and technology. In 1930, by type "Interest Club" a group of enthusiasts of interplanetary flight, headed by E. and J. Pendry organized Lassarom "ARS". The main task in the activity of its members considered the popularization of practical work in the field of design development of space technology. To this end, the society has established and published a monthly magazine.

Along with scientific and information publications and visual society led agitation among the interested in the problems of astronautics. So, in 1932, members of the public have started to develop the design and manufacture of liquid propellant missiles flying models for demonstration starts. The best of these missiles in September 1934’re committed flight path with a maximum height of about 115 meters and a range of about 400 m.

In parallel with the production and commissioning of model rockets in the direction of society functioned on the development of engines. The best achievement in these studies was the creation of oxygen-alcohol engine thrust about 40 kg. Its design feature was unlike most designs R. Goddard use external regenerative cooling chamber wall. These positive test results of the engine formed the basis for the organization in 1941, the company "Riekb Shen Motors"Specializing in the development and manufacture of liquid propellant engines. It was the first such industrial firms in the history of rocketry in the United States.

More significant mark in the history of rocketry in the US group of scientists left the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Theodore von Karman. In 1936, they organized a Guggenheymskuyu aerodynamic laboratory. Impressed by the works by R. Goddard This team is developing rockets to study the upper atmosphere. Of course, united in creative group, the scientists could not limit their activities to the practical work on the construction and launch small rockets geophysical destination, they were studies of the effectiveness of different chemical fuels studied performance of individual structural elements in the process of rocket flight and the engine is running, they developed design industrially manufactured starting rocket booster.

During World War II, in the group Karman scientists involved in the work on creation of rocket weapons. To this end, in late 1942 of the workers at the aerodynamic laboratory at the California Institute stood out from her staff and headed by T. Karman organized "Jet Propulsion Laboratory". In November 1943 the pocket contact the Office ordnance supply the US Army with a proposal on the basis of geophysical rocket project to create a version of its combat. The proposal was supported by the Office of the command, so that there was "The joint project of the Office of Ordnance Technology and the California Institute".

In accordance with the program of work on "Joint projects .." developed missile, which received the name "Prayb Whitby ‘. It had a length of about 2.5 m, a total weight of about 225 kg, of which 25 kg was payload. Mounted on a powder rocket engine, developed by "Aerojet", Created during the 30 banners of 450 kg, the maximum flight range is 18 km away. Stability of flight along a predetermined path had to provide four aerodynamic stabilizer. Since the effectiveness of such stabilizers flight manifests itself after a set of rocket certain speed, the tail of the rocket were installed discharged after their slave bots propellant boosters. In the first half of December 1944 it was carried out 24 flight tests. Further work with this slave Ketoi not conducted.

The next development was the group Karman rocket "PrayvitbF". A distinctive feature of the missile from its predecessor was its implementation in winged form. Flight tests on 17 specimens of this missile took place in the first half of April 1945

Both variants of missiles "Privet" used primarily to study the characteristics of the flight as a rocket on a ballistic trajectory and in the presence of bearing surfaces of the wings. FOB luchiv first information about "behavior" missiles in flight, it was decided to go on to develop rockets to study the upper atmosphere located above the reach of the air probes.

The first missile geophysical destination developed "Jet Propulsion Laboratory" commissioned by the artillery supply, was named "VAKsKorporal". Liquid rocket engine to run at high boiling fuel oxidizer 6 nitric acid, combustible mixture of aniline 6 and furfuryl alcohol.

Recall that developed rocket scientists of the California Institute of Technology. It has defined a scientific approach to the design of a missile. Before proceeding to the development of standard design, it was conducted natural modeling of individual components and structural elements of the missile. For this purpose, a model rocket was made in 1: 5 scale. Model rocket got affectionate name "BebisVAK". Results from the beginning of July 1945 flight test model pozvob poured determine the number and shape of the stub aerodynamic stabilizer of missiles and identify the need for porohob Vågå dvigatelyab / skoritelya as the first stage.

In normal execution the first American Geophysical liquid rakeb that purpose "VAKsKorporal" had a length of 4.9 m, case diameter of 60.3 m, the payload of 611 kg, the main thrust rocket engine was about 680 kg, fuel supply system bvytesnib tive, compressed air. Meteorological instruments razmeschab were in the container, which after reaching the estimated height of the rocket came down to earth on a parachute. Flight testing of the missile "VAKsKorporal" sentyabrebektyabre conducted in 1945 maksib mum reach a height of around 70 km. 6 In late 1946 early 1947’s were conducted flight tests of missiles usovershenb isting "VAKsKorporal B".

It may seem that unimportant in history epib zodam development of missile technology rendered superfluous many of vnimab. This is done based on the fact that these missiles, coupled with dil processing R. Goddard were the first and exclusive razrabotb kami US Space enthusiasts.

It so happened that just after the death of pioneer amerikansb Coy Goddard Space in August 1945, the United States began processing dil rocketry at the state level, and the first phase of the foundation of this work was not so much a continuation of US development of missile technology as izub chenie the further improvement and development of the technical achievements of German experts in the field of long-range missiles A64. Such a turn in the history of zhidkostb GOVERNMENTAL missiles in the United States was prepared by the previous events. During mayasiyulya 1945 US intelligence agencies in Germany carried out an operation to collect the trophy weapons, detection and internment of German nauchnosgehnicheskih personnel involved in the development of new types of weapons. Of primary interest is the INB developers missile-range. The success of the US secret services contributed to this part of the operation themselves German rocket men. In April

1945 core staffing "Army raketb tion test center Peenemunde" Balbi shore Baltic Sea has shifted to the south of Germany, in Tyurinb ogy where near Nordhaub Xena in mountain tunnels nab hodilsya plant for proizvodb stvu missiles A64. There also was perevezeb of Peenemunde on all engineering and technical documentation ext archive missile KB. Voenb steps for range were such that this area okkupirob Wali US troops and praktib cally all part of KB in glab’ve administrative rubles kovoditelem works Peneb Munden General Walter Dornberger and technical rukovob ers, chief designer of the rocket A64 Werner von Braubach prefecture in early May 1945 organized surrendered. Bolb majority of KB employees were civilians, but they were kept under the AECB wound in the American occupation zone, since the American spetssb luzhb them were special types.

Captured technical documentation for manufacturing rakeb you A64 and about a hundred rockets ready for the second half of 1945, from defeated Germany were exported to the United States. At the same time in the United States were deported about 560 scientists, engineers and tehnib Cove, formerly "Army missile testing center Peenemunde".

Since the provision of the main achievements of the United States in kosmob autics 6 US astronauts visiting the Moon 6 W. von Braun played a dominant role in technical terms, gains are conducting some facts from his biography in the period of life in the Coat of mania until May 1945

Werner Magnus Maximilian von Braun (3/23/1912 6/16/1977 6 of the city) was born into a noble family, hence the prefix "background" in his name. In school, took an interest in the exact sciences, in high school was fond of astronomy. In his student years he started practical work on the creation of flying models of mobile liquid propellant missiles, was a member of "German rocket obschestb Islands"Led by the famous German enthusiast spaceflight Rudolf Nebel. After graduating from the Berlin unib versity he became the first civilian employee in the group, Walter Dornberger, dedicated to the development of martial liquid servant kW-range. Thanks to natural abilities, horob necks university training, talent as an organizer and being in love with the work performed, von Braun moved quickly through the ranks and soon actually headed holding nab uchnosgehnicheskih work group Dornberger.

The first full-size rocket, designed in 1933 with von Braun got the symbol A61 (full name 6"Agregat61". Word "unit" instead "rocket" bdan privacy in the development of military technology, like Slob lived the Soviet missile term "product"). LRE this servant chum had a thrust of about 300 kg, the system of fuel supply kislorodnobspirtovob bvytesnitelnaya.

Next rocket A62 was designed in 1934 Dvigab Tel, fuel and feed system remain the same.

In 1936, a project launch A63. The missile had Nob HICLES engine developing up to 1500 kg thrust, fuel system and the UE bprezhnie garden.

Each version of the missile otlib chalsya from the previous more Sowerby shennoy construction of missile systems, including upravleb of flight and targeting, but consistently vnedryaeb mye improvements not obesb vides requirements of military Zab tomers to the rocket as a means of UE reflection target located hundreds of kilometers from home UE composition. But this did not prevent von Braun in 1937, becoming head of the technical work on the creation of long-range missiles in "Gharb meyskom missile test center Peenemunde".

The next version of long-range missiles with brackets 6 A64 has been designed taking into account the experiences and achievements of the past nab uchnosgehnicheskih in Germany. In its creation prinib Mali attended by leading industrial firms and academic laborab Torii number of German universities. Construction and main characteristics A64 are well known and need not be given here. Work began in 1939 and in 1942, the first flight tests of missiles A64, later received the name of propaganda Fau62 6"Weapon of retaliation" (from the German word "Vergeltungswaffe").

The combat operation A64 rockets began September 6, 1944 pusb whom two rockets in the direction of Paris, following two rockets were launched September 8, 1944 in London. Rocket attack on Londob and other European cities ended March 27, 1945 During this period, was released about 1,350 missiles, 30 to 35% do not add flying to the target. According to the British, in the UK from obstreb la Fau62 missiles killed a total of about 2720 chelob century, heavy injured more than 6450 people.

Jobs von Braun to build military rockets, which have become the method of their use of weapons of mass destruction in civilian osnovb rated European cities, accompanied by not only his progress up the career ladder. Along with that observed in his biography and other events. In April 1934, von Braun completed his doctoral thesis on the topic: "Design, theoretical and experimental approaches to the problem of creating a rocket using liquid fuel". Thesis had neck "Secret" and, apparently, so without her protection and publication of the Academic Council of the University of Berlin in July, the author in 1934 was awarded the degree of Doctor of Physical Sciences. In November 1937 he joined the natsionalbsotsialisticheskuyu (fashisb tskuyu) Party of Germany, and in May 1940 won the first title of voinsb something buntershturmfyurer SS, by June 1943 rose to high rank of SS Sturmbannführer. In July 1943, after Deb Monstration film about Hitler launch of A64, von Braun on the orders of the Führer was awarded the title of professor. With this train of events in the biography of von Braun arrives in the United States.

And now back to the life of German rocket scientists after Deb’s deportation to the United States, which was carried out on the basis of the decision taken June 20, 1945 US Secretary of State. Before October 1945, this deportation was the secret to the American obschestvenb of since US State Department feared a negative reaction to the arrival to the United States a large group nemetsb cal experts in the field of missiles. Although in the recent history of the United States already had experience of foreign spetsib ists in dealing with a large problem bsozdanie nauchnobgehnicheskoy atomic bomb, but then it was uchёnyebantifashisty and spasayub schiesya from Nazi genocide evreibfiziki. Now it was necessary to adapt to American society a large group tuition GOVERNMENTAL and designers who created the fascist military weapons Coat of mania, against which the United States were fighting. In addition, the MPS present for all arrivals "sin"Some of the deported Germans in Nazi Germany were members of the Nazi party. For rehabilitation in the eyes of the American people who arrived in the United States negatively perceived by experts with past amerib Auribeausursiagne security services conducted an operation to "laundering" NSP dark spots in the biographies of German rocket scientists. The greatest difficulties vyzb shaft legalization in the US chief "ace of trumps" in German "Cob Lode" 6B. von Braun. His membership in the Nazi Party ukladyvab moose in the overall approach to solving this problem, but it is in chlenb GUSTs "SS" It requires individual solutions. As a result of the operation by special services arrived almost all German specialists received "corrections and additions" Beebe Fargo, which guaranteed them safe accommodation and exc opportunity to get a job in their specialties, only W. von Braun was banned until special permission to bring to the slave bot to create a missile.

Not being able to participate in the creation of new missiles for the US Armed Forces, B. von Braun used freely vreb on me to develop on its own initiative proposals for cos Denmark space rockets. Paradoxical in biograb graphy W. von Braun’s situation is in Germany in March 1944, he was arrested by the Gestapo on suspicion of sabotaging the work of the NIJ sozdab combat missile, distracted by the space theme. Sledb Corollary lasted for several days, and at the request of W. Dornberger was discontinued. In the second half 40bk years in the USA he was not attracted to the development of military missiles, and it has the ability to deal with problems of space technology. Odnab in this period to the space theme pravib ment was not interested in the United States. And von Braun decided to bring their predlozhenib pits nauchnobgehnicheskuyu American public. To this end, he published in a scientific journal "Collier’s" number of articles on Zab satellite launches three-stage space rocket running on fuel nitric acid and hydrazine, with a launch weight of 9,000 tons okob lo. The rocket was to bring to an altitude of about 1750 km a payload of up to 36.5 m. per cycle followed by a series of publications articles about the manned flight to the Moon with posledub yuschim return to Earth. Interest in was to the moon "preheated" a series of television interviews with von Braun. In its ocheb red, it led to the filming of two movies nauchnobfantasticheskih with von Braun as the narrator of his draft lunar mission. Later, in the wake of the success of TV shows and movies samples khat von Braun, already engaged in practical rabob that, together with the well-known popularizer of the ideas of space flight Willy Ley published a book "Start into space". But von Braun widely advertised the idea of ​​space flight, Zab interested the broad masses of readers and viewers, not poluchib whether any support for military or political circles in the US. Gosudab rstvennye interests at that time were limited sozdab tion missile, and objectively assessing the state of the science and industry of the time, rocketry was not yet ready for space flight.

Suspension von Braun from the practical work could not last long, but the need to use it professiob tional knowledge and experience in creating missile technology, to sposobb isting changes in world politics. With the end of World War II ceased to exist, and the anti-Hitler koalib tion. During the war, states that were part of the coalition, obeb Dinh presence of a common enemy, and after winning the first plan vyshb whether their own interests of each state, controversy resurfaced earlier based on different sotsialnosloliticheskom GPG polity. As before the war, one of Polybus cal leaders to head confrontation with the Soviet Union, was Winston Churchill. Pronounced him in March 1946 in the US Gorobey de Fulton speech made history as "Manifesto of the Cold War"Which has become a call to "crusade against communism".

Policy-Military confrontation, called "Cold War"It includes not only the militarization of the economy of the opposing countries build their military capabilities and planning of warfare, and psychological treatment AGB viduals public media. Main "battle of the Cold War" It took place in the pages of print media, radio and telepereb cottages. Through the efforts of the American media in the former Soviet allies in the war against Germany and Japan in the eyes and minds of people in the US it has been turned into the main enemy-Military. In Reb result of a psychological attack German raketchib ki and von Braun, one of them is no longer perceived predstavitelyab of the recent enemy state, now it’s been tehnichesb Kie specialists able to provide the necessary assistance in UCB ening military power Armed Forces of the United States. And von Braun at the end of 1946, was brought to the work of the Service design and development of weapons in the US Army FortbBlisse (Texas) until the secondary position.

The main work of the German captured equipment began in late 1945 in a specially prepared for this ispytab enforcement landfill White Sande (state NyubMeksika) with approx former German experts under the supervision of the Office of artilb leriyskosgehnicheskogo supply. Before American persob nalom test site was tasked with Conboy Advisory professionals help of German master podgotovb ku to launch and carry out missile launches A64, and in front of developers amerikanskib rocketry 6izuchit design TeCBs nology manufacturing and flight characteristics of long-range missiles. In parallel with the study of the German experience of creating a slave ketnoy art missile launches A64 solved purely scientific and Zab garden: meteorological studies were conducted, fotografib Rowan from a great height the earth’s surface, was studied solnechb spectrum and intensity of the cosmic rays outside plotb layers of Earth’s atmosphere.

Trying to launch the first rocket A64 at the site of Wight Sande March 15, 1946, the first successful launch was made May 10, 1946, with this demonstration was to start mnogob number of representatives of the press. Total for the period from March 1946 to mid-1951 was carried out 67 launches, including more than 30% were accidental. Recall that in the Soviet Union during the 1947 sostob yalos 11 rocket launches A64, including 5 emergency.

Introduction to Design and specifications rocket A64 had a marked impact on further work on the creation of liquid propellant missiles in the United States. First American rakeb Tami, created after studying the design of A64, steel rocket "Viking" and "Aerobee".

Rocket "Viking"Established a research laboratory in the Department of Research of the US Navy, was a umenshenb ny on external dimensions and technically upgraded varib ant A64. The length of the missile was about 14 meters, diameter of 60.8 m, draft kislorodnosspirtovogo engine 69.3 ton. Unlike his trial prototype of the rocket "Viking" It was carrying fuel tanks otsutstvob Wali graphite rudders, "eat up" of the traction motor, instead of them carried rocket flight control deviation dvigateb To set on gimbals, and still had a number of governmental nesuscheb design changes.

Flight tests "Viking" began March 7, 1949 and prodolb clung to the middle of 1955 for this period was carried out 12 launches, most of them have emergency outcomes.

Flight tests of the second developed in this period amoebas Rican missiles "Aerobee" It began in November 1947 byb la This missile is designed on the basis of missiles "VAKbKorporal" RTA is the fuel pressure feed system, aerodynamic stabilizer flight powder accelerator in the first stage. Rocket obespechib shaft removal payload mass of 68 kg to a height of 115 km and was used to study the upper atmosphere. By the end of 1949, it was carried out 24 of these start-up geophysical servant kw, of which 4 were unsuccessful start.

Good enough for the time stats successful launch "Aerobee" allowed to use it as the ISF Khodnev base for improving its design. AT

The rocket "Aerobee-150" result was a new missile, which received the name "AEB robisHi". Lёtnaya operation of the missile began in May 1956 When one starts in June 1956 enabled the missile vyvesb minute payload of about 110 kg to a height of 262 km. Progb Ramm launches missiles included as research and testing of construction elements used in the creation of missiles posleb FOLLOWS "AtlasbTsentavr" and "Saturn".

Because liquid rocket developed in the US in late 406lt; GPG rows, the greatest interest is the experimental-stage rocket dvuhstub "BamperbZAK". By this time, it revealed the need for nasuschb tion for geophysical studies two-stage rocket, as shown briefly odnostupenchab tymi missiles scientific instruments weighing tens of kilograms at a height of 150 … 200 km did not meet the researchers. For provedeb of extensive research in space required to use powerful mnogostupenchab Tide missiles capable of output to the space orbit dlitelb ing time scientific instruments and equipment with a total weight of hundreds of kilograms. Flight operation of multistage rockets trebob shaft a number of new solutions to technical problems. For their study, and has developed an experimental rocket "BamperbZAK", Sosb toyaschaya two existing missiles: a first stage that brakeb A64, the second 6 "VAKsKarporal". From the results of this missile launches amerikab some designers expect to get Suevi Denia on the specifics of the separation stupeb her flight, recommendations organizab LRE launch of the second stage after separation at high altitudes and other technical information that might get palates in ground conditions.

Flight tests of missiles "I Bamperb WAC" conducted from May 1948 to July ‘1950 total was put 8 missiles, of which only two have fulfilled Flight programb mu. The weight of the payload output of these missiles was about 23 kg, and the maximum height of the flight reached 6400 km, which amounted to a record of any vremeb. This was the beginning of the path to the creation of MNOB gostupenchatyh ballistic missiles and kosmichesb FIR.

At the beginning of the XX century 506c in the United States intensified the work on the creation of missiles. Motive was obb event of a Soviet atomic bomb had voorub zhёnnyh and participation of the US in the military conflict on the Korean peninsula. US military strategy considered to be appropriate sostab’ve Armed Forces of ballistic missiles with nuclear boezaryadab of, at that time invulnerable to enemy compared with available bombardirovschikamibnositelyami atomic bombs. Table who contributed to the decision opened the possibility of creating a multi-stage ballistic missile, ensuring the delivery of weapons to a range of thousands of kilometers. Revitalization of the work in the creation of new missiles touched and von Braun. In April 1950, he was appointed technical director "Division operab tive developments far guided missiles Redstone Arsenal" in Huntsville (Alabama). Under its "wing" von Braun sobb Ral significant part of former employees of KB Peenemunde.

Von Braun at Redstone Arsenal led the work on the new Denmark cos operativnobgakticheskoy missiles with nuclear boezaryab house weighing up to three tons and a range of 350 … 400 km. These works were the web since 1948, but the pace of their implementation, apparently not satisfied with Zab tomers 6Mo ​​USA. The new missile was developed on the basis of A64: retained the same components as the fuel supply system, flight control graphite rudders, 6c differences forced on to 29.5 ton thrust engine and the use of warheads to be separated at the end of the flight of the UE. (In those years in the USSR developed a rocket P62 analogichb tion design, only A64 engine was boosted to 37 ton). The appointment of von Braun’s technical supervisor was probably due to the high continuity rakeb you created with the construction of missile A64. The importance of these works byb la underlined assigned to them in November 1950 higher priorib theta DoD. For von Braun was first responsible UE entrusted to it in the period of his stay in the United States, a kind of examination on its compliance with the high authority "father" the world’s first zhidkob stnoy long-range missiles. And von Braun successfully passed this exam. In August 1953, 3 years after its entry into a new position, began flight tests of the new missile odnostupenchab, received the name "Redstone". Later, the servant of chum was the first stage of the launch "YupiterbA"On vtob Roy and the third stage kotob swarm of missiles installed tvёrb dotoplivnye "Serb Genty". The next option "YupiterbS" I had a more powerful rocket engine thrust for the first stage and increase the Koliba honors solid-propellant engines for the second and third stages. On the technical harakteristib kameta missile was prigodb to run on light obekb comrade at the height of the space, which was confirmed by lёtnom trial in September 1956 .: warhead weighing 39 kg was delivered to a height of 1070 km. The successful development of this missile von Braun opened the opportunity to participate in Cosby nomic US programs. It was promoted and received them in 1955, an American citizen.

By mid-506c of the XX century the launch of artificial obekb that a near-Earth space orbit was written many science fiction books and scientific articles, not enough developed proekb comrade, but it was "on paper". Finally science, technology and samples of thought reached a level where the launch of the satellite became realb nym case. This was evidenced by the many Geb physics by launching missiles in the United States and the Soviet Union. Based on the results of the rapid development of missile, the Preparatory Committee for provedeb NIJ International Geophysical Year (IGY), scheduled for the period from 07.01.57 till 31.12.58 of, in September 1954, addressed to the governments of the advanced countries with the proposal to make every effort to launch a satellite during the IGY. The main hope svyab binding nauchnobgehnicheskim level with the United States.

Indeed, in June 1954 in the United States it was promulgated project launch satellites "Orbiter" raketoybgositelem "Yunonab!"Created on the basis of a ballistic missile "YupiterbS". However, this project did not receive support.

In May 1955 the US National Security Council odobb reel program launch scientific satellites on the condition that it will not interfere with the creation of an intercontinental missile. At this time, we competed two projects: "Vanguard" (development of the US Navy), and "Explorer" (development of the US Army). Organizovanb tion to select the best project of the commission opted for "Vanguard" This is despite assurances von Braun that ispolzob tion project "Explorer" already developed missiles gives exc opportunity to launch a satellite in January 1956 Historians schitab out that the main reason for draft picks "Vanguard" The winner was not his performance, and the leading role in scientific research institute sozdab launch vehicle project "Explorer" Von Braun bnatub rein- forced with the recent German Nazi past.

Preparation for the launch of satellites supported President Dmitry Eyzenhab Ware. In one of his speeches he said that it was signed on 25/7/56 space launches plan, which provides for the launch of satellite Perben Vågå program "Vanguard" in September 1957

Classical Works promises triumfalb term success in the creation of a satellite in the United States: a decision at one of the highest state authorities, the competitive selection of the project, signing the work plan and the president opredeb tion date of the launch of Sputnik bvsё was struck-4 oktyabb OC 1957 satellite launch in the Soviet Union shocked the world and have amoebas Rican public. Congratulations on the success of Soviet scientists, including from US President, made at the White House pressbsonferentsii 9 October 1957, shortly smeb nilis critical attacks against the United States. And the more avtob ry hoped nauchnobgehnicheskoe superiority over the USSR in the Western world, the more bitterness contained in the response to the failure of the US space program.

French magazine "PariAlatch" He wrote: "Russian achieved what the Americans so often prematurely declared: launched the first artificial Earth satellite. It was a miracle. Collapsed dogma of the technical superiority of the United States".

In the magazine "Fortune": "We are not waiting for Sputnik and the UE that he made an impression on America Eisenhower Pёrlb Harbor".

Agency "United Press": "90% talk about iskusb earth satellites accounted for the United States. As okazab elk, 100% success rate accounted for Russia".

Certainty launch of the first satellite in the Soviet Union and the international community reakb tion forced the US government prinib mother urgent measures to accelerate the launch of the American sputb nickname. Already October 11, 1957 document was developed by sokrab scheniyu timing of the launch of the satellite program "Avanb Guard" (Arranged for our practice 6 "planbrafik surge"). October 14, US President met with the Minister of Defense H. McElroy and discussed the prospective space projects, which would in a short time to catch up and overtake the Soviet Union. "Space Race"Launched in the USSR replacement "Object D" on "PS61", It was picked up by the United States and continued until 1991, before the collapse of the Soviet Union bvelikoy space power.

To reassure the US public and to ease the flow of ki kritib and irony in the media, November 11, 1957, a week after the launch of the second satellite in the USSR with the dog Laika, Eisenhower announced the launch of the first satellite for the US program "Vanguard" before the end of 1957

Raketabnositel "Vanguard" I had in the first and second stages already familiar to readers of modified missiles "Viking" and "AEB robibHi"The third stage btvёrdotoplivny engine. Sputnik "Vanguard" I had a diameter of 16.5 cm and a weight of 1.47 kg. On it were established beacon of displacement and temperature sensors. The first attempt to launch "Vanguard" December 6, 1957, okonb creased accident at the time of separation from the launch facility. In the spirit of American traditions on this launch were invited more than two hundred correspondents. On the first US crash "Flopnika" (ironic name similar to the Russian word "companion") Became known worldwide. Do not spared his sob Homelanders and choices of the American people. Avtoritetb ny Senator Lyndon Johnson described the program "Vanguard": "It is a cheap adventure, which ended one of the most publicized and humiliating failure in US history".

Emergency start "Vanguard" It led to a revision of the program launch satellites. President Eisenhower made the decision to hold the next start of the program "Explorer". By this turn of sob being von Braun was ready. A few days after the launch of the first satellite in the USSR he appealed to the Minister of Defence predlob zheniem immediately begin work on the program "Explorer" and promised to prepare for the launch of 60 days. The minister did not consider it possible to revise the adopted and announced at the Summit decision to launch the satellite on the program "Vanguard"But allowed to train missiles "Yunona61" and satellite "Explorer" in kacheb stve backup doubles.

The successful launch of the first US satellite "Eksplorer61" It held on 31 January 1958, called palates obychayny lift mood and natsiob tional pride in the United States. Experienced great joy and Wernher von Braun. Nakonetssgo his dream of creating a space rocket knocked Linno osuschestvib familiarize! In a fit of enthusiastic he voskb liknul: "We created our own platsb DARM in space. Never again, we will not surrender!".

The first American satellite, Krobia IU historical fact of his poyavleb, left his mark in the history of kosmonavtib more ki and made due with the help of scientific discovery. Ustanovb lenny satellite Geiger counter recorded Zab surrounding Earth Radiative zone servant, got the name "Van Allen belts"

During the first launch of the satellite was followed by the next. 02/05/58, was made a second attempt to launch a satellite "Vanguard". Again failure. Only the third launch of the satellite, the Zab 03/19/58 administer orbit the satellite. In total from December 1958 to senb ber 1959 it took 11 attempts to launch a satellite "Vanguard" and only 3 launch was successful.

With varying degrees of success were starts and the program "Explorer". For the period from 3 March to 23 October 1958 of the four attempts to launch a satellite "Explorer" Two ended abnormally.

This is the beginning of the satellite launch did not add optimism obschestb vennomu opinion about the prospects of the US space program. Vpeb chatlivshie international community launches the first Soviet artificial Earth satellites ISF nauchnospoliticheskie made circles in the US to analyze the organization of their own work in the creation of five oblasb raketnobsosmicheskoy technology. As a result, it was concluded that competition between the numerous amerikansb Kimi organizations to develop space technology, yavlyayuschab Yasya in a market economy a recognized engine nauchnosgehnichesb who progress in a confrontation with the other developed in the trial against the state of thinking, is not conducive to a positive result. Fragmentation of efforts and dispersion of invested funds leads to the loss of the pace of work, the scale of impact on the final result. In addition, long-term sustainable success can not be achieved by the acceleration of work on a separate space program in an emergency mode, and the combined efforts and resources of all agencies involved in space programs, in one gosudarstvenb tion organization dedicated only to the development of space technology. This idea of ​​the reorganization of work in space byb la expressed in October 1957 by members "ARS"In November of the same year she received the support Natsiob tional Academy of Sciences.

Since the assessment of the backlog in the US raketnobsosmib cal achievements went beyond nauchnosgehnicheskih problems and has become a matter of national prestige, he could not stay away from making a decision on raising public CWIQ dew and the US Congress. Held on January 20, 1958 slushanib s (after a failed attempt to launch the first satellite), it was concluded that urgent measures to sovershenb tence of the US space program. Senator Lyndon Dzhonb a dream pertaining to the development of space programs in his speech the importance of well formulated: "Who kontrolib ruet space that controls the world". He was seconded by the Strategic Air Command Gen. Power: "Who was the first utverb dit their place in outer space, and that will be his hozyaib nom. And we simply can not afford to lose sorevnovab of for supremacy in outer space". A Journal "Kosmib cal research" in an editorial, referring to prezib dent Eisenhower wrote: "We must work feverishly, that would solve the technical problems, which will no doubt decided to Russia. In this race, (which is, of course, the race) will get only award winner and the prize brukovodstvo world …".

In April 1958, the US Congress discussed a proposal nauchb tion community to establish a specialized organization obschegosub dedication on Space and instructed the relevant committee to prepare a draft law, which was adopted 07.29.58 On the same day, President Eisenhower signed "National act of Aeronautics and Space"Which identified the main progb gramme and governance structure of space exploration. This was organized by NASA bNatsionalnoe control AEB ronavtike and space exploration. NASA included most design organizations, previously independently operating in sisteb IU Air Force, Navy and US Army. In addition, NASA will have the right to work on their programs specialized laboratories of major American universities and private industrial firms. The main objectives of the NASA were opreb Delena organization and coordination of work in the field of space activities, especially with regard to manned space flight for the purpose of advancing similar work in the USSR. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower awarded the NASA Space programb Moms category "DbIks"That meant the exceptional importance and urgency of the work, which are classified as important to national security. With this decision the political leader of the state and at the same time his commander in chief of the armed forces identified the dual purpose of manned space flight: nauchnobtehnicheskie achievements in this area are closely linked to the military security gosudarb-OPERATION. In addition, this approach to the further development of kosmib Technology in the US not only reconcile two previously competing directions of scientific-technical and military, BNO and combined efforts and resources of these areas.

The date of inception of NASA considered to be October 1, 1958, however, and after the formation of NASA prodolzhab familiarize. In November 1959, NASA has been included "Proektirob tion Division of the Office of the US Army Ballistic Missile", Reorganizob ISAN "Space Flight Center. J. Marshall". Technical Manager of the center has been appointed W. von Braun.

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