This album — one of the lesser-known works by contemporary Russian public engravers. It was created in the years 1742-1744 on order of the government in the House of Engraving Academy of Sciences. The full title of the album is quite long — «A detailed description of the ceremonial order blagopoluchnago vshestviya in reigning city of Moscow and its svyaschenneyshago coronation august Imperial Majesty vsepresvetleyshiya Sovereign Grand Empress Elizabeth Petrovna All-Russian autocrat, to be a hedgehog vshestvie Feb. 28, crowning 25 April 1742». The meaning of publishing — keep the memory of the accession to the throne of the new Empress and confirm in the minds of contemporaries and descendants of legitimacy and public acceptance of its power. Its creation was entrusted, of course, the best artists Engraving Chamber. To make drawings, which then made prints, we created a special «command» painters, led by architect I.F.Michurin. «Team» performed two versions of the album. One, painted in watercolor, was intended for presentation to the Empress, and the other prepared I.E.Grimmelem painter, architect and draftsman I.Ya.Shumaherom for engraving, which commissioned the whole «team» best engravers. In their implementation and to acquaint society with a significant event in the history of Russia.
Top sheets have been created wonderful artists Ivan Sokolov and Gregory Anikievich Kachalov. Their biographies should dwell, as they are typical for people who came to the science and art in the first half of the XVIII century. Sokolov was born about 1717 in Moscow, the son of a deacon. When he was nine years old, he entered the gymnasium of the Academy of Sciences, fourteen — applied for enrollment in the engraving room, where for six years he studied the Dutchman, the engraver «proshpektov and architecture» O.Elligera. At 33, he received a master’s and early forties and became the de facto leader of the first Russian Academy of Sciences Engraving Chamber. Sokolov died in 1757 in St. Petersburg.
During his short life engraver had to create many outstanding works. He is the author of St. Petersburg species, illustrations of scientific and artistic publications, portraits. Under his leadership and with direct participation has been established and the coronation of Elizabeth album.
Katchalov was born in 1711 in the Novgorod district, in the family of a nobleman. Yes, Leia almost repeats his biography biography Sokolova. At fourteen, he was in the same year as the Sokolov, entered the gymnasium of the Academy of Sciences, studied at Elligera, received the title of journeyman. After the death of Sokolov, he headed engraving ward.
The album was released as a book and all the time in paperback, on a light gray background which is engraved the name of, and at the bottom — a vignette with the monogram of the empress and crown. The first page is placed formal portrait of Elizabeth made I.Shtenglinym. Following is a detailed description of all the events and ceremonies that took place in Moscow during the coronation of the Empress, and it detailed illustrations. The description says that Elizabeth February 26 arrived in the village Sesvyatskoe that from Moscow seven miles, it met a lot of people.
The next day, a solemn ceremony was approved vezda- «vshestviya» empress in Moscow. February 28, at five in the morning, «the congregation in the ceremony people and regiments of the set is given on the Red Square guns nine shots signal.» The first were built shelves. At 7 o’clock in the morning in a ceremony gathered designated «person with their crews.» At 10 o’clock in the village Sesvyatskoe «Tverskaya Yamskaya Sloboda» from his court staff Empress arrived and took his place in the carriage. Sokolov made her an engraved image is placed in graphics. The composition of the sheet is a fragment of the procession, in which you can imagine as well as the environment in which moving the carriage with the Empress from the beginning of Tverskaya Street to the lattice of the Assumption Cathedral.
In the center with documentary precision depicted sitting in a carriage with her Elizabeth, which give the appearance of a portrait likeness. The carriage drawn by eight horses. Next to each horse — stables. To the right of the carriage, on horseback — obershtalmeyster Prince Kurakin; Left — chamberlain Count Vorontsov. On both sides — 12 Hajduk. The upper and lower ranks — soldiers standing around the route of the Empress. Ceremony «vshestviya» Elizabeth in Moscow devoted to the special illustration — big prints made on two boards and Sokolov. On a sheet the size of 80×84 cm provides all the processes that really moved and stretched in a straight line Tverskaya Street. In the composition it is placed in a spiral. In the top row, in the beginning, it is depicted as it was in reality and is described in detail in the text, «… driving grenadiers, 24 people, in two rows on horseback» for them — «18 trains of carriages noble people … before Each of those gentlemen went Master of the Horse, and the waiters walked in rich livery. » Third went to court in a carriage 7, which were «… gentlemen chamberlain two in seniority, and the young in the front …».
Fourth in the procession followed the noble «person» from St. Petersburg. Behind them came a notable nobility. Then — three court coach, to whom went goffauer, headquarters, quartermaster and his staff — 60 court lackeys, 6 cameras, lackeys and 6 walkers, horse team of the Life of «40 people with their non-commissioned officers and corporals,» chambered Junkers «HRH» (heir to the throne, Grand Duke Peter Fedorovich), gentleman of the bedchamber Elizabeth, chamberlain of the Grand Duke and the Empress. Then — the coach, which followed the Empress (which is the one that is shown separately), followed by the court coach, which drove Peter Fedorovich. Rounding out the procession: a team of 40 persons in the Life Company, ladies, postmen and 6 pokoevye road sled Her Imperial Majesty, Peter and accompanied the Empress.
The composition includes about 300 pieces, not counting the horses, carriages, Triumphal Arch, Moscow and many kinds of small parts. The size of each image is less than two centimeters, while all done with the utmost certainty. Accuracy does not become a formality and not constrained by the action. Each figure is endowed with natural movement, the individual poses and gestures. The composition may be found even small genre scenes: talk to each other courtiers, stables restraining unruly horse rider on bucking horse and a lot of small, visible only when viewed detailed engraving details, invigorating effect, but it does not violate the general solemnity and representativeness.
An important place is occupied by engraving, made Sokolov, showing the procession to the Assumption Cathedral, where the coronation took place. Sokolova virtuosity, his sense of tone and ability to achieve diversity in a whole range of work done and fun.
The procession carried the state regalia: the banner printing, the sword, the imperial mantle, power, scepter, crown, as well as awards and commemorative badges. All attributes of state power specifically shown on separate sheets, which allowed the audience to learn and remember them. Masterful performance Kachalov engraving shows in detail the flag state or the so-called paneer, which was imposed only at the burial and coronation of emperors. Masterly made Sokolov engravings depicting conceived by Peter I orders St. Alexander Nevsky and St. Catherine. Each illustration complements multi-figured compositions in which it was difficult to see the details. For example, a herald in his attire, wands ceremonies, Cathedral of the Assumption, postavets «fried bull and other priugotovleniya» fountain from which «Let ‘red and white wine.
The main place in graphics allotted primarily Elizabeth’s coronation at the Assumption Cathedral. This etching performed Katchalov. On a small sheet, size 40×53,5 cm, in the interior of the Assumption Cathedral shows all persons present at the ceremony, there are more than fifty. It was depicted and a table on which stood the imperial regalia. Next to the figures in the engraving are small numbers, making it possible to pinpoint everyone who had the honor to be present that day in the Cathedral of the Assumption.
The challenge facing engraver, was one of the most difficult. Preservation of documentary, Katchalov could least afford to somehow inspire characters. All their actions pose had to meet the time, the mystery of what is happening. Above all, he managed to convey the atmosphere prevailing in the cathedral. The figures present dissolved in a large space of the temple, even Elizabeth is not specifically allocated to others. All leveled, soluble in general a light gray tone of the sheet where the accents are minimal. The contours of the figures, the interior of cutter engraver planned exactly, but not much, precisely so as to give an idea of the specificity of what is happening and do not violate the general tone solemn.
The composition of the sheet, as well as all included in the album of engravings, was designed not by Kachalov, and «team» painters who created the originals. But the skill Katchalov, Sokolov and engravers of all was the fact that the translation of engraving on the board to create a truly works of art. It took all of their ability, to some nuances in the shades of black to convey the atmosphere of solemnity and importance. Both engraver who performed central, busiest sheets were undoubtedly a virtuoso draftsman. Precision cut to the copper board thin, almost invisible to the naked eye, small, concentrated and divergent strokes admired the fact that they do not mimic the original drawing, and do it as if anew, using the decorative possibilities of techniques and etching tool. Conditionality stroke carvers skillfully transformed into a special expressiveness and decorative elegance.
Thanks Sokolov and Katchalov, the best Russian engravers of his time, the coronation album became a true work of art and made history. In the annals of the achievements of Engraving Chamber of Academy of Sciences, he is one of the most honorable places. It is no coincidence Imperial Academy of Arts, which invites the best European masters, has requested it as a sample. For historians, he was the only visible and detailed description of the festivities associated with the coronation of Elizabeth. For art lovers and curious of all his contemporaries and posterity, he was and still is an inexhaustible source of ideas and knowledge on a variety of Russia of the forties of the XVIII century and its artistic achievements.