Of all language courses this course is the most responsible. It begins on September 1, in the first semester of freshman year when high school teacher meets with students just finished and must successfully perform this «introduction», which at the time of IA Baudouin de Courtenay said: «We do not introduce listeners or readers in linguistics, but on the contrary, introduce linguistics … the head of the listeners or readers where we plant, we plant there. «
The course «Introduction to Linguistics» must be fundamental to all subsequent linguistic disciplines.
The transition from high school to the big yet not the same for all sciences; if a student-mathematician, physicist, chemist, received the university extension and development of the fact that in high school he studied at the lessons in mathematics, physics, chemistry, the students-philologists to be largely reconstructed.
Of course, this «gap» of the school and the scientific study of language is not necessary to exaggerate, and wherever possible, we should show them the direct continuity. But there are sections of the course, which the high school is not at all concerned, and here, perhaps, the easiest to build instructor course. The greatest difficulties in the sense of «discontinuity» is the question of the relation of writing and language (and thus the entire section of phonetics), as well as the morphological structure of words that is given a lot of time at school, but, alas, in a purely alphabetic plan (as in mh-game and game-th base is the same, so that the whole system is distorted forming a verb).
The success of the course «Introduction to Linguistics» depends very much: his attentive listeners become activists linguistic circles, members of the linguistic expeditions are often determined later kernel language graduate.
The system of linguistic disciplines of the course «Introduction to Linguistics» is preceded, as a rule, all other courses of this cycle, thus a course not only «introduces linguistics in the listener’s head,» as Baudouin de Courtenay, and introduces students to all subsequent linguistic discipline, that is very important and theoretically in the sense of a common understanding of particular issues of these disciplines, and practically in terms of time savings when reading these separate disciplines, as is not required every time again to explain what synonymy and omonimika, toponymy and onomastics, terminology and idiomatic ; that is explosive and fricative consonants that such assimilation and dissimilation, epenthesis and dentures, phonemes and their variation; what grammatical methods, values, categories and shapes.
The only course to which this provision does not apply — this is the course «General Linguistics» course of the final, the last year of study. About him we should say a few words. Naturally, in 1950/51 account. of the course (20 hours) called «Stalin’s theory of language.» Then it was necessary to explain to the students that have the course «Introduction to Linguistics» was read by Marr, the main provisions of the Stalinist doctrine of language and show from the standpoint of this theory all the harm «doctrine» Marr. Now that the basics of the Stalinist doctrine of the language and become an integral part of the program and of the course «Introduction to Linguistics», the question of course «General Linguistics» should be put differently. This course is by no means impossible to do a brief repetition of what has been read in detail on I know. The course «General Linguistics», with all its «community» with the course «Introduction to Linguistics» must be special, or at least selectively depth: some general issues to be given almost at postgraduate level. Of course, any of the assumptions are the same as in the course «Introduction to Linguistics».
How to build a course on «Introduction to Linguistics»?
The question of the program of the course «Introduction to Linguistics» is closely connected with the architectonic course. In this course, there are issues of a more general nature (the specificity of the language as a social phenomenon, the relation of language to the base and superstructure, historical patterns of language development; the origin of language, communication language history with the history of the company) and more specific (the structure of the language and some of its elements: vocabulary, including vocabulary and basic vocabulary, phonetics, grammar, including morphology and syntax, the concept of language and the internal laws of language development). How to build a course, first to present the first series of questions, and then the second, or vice versa? There are different solutions of this problem, which is reflected in the programs and the available textbooks and manuals.
To present all the general questions at the beginning of the course, including the origin of language and the historical development of different aspects of language, and the formation of dialects and interbreeding of languages in different times, and the value and the development of comparative-historical method — before the students understand what a language and its structure, what vocabulary, phonetics, grammar — is to bring down the consciousness of freshmen Falls dogmatic truths, and their stunning mass of obscure terms.
In fact, not understanding what the different vocabulary basic word stock of the vocabulary of the vocabulary of all, you can not understand the lexical interaction of languages and, in particular, to distinguish between borrowing in the lexicon (even if very intense, as in the Russian-Tatar relations) and these crosses (as, for example, in the history of Romanization of the native languages of the Latin provinces).
No idea of the law can not be a sound rationale for comparative-historical method in linguistics and its formation and development; the concept is sound law can show just explaining all the basic concepts of phonetics.
How can you specifically show the differences between the dialects are, at the same time explaining that they belong to one common language? Just giving examples of vocabulary, phonetics and grammar.
Examples can be multiplied further, but, as if the question is clear.
To really help students master the principles of linguistic science, and not force them to learn they did not understand the formulas and definitions, we should not go that route.
Does this mean that following the example of some old courses can begin the presentation, for example, directly from the phonetics and at the end of the course to give the most general terms, the theoretical generalization? No. It was not at fault.
The correct solution to the problem seems to us in the «frame structure» of the course.
The term «frame structure» I mean such an arrangement material when general questions open and close the course, and special — are in the middle.
Open course can and should those issues Stalinist doctrine of language that does not require students to special language skills. These issues include clarification of the provisions that the language does not belong to the phenomena of natural, biological (in particular race), and is in the area of social phenomena, and it should not be declared, as shown proven and illustrated. After that follows presents the main thesis of Stalin’s teachings on language as a social phenomenon: the relation of language to the base and superstructure, that language — not a class phenomenon (but that classes may be interested in a particular use of language), the language and the culture — not the same thing, and the «national language is a form of national culture …»
The greatest difficulties in the general section is, of course, the question of language and thought. The situation that is not only no language, if there is no thinking, but there is no thought without a language, you can clearly reveal, but the individual elements of this section is very difficult, as the freshmen are often naive and straightforward think that any word (even interjection even dog’s name) expresses the concept, and any proposal (eg, interrogative) expresses the judgment.
The order of presentation of the structural elements of the language
Presentation of section vocabulary, phonetics and grammar must precede the special section on the language system and its structural elements explaining the functions of each member and their relationship to the structure.
In what order to present the structural elements of the language? No one has ever started a grammar; It’s clear. But on the first phonetics and lexicology are long-standing disputes.
On the basis of and experience and theoretical considerations I hold championship lexicology. The arguments are as follows. Our language is — is primarily a language of words, not the language of sounds or language forms. Of course, no word is out sounds and forms, but also sounds and forms we study the words, not by themselves. Virtually unknown language learning always begins with mastering vocabulary minimum.
In addition, «to enter into the consciousness of listeners linguistics» lexicology through easier, more convenient and more entertaining for students.
Word-is the specific unit of language, any illiterate person to answer the question: «How much do I say the word?» Consider the shape and sounds — difficult; This requires much greater linguistic abstraction and reflection.
Therefore, I believe the best is the location of the «inner partition»: lexicology (semasiology) — phonetics — grammar.
Lexicology as a branch of linguistics.
In lexicology before you explain what the difference between the basic vocabulary of the vocabulary of the Fund, it is necessary to analyze the ratio of words to the concept and to call things. In different words, these two functions are correlated in various ways. Thus, in the interjections, pronouns in, in their own names concepts eliminated, but denied interjections and nominative function, whereas their own names «exaggerated» nominative — the only meaning of their existence; nominative function is replaced by a function of demonstrative pronouns, which is their specificity. Expression znamentalnyh concepts in words and numerals are also not the same as it is different types of concepts. The special position occupied by function words, word-morpheme, as they are sometimes called, yet the word.
But there is another area of lexicology. This includes all sorts of lexical borrowing, including professionalism, dialect, argotizmov, tracing paper, the phrase equal (or almost equal) word. From this it is one step closer to the characteristic vocabulary of the language to be covered from different angles without losing sight of the stratification and stylistic aspects of vocabulary.
In characterizing the basic lexical fund, stating that it is a narrow range within a wide vocabulary of which is characterized by its stability over time, commonly used and is the base of the formation of derivative words (the latter primarily refers to the «core» of basic lexical fund — the root word), it should be It emphasizes that the word basic word stock stylistically neutral.
When the elements and vocabulary, and her whole internalized, it is necessary again and again to remind you that you can not confuse the dictionary of the language and the language itself.
Phonetics as a branch of linguistics
In presenting the section of Phonetics in particular should be emphasized that phonetics — this is not the «sounds» in general, and the sound structure of language.
Therefore, the information from the speakers and the unit of the speech unit it should be presented from the viewpoint of classification of speech sounds, not as self-sufficient themes.
It is very important to teach students to observe the pronunciation as his own and other people’s, to explain to them, what role is played by the auditory perception, muscular feeling (to realize it — the most difficult!), It helps the mirror and touch and how to all the evidence to summarize. Great masters such «home experiments» was VA Virgin, individual phonetic writings which should be encouraged in every possible way to students. Very often, I finished the course, the students fall in the dialectological expedition, and they will remember with gratitude the «home experiments». I believe that it is in the interests of dialectologists should not omit the so-called «other phonetic processes» (insert extension, abort, and so on. N.).
In the phonetics of a very large role played by personal instructor show — this also applies to the pronunciation of individual sounds and intonations and accents, and all kinds of accents.
The most difficult section of this chapter — of course, the system of phonemes and phoneme. The difficulty here is not only that about this topic very much conflicting and contradictory reasoning, but that falls to the students again raise the question of an abstract reality, and even on the basis of sound. The best thing is to control yourself is this reality, not forgetting that phonemes are used to smyslorazlicheniya though their own values, they do not have that not all the sound properties of the audio it needs, and their selection depends on the oppositions, as each phoneme is a member of phonemes that each language has its own system of phonemes, and no «cosmopolitan» phonemes not — «same» physically different language sounds different as phonemes, depending on the system as a whole — that the right decision phonemic issues is a prerequisite for solving many practical problems : orthoepic, alphabet, spelling, transcription, and so on. n.
Grammar as a branch of linguistics.
Grammar section should start with the definition of Stalin, to emphasize the abstract and generalizing her character.
Then, it should be pointed very important comparison of grammar geometry and then to show that the «per se» grammar is not and can not be, just as there is a dictionary and grammar of both is the sound structure of language.
Then you can go different ways. Or just to share morphological and syntactic material and follow the categories, or initially to give a more detailed overview of grammatical methods, and then choose the basic (or even, perhaps, the most revealing) morphological categories and syntactic units.
The second way, it seems to me methodologically convincing. If you go from «categories» that is very easy to mentally project in the language of what it actually does not. This is the sad memory of the path «conceptual categories»; if you go from the grammatical ways, and, knowing the existence of any of them, determine the grammatical meaning (and thus the category), then nothing can be mentally project. High school is just very little attention to the grammatical form of bilateralism and satisfied if students «with a touch of» guess the sentence, part of speech, case and so on. N.
And finally, the countless number of categories, and the number of grammatical methods is very limited and it is foreseeable.
In this review, we can easily show the types of affixation, unlike internal flexion of the other interlaces to show the complexity of the issue of changing the word and word formation in connection with the syntactical and non-syntactical forms, on the one hand, and with the ratio of word formation in grammar and vocabulary — the other; find their place reserved words, which are usually «walk» between morphology and syntax; do not break, and repeats addition, stress and intonation, which is not always easy to separate; however, as if the syntax is clearly a problem of word order illegally drawn into this line, but it contrasts well with the affixation, and as a result of the review easy to present a paragraph on analytic and synthetic tendencies in grammar.
There was always a lot of debate about what and how to speak in the course «Introduction to Linguistics» morphological categories? I think that this course should be limited to what is somehow different (necessary to emphasize) exists in every language — is the part of speech and the principles of their classification; Moreover, given the explanation of the syntax of predication, it is important to clarify the categories of time and mood.
The syntax of the emphasis, it seems to me, should be on the communicative function, predication, sentence, its elements and types and various means of communication between members of simple and complex sentences.
The sequence of presentation, students study the material.
So again we are entering a «frame structure», but a significant difference is that the students already know what vocabulary, phonetics and grammar, and we can fearlessly involve data from these sections.
This section should first be set out general provisions Stalin about the nature of historical change in language. From these statements it is concluded continuity and gradual development of the language and the historical continuity of the language in the later period relative to the previous one.
Another important feature of the language — the uneven development of individual elements of its structure. Phonetics as a whole also has a high resistance, in particular the system of phonemes, are fixed forever.
Next, you need to stay on the role of external factors and the internal laws of the development of language.
Elsewhere, Stalin said about the factors that influenced the development of the language. This is — the development of production, the appearance of classes, the appearance of writing, the birth of the state, the development of trade, streamlining of correspondence in the interests of management and trade, the emergence of printing, the development of literature.
Marr and his «disciples» put forward the most important and decisive factor in not only the development but also the formation of new languages - the crossing of languages.
Speaking about the internal laws of language development, it is important to emphasize that they do not characterize the random and individual phenomena that occur or have occurred in a given language, and natural phenomenon common to the facts of the language related to the system of the language. Related to this is another feature of the domestic laws of the language — the language of the laws, characterizing its specific characteristics, its identity. The internal laws of language — a historical category, and at different times, they may be different.
The internal laws of language development encompass all the elements of the structure of language: and grammar and phonetics, and vocabulary and can be studied both in relation to individual languages, and in relation to a group of related languages, and within each language group, keeping the total, is different. Domestic laws allow a deeper understanding of many issues in the history of languages, for example, the interaction of languages.
Vinogradov wrote: «That they (the internal laws) manifested national identity language. Foreign language, loan words are transformed into their sound form, the grammatical structure and semantic content of domestic laws to borrow their language. «
To acquaint students with the classification of languages, you must first present the foundations of comparative and historical method. Mastering this section due to the great difficulties: students usually do not know the language, the very complex issues, manuals on the subject does not. But you have to explain what and how to compare; Why one hundred percent overlap sometimes inconclusive; how to distinguish between borrowing from a parallel development; why, for example, it is difficult to compare the Russian with English, and which path can lead to a proper comparison of these languages; and much more.
Describing the emergence and development of comparative-historical method, it should be emphasized that the first works in this field were developed independently of each other. The main difference is relatively historical method in the XIX century. from previous eras it was that the comparison took not only words but also grammatical categories with their registration material; This immediately excluded accident. You must stay on the choice of words themselves being compared; for example, the word factory has in so many languages, but no conclusion about the relationship of language on this basis is not possible, then the words, calling the names of relatives, some pronouns, numerals to ten, the names of some plants, animals, body parts, and so on. n. — are just the best material. It is necessary to give this explanation: the relationship of languages - a consequence of their descent from one language base, which can be attributed to the period of primitive communal, tribal system, therefore, should be chosen and vocabulary typical of the era. It is important to tell and show what the sound correspondences and related languages as an important historical account of sound laws of each language. Outlining the method of reconstruction and the establishment of archetypes, you must abide by the rule of «widening circles», ie. E. (For example, Russian facts compared with Ukrainian further East Slavic — with inoslavyanskimi, Slavic — with the Baltic finally Baltic-Slavic with generalized by the same method the facts of any other group of Indo-European languages. It is important to familiarize students with the principles of the absolute and relative chronology.
Review Languages genealogical classification scheme is very useful, but an empty list without a map is of little use, and a detailed overview map with all the necessary linguistic, historical, archaeological, ethnographic and other inquiries is very time consuming. Therefore, the scope of this presentation section is entirely dependent on the number of hours allocated to it and common knowledge of the audience in the political geography of the world and its history.
The question of the origin of language, I will touch briefly: most Marxist literature provides exhaustive material. In discussing this topic, it is important to emphasize the relationship of the origin of language from the general question of the origin of man. Students should become familiar with the work of Engels’ «The Role of Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man» and the works of Stalin pertaining to the topic. Particular attention should be paid to students a place in Stalin’s «Anarchism or Socialism?», Which refers to a straight gait as a prerequisite for the expansion of horizons and the development of speech, and in «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» — criticism of fashion Marrists and have many bourgeois scholars of the theory of speech gestures. Stalin wrote: «Audio language or the language of words has always been the sole language of human society capable of serving a full-fledged means of communication between people.»
The last section should highlight the issue of the development of languages and dialects spoken in a different social formations, show the development of «… from tribal languages to tribal languages, from tribal languages to the languages of peoples and from the languages of peoples to national languages …»
In this section, the material naturally increases with the approach to modernity. The last thing we know about the tribal languages. Stalin wrote: «We must assume that the elements of the modern language can be traced back to ancient times, before the era of slavery. It was not a difficult language with a very scanty vocabulary fund, but with its own grammatical structure, though primitive, yet grammatical system «linguistic materials, lead-in to this era, can only be obtained through the renovations.
Tribal languages are available as a direct study of written monuments (such as the Greek dialects), and observation of the living (for example, the languages of the North American Indians). In connection with the growth of the tribes can be seen dialectal fragmentation Obshcheplemennaja language. Along the way, you can give an explanation of what the difference between the local dialects of class jargons.
Here, we consider it appropriate to focus on the role of migration and more to reveal the basic provisions of the Stalinist theory of crossing prior to the victory of socialism on a world scale.
In analyzing the language nationalities important to point out that the recent consolidation in the history of dialectal fragmentation occurs in the feudal era, which promotes attachment of the population to certain territories. Education of their attributes puts forward the need for a common written language, which strongly supports the church, the mighty power of the Middle Ages. At the same time we must show the bankruptcy of the notorious theory of «special class language» feudal lords.
Turning to the national language should be, first of all, to clarify the concept of the nation and an era characterized by folding the nations and immediately said of the two periods in the development of nations: the capitalist and socialist. It should be strongly emphasized that there is no «gap» or «explosion» in the folding of the national language does not happen, it is based is put some more strong dialect or dialects are concentrated, as the national language is enriched by the literary languages of the Middle Ages.
Students must be familiar with the famous saying of Lenin on requirements to the national language, with particular stress should be marked with B. And, the quality of Lenin, «the unity of language and its unimpeded development.»
Further clarifies the role of literature, the press, the school for the development of national norms of literary language.
In the era of the development of the national language is the process of grinding and dissolving it in dialect, there are all sorts of jargon, and inside the literary language developed a style and genre features.
New ethane in the development of nations and national languages begins after the victory of socialism in one country. Culture change: the bourgeois becomes a socialist nation, but the language is because «… culture and language — are two different things.» «It’s no secret of the fact that the Russian language as well served Russian capitalism and Russian bourgeois culture before the October Revolution, as it now serves the socialist system and socialist culture of Russian society.»
The question of the development of national languages in the aftermath of the victory of socialism in one country should be considered in the light of Stalin’s data for more than twenty years ago.
In presenting the features of the development of national languages should be pointed out that the differences between the dialects of the national language are still maintained; that the merging of nations and national cultures into one can not go «by decree from above»: «Such a policy would be tantamount to a policy of assimilation»; that before the victory of socialism on a world scale has no preconditions for the merger of the national languages, and even after the victory of socialism on a world scale will take a long process of the formation of zonal languages. Stalin wrote: «Here we will not have to deal with two languages, one of them fails, the other out of the fight victorious, but hundreds of national languages, of which as a result of a prolonged economic, political and cultural cooperation among nations will first released the most enriched unified zonal languages, then zonal languages will merge into a common international language, which, of course, will be neither German nor Russian, nor English, and a new language, which incorporates the best elements of national and zonal languages. «
Finishing the course again and again need to remind students that come into contact with many of the sciences — philosophical, historical, even natural, language can not be reduced to any logic or psychology or ethnography, or the aesthetics, it is not just We tried to do bourgeois scholars. No, «… the main task of linguistics is to study the internal laws of the development of language ..»; language has its own characteristics. «These features are characteristic only of language, and precisely because they are characteristic only of language, language is the object of study of an independent science — linguistics»