At the beginning 1987, the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR issued a decree on the establishment of the State Historical and Literary Museum-Reserve Pushkin «Zaharovo — Big Vyazemy.»
Reflecting on how and why Zaharovskaya and Vyazemskij monuments predetermined Pushkin’s work, can not help recalling the words of the writer Antoine de Saint-Exupery: «Learning does not have to write and see. Writing — is a consequence. » Creative insight Pushkin — a direct consequence of the process of becoming unknown to us not only of artistic vision, but Providence held at the earliest, the complex and critical childhood, which took place in suburban Zakharov and Big Vyazemy.
Memory — the spiritual foundation of the individual — not only incorporates the individual experience. It increases as the spiritual formation, and gathers information about what the man was not and could not be a living witness. This is clearly said poet and writer Ivan Bunin: «Birth is not my start. My start in my father, to the mother, grandparents, great-grandparents, ancestors, because they, too, I said. Many times I felt not only themselves former child, adolescent, young man, but also his father, grandfather, great-grandfather and forefather. I desire to live and to live not only their present but also its past life and thousands of other lives: the past and modern to me … «
The current architectural and landscape complexes and Big Vyazemy Zakharova — the area of the promised land, which originated genuinely Russian poetry. It was once said a close friend of the poet PA Vyazemsky: «There is no doubt that the first birth of his talent but grace from above, he was obliged to the surrounding atmosphere.» And added a unique natural and socio-public environment, which first meeting was held in Zakharova and Big Vyazemy.
Zakharovo played almost the main role in the life and work of Pushkin. This is where the creative formation of the poet. Pushkin came here for the first time in 1805, at the age of six. These places have left the lad in 1810, enrolling in the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. According to existing data, in adulthood, he twice visited his small home: the first time in 1830 and the last in 1833. I have visited the renowned poet. Zakharovo Pushkin was precious because it was here that he first met and became friendly with the vast nature, in touch with the life and folk-poetic tradition of Russian peasants. Modern psychologists and philosophers came to the conclusion that the major milestones in the development of personality in childhood. If they do not destroy the social stereotypes, they will creatively disclosed in adulthood. About his childhood impressions of Pushkin said:
«Ah! l keep silence about my Mammy,
About the charm of mysterious nights
When a cap in an old garment:
She dodged spirits prayer,
With diligence crosshairs me
And I will whisper to tell
About corpses, about the exploits of Bova … «
And already a mature master recalled how in his youth Muse
«… I have opened a feast youthful austere,
She sang children’s fun,
And the glory of our antiquities,
And heart fluttering dreams … «
It is possible that the first poetic muse Pushkin was his grandmother, MA Hannibal and possibly, nurse Arina, whose descendants settled in long Zakharov, where he first became acquainted with folk games and celebrations.
A somewhat different but no less capacious and important part in the formation of the poet played a large village Vyazemy. Here Pushkin child, if not realized, then, no doubt, felt the unity of the folksy peasant and noble privileged life. In Pushkin’s era there seems to be two different cultural and everyday of what had been a shining example of socially disparate languages: Russian peasants and other commoners knew and used the Russian language, the nobility contrasted with more «elevated» language. At the same time, going to worship in the same-more Vyazemskaya church, they both expressed themselves, and pray one — Orthodox language, perceive the same sermon.
It is in the consumer environment and object art, architectural and landscape ensembles Zakharov and Big Vyazemy Pushkin first met and understood not so much opposition as the unity of the peasant and noble cultures. Especially since both sources was a simple but spiritual wealth of the Russian people. It’s time well understood Mikhail Glinka. The great Russian composer, contemporary and friend of Pushkin, formulated and clearly expressed what became the basis of his art: «Music makes the people, and we will arrange it.»
Zakharova and Big Vyazemy boy became interested in poetry. Who knows, in Vyazemy whether young Pushkin first attracted the historical fate and the drama Boris Godunov, inglorious «Works and Days» False Dmitry and Marina Mniszek? Now, hardly anyone will doubt that the brilliant poet took this small portion of Russia as his true home. And so expensive place forever devoted much of which is reflected first in poetry, then in the literary, historical prose later. But understanding the meaning of the homeland, Pushkin also recognized the value of everything that is connected with it. Ro-din for him not just a dwelling place, a center of gifts, talents and creative minds.
Zakharov and Big Vyazemy with historical inevitability became the foundation of the museum, architectural and landscape environment which is directly and indirectly connected with the work of Alexander Pushkin. It has been eleven years since the establishment of the museum-reserve, although the formation of his artistic and aesthetic values began much earlier. Even during the Middle Ages are created its domestic landscape architectural ensembles. From the time of Boris Godunov he came to us the Holy Trinity Church, later renamed associate of Peter I, his tutor B.A.Golitsynym Prince in the Transfiguration. Godunov also built a unique belfry, to this day amazes its uniqueness and perfection. At the end of that of the XVI century it was carried out of the temple murals. From those distant times it preserved the general layout and Zaharovskaya Viazemsky estate complexes. In particular, the building of large estates Vyazemy built in the XVIII century, the former owners of Prince Golitsyn. These structures have made the main exhibition of the newly established museum.
Zakharova of the landmarks of Pushkin’s time, leaving only the foundations of the houses, in which his childhood Pushkin. Pretty well kept park, pond and Zaprudnaya part. However, other than these items, or, as they call them — «real estate», the museum needed and needs to be works of art that make up a whole with architectural masterpieces. This historical-literary, artistic-visual, symbolic and iconic, decorative items, not only domestically, but also of global importance. The newly created Museum hardly had any similar product. Treasures were either lost or stolen in the post-revolutionary turmoil. Some of them are dispersed to museums and libraries of the former Soviet Union. In their quest, collecting and studying began its activities newly created Pushkin Museum. In four-plus years was a collection of artistic and literary works, numbering about 7.5 thousand things. Now the museum — about 10 thousand units.
Over the past half century, since the departure of Alexander Pushkin in the Lyceum, much of the domestic environment of the estate Zakharovo lost. But something has been preserved almost intact. For example, children’s games, until recently attracted rural children. Many of these games have managed to revive the pupils of the school under the direction of the Forest Borough of their former teacher, researcher of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences V.M.Grigoreva. Dances, revels in the days of Ivan Kupala celebrations of Maslenitsa — all this, of course, became a poetic world in the poetic consciousness of Pushkin.
Frankly, at the time of the formal establishment of the Pushkin Museum was designated a kind of «public» confrontation. The main thing in it were quite unfounded arguments — like eternal replica: «What kind of work, which can therefore be discussed if Pushkin spent in these places only childhood?» Set and tricky questions: «What kind of a museum can be a conversation if it no one of Pushkin’s things? «Perhaps the most clear-cut answers to these questions Anna Akhmatova, which marked the authenticity and value of all that is somehow related to the name of Alexander Pushkin:» The whole era (not without a squeak, of course) gradually it came to be called Pushkin. All the beauty, the maid of honor, hostess salons kavalerstvennye ladies, members of the highest court, the ministers in Chief and neanshefy gradually began to be called Pushkin’s contemporaries, and then just sat in file cabinets and Indices … Pushkin’s publications. He won both time and space. In the halls of the palace, where they danced and gossiped about the poet hang his portraits and kept his books. About their magnificent palaces and mansions say Pushkin visited here, or, here not been Pushkin. Everything else is not interesting … «
Sharing the opinion of AA Akhmatova, it remains to add that anyone, whether literary, artistic or local history museum, operates not only and not so much verbal as subject-pictorial «texts.» We are therefore attracted all that was before the Pushkin and left after Pushkin. Without this, one can hardly comprehend or understand the uniqueness of the poet. This, however indirectly, Pushkin himself said, in response to the death of his contemporary, the English poet Lord Byron, «the poet’s biography — his poetry.»
In late 1992, the Museum-Reserve held its first scientific conference, and to Pushkin’s birthday is usually celebrated in Zakharov, already in 1993, he was ready to accept visitors: the opening of the first museum exhibition of works of art held in June 1994. Now it has become a tradition to hold conferences here, dedicated to Pushkin and his Russian fellow citizens of a kind of Prince Golitsyn. They continued, «Trinity Readings», which focus — architectural and artistic monuments Godunov time. By the way, Pushkin conference symbolically timed to October 19, the day the old calendar, when Pushkin was the lyceum students and left Zakharov.
A few years ago, due to the drastic changes in life goals, it seemed that our contemporaries, especially young people stop going to the museum. Now it is clear that interest in Pushkin Museum-Reserve is growing steadily. So, in the last 1998 «provincial» museum-reserve was visited by over 50 thousand tourists. Our fellow guests from neighboring regions and countries are not extinguished the desire not only to be here, but also to help the museum. Considerable interest friends of the museum caused a literary and poetic and musical evenings, lectures and conversations lovers of Russian history and literature. Gratuitous concert of prominent representatives of Russian culture became an integral part of the Pushkin Museum.
The anniversary of Pushkin for all of us, solemnly joyous day. No matter how complex the current socio-political situation can and must look to the future. Bail fulfillment of our hopes — historical optimism, which was taught by Alexander Pushkin.