Mazepa was framed in the struggle for power?
Many of us still at school know the tragic story of how sneaky Hetman Mazepa conceived to change the king and benefactor — Peter I. ardent patriot of Russia, General Judge Vasiliy Kochubey L. and Poltava colonel Ivan Iskra tried to forestall treachery and inform the king about the impending danger, but the king I was so confident in the Hetman, that did not believe, and executed them.
The great poet Pushkin described the history of denunciation Kochubey on Hetman Mazepa in his poem «Poltava». Kochubei there appears a real martyr, trying to save the king and undergone undeserved punishment. However, in the poem truth and fiction are so intertwined that it is difficult to separate from each other. Little deeper into the subject, just ask yourself a question: what prompted Kochubey on a denunciation?
And the image of an ardent patriot few tarnish. But what if the «villain Mazeppa» is not seduced the daughter of Pan judges? ..
The role of the love affair Pushkin greatly exaggerated. Yes, in 1704 the widow of hetman woos Motria Kochubey, but was refused. When Motrya itself (!) Ran away to the «Little Russian ruler» (it seems not so much running to the groom, but from the tyranny of the mother), he respectfully sent her back to her parents.
History, of course, a delicate, but not pulling on the blood feud. Moreover, in the denunciation of Mazeppa Kochubey he wrote that May 17, 1707 asked for permission to marry his daughter hetman’s son Cossack Basil Chuykevicha. Getman then ambiguous advised to give it to a Polish nobleman, «how will a lyahami in the compound.»
A series of denunciations
It looks like an act Kotchubey explained in more banal — he wanted to be a hetman. For a long time, Vasily L. was almost at the top, sometimes even acting «acting hetman.» It seemed only stretch a hand! ..
«Kum Basil» began to inform the «higher authorities» for a long time — the benefit is encouraged. «Ordered dumnyi Yemelyan Ignatievich Ukrainians Vasili Kochubei firmly watch over all the behavior of the Hetman …» -Recruiting we evidence in the archives. But in the years 1707-1708 General Ban judge literally threw Moscow complaints.
At the end of August 1707 he transferred to Moscow through the oral accusation fugitive monk Nikanor. Donoso did not believe. In February of 1708 was transferred to a second denunciation by Peter Yakovlev trusted Colonel Ivan Sparks. And then the supreme authorities did not respond. Then tireless Kochubey gave the same accusation to the king through Akhtyrsky Colonel Osipov. (It is striking that «patriotism» defeated Basil Kochubey only in 1707, but in his report he described some of the events that took place 17 years ago.)
Finally, voluntary informants invited to the neighborhood of Smolensk, where the April 21, 1708 … they were seized. The case was investigated surprisingly quickly, and on the same day donositeli were tortured. Spark retracted his words already at the second torture and Kochubey, seeing the suffering other, confessed before the torture that slandered Hetman malice of history from Motril. But he was given the same five lashes.
The investigation is conducted undercover Secretary Shafirov and Count Golovkin. As noted by Pushkin, «… to them, in all fairness, it should be based on the horror of the trial and execution donositeli.» But Alexander is not right. Behind the investigators, we can clearly see another, more powerful figure — is the king Peter. Without his sanction any Shafirov nor Golovkin would not dare to take such a violent turn pretty important person.
And on July 26, 1708 in the village of Borshhagivka under White Church donositeli took them violent head.
However, the hetman of the condemned did not ask.
Such intransigence of Peter I in relation to Kochubei looks, at first glance illogical. Kochubey specifically declined to denunciation at Hetman — and then so cruelly punished! Maybe Peter in this story was his own, special reasons? But what?
At that time, the Cossack regiments, where positions were elected, the leading role was played by petty clans. In Poltava regiment this clan was born Theodore Zhuchenko. In Zhuchenko had no sons, but had four daughters, one of whom was married to Ivan Iskra, the other — for Basil Kochubey, and the third — for Peter Butsko, Poltava regimental judge, whose daughter, Anna, became the wife of a certain Peter Ivanenko (Petrik) .
It is this last one in 1691, as a clerk in the Main military Office of Mazepa fled to the camp, which immediately became a clerk troops Zaporizhzhya, and then rushed to the part of the Cossacks in the Crimean Khanate with a proposal to release Little Russia «by the Moscow yoke» and return to the golden age Symphony of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Islam Giray.
Petrik four times (in 1692, 1693, 1664, 1696.) Brought Tatars Hetman, including the territory of Poltava regiment, and at first even managed to provoke riots, their slogans struggle against Moscow, Mazepa. With Crimean khan Petrik signed a contract in which, among other things, took a commitment to abolish the Kharkov and Rybinsk shelf to open Krymchaks Muravskiy Way to Moscow.
The case took a serious turn. Against Petrik and Krymchaks were thrown several Cossack regiments and Moscow, and in the end, managed to suppress the revolt. Petrik ran in Dubossary, where Islamic backers put it, «Hetman». I must say that he has gone through, and Mazepa, and Kochubey, and slept in Bose in 1712 …
It is not surprising that, having learned about the negotiations Petrik with Khan, the first thing eliminated hetman Fedor Zhuchenko a colonel positions and Basil Kochubei ordered «to take over the guard of the castle.» Surprisingly another — both Kochubey managed to wriggle out of this unpleasant situation? Perhaps he was already a secret informant for the Kremlin — and it helped. (Recall that in accordance with Articles Kolomatsky hetman could not exclude anyone from the general foreman without the approval of Moscow.)
In 1703 Mazepa has accused Iskra that he «had secretly korrespondents1yu and coglasie with the Crimean khan and bey Perekopsky.» Spark removed from office — but other, more severe measures are not followed.
The acting governor was charged with delivering to Moscow full of the revenues collected in their provinces, and the main task of the provincial reforms discerned quite clearly — the abolition of the autonomy of the marginal areas, including Hetman. Peter I was only waiting for the death of seventy years of Mazepa. And appointed a new hetman, especially with such suspicious links in the Crimean Khanate, was not included in the plans of the king. That is, it was not that simpleton-king believed Mazepa, but the fact that Peter did not believe Kochubey, no sparks.
Because donositeli were doomed. However, when Mazepa defected to the Swedish king, two failed rebel propaganda purposes, blind two patriotic icons.
The story of «reality Kochubey» would not be complete if we do not once again reminded of Motria Kochubey. Her husband Simon Chuykevich in that vague time rashly sided with Mazeppa, for which he later was exiled to Siberia. Motrya (long before the wives of the Decembrists example) followed. There is also evidence that after the death of her husband Motrya returned home and lived his life in the Resurrection convent that at Poltava …