In February 1952 took place in Riga Joint Conference of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Institute of Linguistics of the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the issues of Baltic linguistics in the light of labor Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics.»
Conference was opened by President of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR, acting member of the Academy Peive. Reports on the state of linguistics in each of the three Baltic republics and challenges linguists these republics in the light of labor Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» made a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR A. Pel’she, Head of the Research Institute of Language Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR A. X. helmets, acting member of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Professor BA Larin. Report of the Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Cand.Phil.Sci BV Gornung was dedicated to «the problem of linguistic affinity and formation of language families.»
The oldest current member of the Latvian linguist Latvian Academy of Sciences, Professor JM Endzelin read the report on the «connection of the Baltic and Slavic languages,» summed up in this report the results of his many years of research on this issue. The speaker showed that among the Indo-European languages Baltic languages have a very close genetic connection with the Slavic languages. However, some primordial differences in phonetics, grammatical system and basic word stock suggest that the ancestors of the Baltic and Slavic peoples is an independent group of tribes who spoke dialects very close. The speaker admitted that in some cases, similar facts in the Baltic and Slavic languages could appear to develop independently and in parallel. Particular attention was drawn to the similarity of some events (mainly in the field of phonetics) of the Latvian language with Slavic languages; These phenomena are combined with the Latvian language, in contrast to the Slavic and Lithuanian languages drevneprusskomu, t. e. All of the Baltic languages Latvian is the closest to Slavic. In addition, the Latvian language is particularly closely associated with Russian and Belarusian language of the ancient cultural and historical ties, dating back to the era before the advent of the Germans in the Baltic States.
The report of the candidate of philological sciences SIOzhegov highlighted issues of lexicology and lexicography in the light of labor Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics.» The introductory part of the report was of a theoretical nature. The speaker pointed out that the ongoing process of separation in the lexicon of more stable and less stable elements is one of the basic laws of the development of any language. Stalin put forward the position of the allocation of the vocabulary of the language of its basic word stock, giving the language a basis for the formation of new words, lexicology poses entirely new challenges and opens up new prospects for the development of this linguistic discipline in historical terms. Only on the basis of the theoretical development of the problems of lexicology in the light of the Stalinist doctrine of the language can be created right principles of lexicography. Of particular importance for the successful development of lexicography is to develop lexical and stylistic norms, improve the culture of speech of the masses. The second part of the report was devoted to various issues techniques vocabulary cases applied to different types of dictionaries.
Deputy Director of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR BA Serebrennikov in the report «Problems of development of the basic vocabulary of the fund (based on the Baltic languages)» criticized the erroneous views of those linguists who consider basic vocabulary like this once and for all an immutable part of the vocabulary. Basic vocabulary of language is extremely resistant, in contrast to vocabulary of the language as a whole, in a state of almost constant change. However, this stability does not mean the absence of any changes in the process of language development: over long periods of time, thousands of years, the basic vocabulary of the fund may change significantly. However, as opposed to changes in the vocabulary of the language that occurs under the influence of the language of the various external factors, basic vocabulary changes, as well as the grammatical structure of the language, according to the internal laws of its development. It plays an essential role changing the effect of different semantic associations.
The large material Baltic, Slavic and other Indo-European languages, as well as various Finno-Ugric languages BA Serebrennikov has shown specific changes in the facts basic vocabulary of various languages is the impact of external factors. However, he showed how poorly understood the historical development of the vocabulary of individual languages, as far as necessary to create a new type of etymological dictionaries, dictionaries, dictionaries of historical regional language. Without the accumulation of new material, can not be carried out on the development of historical lexicology new ways Stalinist linguistics.
Issues of the Latvian language vocabulary was devoted to the senior researcher of the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR MP-Sleynis Saul. Illustrating the material historical development of basic lexical fund of the Latvian language Stalinist position on the sustainability of the fund and its enormous resistance to forced assimilation, the speaker indicated that lasted several centuries attempts to cripple the German oppressors Latvian failed completely. Nationwide Latvian language assimilation and persevered against the colonizers imposed alien to the spirit of the language and form of the word entered in most cases only in the jargon of the reaction of the Latvian bourgeoisie. Along with this in the report were shown a long association of the Latvian language with Russian, reflecting the cultural ties of the two peoples, which were established before the German conquest lasted until the XX c., It has been artificially interrupted rulers of bourgeois Latvia and support their linguists purists and revived with a new force in the Latvian and Russian friendship of the socialist nations. As periods of particularly intense effect on the Latvian Russian language the speaker allocated XI-XIII centuries., During the emergence and development of the workers’ revolutionary movement in Russia, and finally the Soviet period.
Because of the debate on the above reports, mainly on the report AY Pel’she, we can note the following.
Head of the Department of the Latvian language Latvian State University AY Ozol dwelt on the work done by the department after the publication of the works of Stalin on linguistics. The department was re all programs started to create textbooks, organized a series of lectures on linguistics teacher training. There have been several discussions. However, all this work has given very little. The absence of university textbooks on contemporary Latvian language, the history and dialectology of the Latvian language is still very brakes work. There is an acute shortage of qualified scientific personnel, due primarily to the fact that the rule of marrovskogo «exercises» alienated youth from linguistics. Of the 14 members of the department, only one has a master’s degree.
Deputy Minister of Education of the Latvian SSR PM Mickelson even more sharply highlighted the shortcomings in the work of the Department of the Latvian language as the Latvian University and the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. The restructuring program was very slow. Even slower is working on the creation of new textbooks. In the course of modern Latvian language harmful effect inconsistency in the interpretation of certain phenomena morphology (for example, the issue of instrumental case), and syntax, punctuation and spelling disorder. Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR five years in dictionaries only and have no help in the development of modern language grammar. As a result, a new generation of teachers brought this disparity in secondary education: every teacher in his teaching reflected the views of his lecturers at the university.
Head of the dictionary edited by AR Fel’dgun Latgosizdata elaborated on the state of lexicographical work in the country and noted that the Institute of Language and Literature, although he only studied lexicography, hardly helped Latgizu.
President of the Section interpreters SSP Latvian SSR A. R. Baugh in his interesting speech complemented the report r. Pel’she picture of the translation business in the country. Objecting Pel’she, she pointed out that in recent years greatly improved the quality of translations. However, until now the work of interpreters at the fatal reflected serious deficiencies Russian-Latvian dictionary Professor Y. Loya, confused, for example, words such as permanent and irremovable, and seem to pretend, and so on. P. Creates great difficulties of translation of Russian writers, how Yazvitskii, Kostylev Shishkov et al., when it is necessary to transfer archaisms, dialect, neologisms, and so on. n. However, I must say that translated literature, 65% of printed materials of the republic of literature is not of mere curiosities. A decisive improvement in the quality of the translation will be possible when the Latvian linguists create normative grammar and dictionary of synonyms.
Dean of the Faculty of Philology, University of Latvia SF Nikishkin added performances Ozola Mickelson and large factual material shows a significant work carried out by the faculty after a linguistic debate and, in particular, described the work of the department of the Russian language. One of the major drawbacks of work at the moment is a dogmatic approach to the works of Stalin on linguistics. Disclaimer marrovskih plants and restructuring are sometimes even declarative and superficial. Reports and presentations on the discussions often still very cut off from practice (for example, an interesting report OV Gorshkova of basic vocabulary and the vocabulary of the language). In conclusion, he sharply criticized the report of the Larina professor on the condition and problems of linguistics in the Lithuanian SSR. According to him, the report did not show any error committed by the Lithuanian linguists, the linguistic aspect of any struggle on the front, which can not be in the Republic of Lithuania.
It sounded strange speech YA.YA Diman, which, although it said that at the moment are equally relevant in Latvia is as a struggle against Marrists and the struggle against bourgeois nationalists, but in the future, not only did not say anything about the struggle with the consequences of the regime Arakcheyev in linguistics and overcoming marrovskih mistakes, but he made in his speech a number of erroneous wording is very similar to the situation «by a new doctrine» of the language (subject to the laws of language «general» laws of development of society, ie. e. the laws of development of base and superstructure ; recognition of «conceptual categories», expressed in a statement that if the thinking and logic of Russian and Latvians are the same, so also in the Latvian language is necessary to create excuses in cases when used bespredlozhnye design).
Professor P. Ariste (Tartu), in addition to amendments to the report t. The helmet, made some interesting comments and additions to the report prof. YM Endzelina. He pointed out what assistance can archeology for the study of ancient dictionary Latvian language borrowings from Slavic. Archaeology shows that the close link with the Slavs were at Latvians in the south, t. E. With Kriviches rather than Novgorod Slovenia.
Professor Ya Ya Zutis criticized the report of the MP-Sleynis Saul, indicating that the speaker underestimate the influence of the Russian language on Latvian, locating it only in certain historical periods. After the German invasion of Russian influence in the Latvian language is not stopped. The professor is illustrated by a number of examples of very old terms, which, however, could be taken only after the Latvians XIII century. The report caused a similar objection also by Professor RA Pel’she.
Report of a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR YY Zhyugzhdy (read due to lack of terminological commission secretary Rapporteur Lithuanian Academy of Sciences), as well as reports of active member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences IG Veski, a senior researcher at the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR R. Ya T RABIS and corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR KY Kauliņa were devoted to terminology. The latest report has caused special interest, for the reason that it has been demonstrated by the development of the Latvian social and political vocabulary in connection with the transfer to the Latvian language works of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin.
In total, the conference was, in addition to the speakers, more than 20 people. Conference adopted resolution states that the work of a genius Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics», which brought Soviet linguistics from the state of stagnation and opened a new era in the development of the Marxist science of language, linguists and helped Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia radically restructure their work. In all three republics of the struggle for the elimination of consequences Arakcheyev regime in linguistics and eliminated from harmful effects of so-called «new doctrine» of the language. Stalin’s guidance and help the fight against manifestations of bourgeois nationalism in the field of linguistics. Free creative discussions are one of the main methods of work of linguists Baltic. Carried out in recent discussions about literary language norms, principles and terminology development in a number of other issues, despite a number of shortcomings in the organization of debates, played an important positive role. This conference helped to establish friendly business contacts between scientists from Moscow, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, as the debate unfolded criticism and self-criticism have helped uncover not eliminated even serious shortcomings in scientific research and in the teaching of the language.
The resolution notes that Latvia still has not criticized its errors in printing the former representatives of the «new doctrine» Nowicka, Bolshakov, Ginsburg and others. There was even an attempt to justify them by assigning them imaginary achievements in the struggle against bourgeois nationalism. It was noted that Professor Y. Loya, formally renounced the «new doctrine» of the language, in his course of lectures devoted to Stalin’s theory of language, not only did not disclose the provisions of this teaching, but also made their distortion. It was also noted that prof. YM Endzelin having great merits in the development of Latvian linguistics is still not criticized the errors in his previous works. The resolution further lists a number of serious shortcomings in the work of the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR and the Department of Russian and Latvian languages, University of Latvia and the Latvian Pedagogical Institute. These include insufficient attention to teaching techniques, the slow pace of preparation of textbooks and so on. D. And also notes that the translation work, along with the achievements, there are still many shortcomings, especially in the translation of fiction (carelessness, inaccuracy, debris language lack of attention to the language and style of the original, the assumption is sometimes literal translation).
Similar deficiencies can be noted in the translation work in Lithuania and Estonia. One of the reasons hindering the improvement of the quality of translation, is the lack of Russian-Latvian, Russian, Estonian and Russian-Lithuanian dictionaries, and synonym dictionaries and dictionaries of contemporary Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian language.
Estonia has very little developed in the light of the works of Stalin on linguistics theory and the history of language. In compiling textbooks and dictionaries in over suffered from serious methodological errors.
In Lithuania at the beginning of the Dictionary of Contemporary Lithuanian literary language it has been a manifestation of bourgeois-nationalist tendencies. Similar facts and observed in the preparation of the third volume of a large academic dictionary of the Lithuanian language. Summarizes the work on the Baltic linguistics and the history of the Lithuanian language are totally absent in the plans of the Institute of Language Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR.
The conference resolution encourages linguists of all three Baltic states to intensify efforts to master the Marxist-Leninist theory and to continue restructuring, research, teaching and practical work on the basis of linguistic work of genius Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics», as well as strengthen the fight against Marrism remnants and bourgeois-nationalist tendencies in linguistics. The resolution suggests paying special attention to the study of Russian linguists Baltic republics, as well as local languages Russian linguists. The final part of the resolution recommends that research institutes and university departments of all three countries to conduct cooperation with local publishers and ministries of education a number of practical measures for the compilation and publication of basic textbooks for schools and universities, for methodological assistance to teachers of schools for the dictionary and translation work.