A big contribution to the victory over the Nazi invaders during World War II have emerged in the Soviet Union various nationwide patriotic movement. The Soviet people freely gave to the defense fund of the country valuables, jewelry, money, food … A sense of patriotism of the Soviet people was reflected in the development of donor movement.
The word «donor» is derived from Latin. «Donare» — «give, bring a gift, voluntarily sacrifice.» Blood donation — the voluntary sacrifice of his own blood or blood components for subsequent patients requiring transfusion or receiving component drugs. First blood transfusion taking into account compatibility groups produced in 1909, American surgeon E. Crile. This discovery dramatically reduced the number of complications during operations.
In our country, the first mass blood transfusion made in the field during the hostilities at Lake Khasan (29 July -11 August 1938) and in Khalkhin-Gol (11 May — 16 September 1939). Then the workpiece stored blood has been organized to take it from a large number of donors in Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Chita and other cities of the Far East. Thus, the beginning of the Great Patriotic War Soviet medicine has all the scientific achievements of the time concerning the methods and techniques of blood transfusion wounded.
An analysis of archival documents show that the organization of the donor movement in our country, the beginning of the Great Patriotic War has achieved significant results. For example, in May 1941 in the USSR there was a 7 institutes, 170 stations and 1,778 surgeries a blood transfusion. On this basis, the number of volunteers were set up permanent staff of donors in the ranks of which there were tens of thousands of people.
The war demanded a radical restructuring of these activities under wartime conditions with the main objective — providing the blood of the sick and wounded at the front. In this connection, only during July and August 1941 in many major cities across the country have been re-created hundreds of donor centers and blood transfusion stations. At the same time in connection with the mass mobilization of military service in the Red Army and Navy, and the evacuation of millions of people from the front line to the rear in almost all regions of the country had to re-select the donors and the medical staff.
The blood for the wounded passed all sections of the population, but the leading role belonged to the collectives of industrial enterprises. They are the initiators of mass agitation work to promote blood donation in the country. In Moscow, for example, the beginning of this movement laid the automobile workers. They turned the pages of the factory newspaper calling to join the ranks of donors to his blood to save the life of the wounded. Patriotic automakers supported the initiative of the Moscow workers of many other companies. In almost all cities and regional centers of the country were deployed donated items. Blood donation knew no borders and unites people of different professions, social status and age.
The movement of the donor in the country continued throughout the war. Only in the Russian Federation, for example, by the end of 1943 there were more than 700 thousand. Active donors, 350 thousand. Man during the war become donors in Ukraine, there were hundreds of thousands of donors, and in the other republics of the Soviet Union. Even in the besieged Leningrad, despite the cold and hunger, for a single day did not stop the work on preparation for the front blood. Leningrad Institute of Blood Transfusion in the first half year of the war received from donors 31172 132545 liters of donor blood. Of the total produced 16780 liters of blood was sent to the front, 11,150 liters delivered to hospitals, 3206 l — in civilian medical institutions of the besieged city.
A significant organizational assistance institutions, stations of blood transfusion and blood banks in the first days of the war had a socio-political organization of the Soviet Union. They are supervised and assisted by health authorities: the organization of blood banks, in the selection of donors, raising awareness among the population of donor movement, coordination of work of blood transfusion stations and blood banks, uninterrupted supply of donated blood and the local front-line hospitals.
Some of these organizations have women’s councils created from members of military families. For example, in a report on the work of women’s councils at Moskva officers of the district military commissariat of Moscow for the period from 9 February to 25 April, 1942 stated: «The members of the women’s council to conduct explanatory work on the organization of donor movement blood donation wounded Red Army soldiers, resulting in Council appeared 18 donors. » But such councils around the country have been thousands.
The wounded and sick were treated in hospitals every day required a huge amount of blood. For example, historical data on December 31, 1941 only in the hospitals of the Leningrad Front housed 79,776 people, with a daily increase of wounded and sick was 600-1,000 people or more.
Issues of fronts and hospitals donated blood have been the subject of special consideration at the meetings of city committees, district committees, regional committees and the regional party committee, as well as the Communist Party Central Committee of the Union republics.
Well-established work of the Institute of blood transfusion and blood banks contributed to the fronts of the Great Patriotic War, during the war years running smoothly received donated blood.
Carrying out work to expand the donor movement, public authorities and military command and control to take care of the people who passed their blood for the wounded. In accordance with the Order of People’s Commissar for Trade of the USSR number 27 of February 27, 1943 «On the supply of donor food» for the period of war were set special rules to ensure food donor after each blood donation.
In addition, a certain order has been established product sales donors, which was carried through the food shops of a special certificate issued by the health authorities. In the cities, where there was a significant number of donors in the stores were organized special departments for selling their products and in the shops, where the department did not have a holiday product citizens to give up their blood, was carried out of the lineup.
Besides food donors relied monetary reward. However, many of them refused money or transferred them to the defense fund for the manufacture of military equipment and ammunition for the Red Army, for the purchase of gifts for the wounded soldiers or children left without parents. For example, in May 1942, donors Ivanovo handed to the defense fund of the country of 100 thousand. Rub., The donor of Moscow in the I quarter of the same year in the Homeland Defense Fund listed 300 thousand. Rub. In the Vologda region during the war 43 thousand. Donor surrendered their blood to free soldiers, representing savings for the state of 5 million 500 thousand. Rub. in cash. In each region, the province, the country had the so-called donor-thousanders, which are passed to the defense fund of the country a few thousand, they received the blood.
In addition to these benefits, and the conditions created by donors, public authorities, and additional measures were taken, it has a stimulating effect on the people who passed their blood for the wounded. Thus, the order of People’s Commissar for Trade of the USSR № 159 from June 23, 1942 «On the order of release of products for food donors at blood banks» in addition to the donor areas for donors was organized free meals.
Issuance of products for ordinary citizens is a significant help.
Obviously, the uninterrupted supply of donated blood made it possible not only to save the lives of many hundreds of thousands of seriously wounded soldiers, but also significantly reduce the time of treatment. Statistics show that the use of the Great Patriotic War in hospitals along with other therapeutic measures facilitated the return of blood into operation 73% of the wounded soldiers. If during the First World War, 65% of all deaths from injuries died mainly because of the large blood loss and the inability to recharge it, over the years of the Great Patriotic War in our country, such losses amounted to only 1%.
During the Great Patriotic War blood to save the lives of wounded passed 5.5 million people. If we consider that the end of the war the Red Army and Navy, there were about 11 365 thousand. Man, it means that for every two soldiers had one donor, ready at any moment to hand over a wounded soldier his blood. In total, during the years of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union passed donors to rescue wounded soldiers several millions of liters of blood. Just for example, in Moscow, donors put into hospitals 521 thousand. Liters of blood, in the Saratov region — 71 thous. Liters in Vologda — 35 thous. Liters in Sochi — 20 thousand. Liters. The donors have sought to join the ranks of hundreds of Pioneers, which was not yet 18 years old. Women and girls made up 90 percent of the donors. Many of them came to the blood donation by several dozen times.
In order to promote and popularize the donors who give blood to save the lives of wounded soldiers and commanders of the Red Army, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1944 established the badge «Honorable donor of the USSR». During the war, they have been awarded more than 20 thousand. Man.
Historical materials irrefutable evidence that the donation of the Great Patriotic War is a mass, popular movement initiated and financially stimulated by public authorities and local governments, public health authorities. It played a major role in the recovery of the wounded and sick soldiers in a combat operation. The donation clearly revealed the greatest patriotism of the Soviet people, the desire to help the Red Army all that is possible.
Lt. Col. Konstantin Nason, Ph.D.