Practical lexicographical work adopted in our country is very widespread: the number of dictionaries published in the last thirty years (the vast majority of the Publishing House of foreign and national dictionaries), expressed in triple digits. The main place is occupied by bilingual dictionaries, including the increase in the proportion of dictionaries compiled on the material of language, lexicographical work which for the first time. Basically it refers to foreign oriental languages and the languages of the peoples of the USSR and the People’s Democracies. The latter fact makes the development of bilingual lexicography issue of paramount importance.
One of the thorny issues — it is a question of a small bilingual dictionary. Of course, this problem is nothing specifically «bilingual» No, this has made it a de facto situation. Small dictionary (25-30 thousand words) non-Estonian-Russian and Russian-out foreign language in a variety of still and will be for at least some time to go out and continue for a number of reasons, of which the most important are two. Firstly, when drawn up a bilingual dictionary of any language for the first time in general or for the first time in our country and in our time, the authors of his starting job sometimes literally from scratch, is not able, at the level of the private lexicography, immediately resolve such elozhneyshuyu task as the creation of a so-called full bilingual dictionary. Secondly, Dictionary 80-100 thousand words and more — it is long-term work, but just when the vocabularies of any language is not at all or only have a completely outdated, time is running out: the dictionary needed quickly. Therefore, the question about the features of a small dictionary acquires great importance. We can not ignore it as did L. But a small dictionary, as shown above, we are not because someone wants to get rid of work «with a price cheaper,» and they are not calculated on tourists or people for which a foreign language is only entertainment. As mentioned above, they appear to have a serious effect causes and are intended for the most serious and important practical purposes.
Specifics of a small vocabulary is determined by two factors: firstly, the limited lexical material subject to interpretation and translation; secondly, the need for brevity or incompleteness lexicographical (semantic) the development of speech. This article is devoted only to the issue of limiting the lexical material; This question, in turn, is divided into two parts: 1) a glossary in the narrow sense, that is. e. on the selection of words, and 2) on the selection of any kind of phraseology. This refers mainly Russian-foreign dictionaries, but in some places and expressed concerns about foreign-Russian dictionaries, each time specifically stated. But in fact, in both cases we are talking only about the dictionary for Russian. No Russian-national or national-Russian dictionaries of the languages of the Soviet Union into consideration not included.
Making small glossary of dictionaries is, according to L. Shcherba question, «very exciting dictionary publishers,» truly difficult and painful, and the smaller the dictionary, the more so, of course, complex.
We have already quoted a negative review of the LV Shcherba Concise Dictionary voobsche.bolee or less arbitrarily cut out of it. » However, the LV Szczerba immediately observes: «In practice, we see just the opposite … But the high score does not mean short dictionaries. It is the latest indication that «their vocabulary depends on the consumer, for which the dictionary is intended.» Customer care obviously did in the eyes of LV Scherbo unlikely that the scientific value of the dictionary.
To resolve the problem glossary need to answer some questions. Could be of scientific value vocabulary dictionary small — 20 to 30 thousand words? What is this value may consist of? If it is compatible with the practical effectiveness of the dictionary? What should be the practical purpose of a dictionary?
The issue of the scientific value of a small dictionary to become a solid scientific basis due to this Stalin division on the vocabulary of the language and basic vocabulary. Notes IV Determining what those elements should be the object of special works. For the present article is significant question: whether a small bilingual dictionary include all the vocabulary typical of his time, including the «transient», whether it is its practical purpose and whether it can in this case be of scientific value? An affirmative answer would mean that a small dictionary should focus precisely on the modern vocabulary.
Of course, the appointment of a short bilingual dictionary may be different. But I think that if a small bilingual dictionary is the first on any language (in general or in our era) — and now particularly important issue is of such dictionaries — it should most of all take into account the needs of practitioners associated with a foreign language, and means, first of all provide the ability to read and translate the texts of a wide socio-political content, in particular, the general periodical press. Therefore, in such a dictionary should be presented with all the vocabulary is so distinctive that it has appeared over the last thirty years.
Changes in the Russian language in this period with an exceptional depth and accuracy of these Stalin. If it is new in its entirety will be identified and presented in the dictionary, it will reflect the composition of the features characteristic of a particular historical moment. Enable the corresponding speech, expression and new meanings and a small dictionary can and should. This is required by its practical purpose and it can only be his scientific interest (it goes without saying that this part of the vocabulary word list is not limited to, a further selection will be discussed later).
From installation to be complete vocabulary reflection characteristic of a certain historical moment, it follows that a brief glossary should not be a long time — a matter of basic dictionaries — and in case of reissue its vocabulary should be reviewed, ie. E., And shrink and grow. It is important to note that if by the time of reprinting a small dictionary, along with it, there is already another big, full, and the appointment of a brief vocabulary may be different, and the specifics of its composition, whatever it may be, can be detected more clearly.
Is it advisable to install only such Russian-foreign dictionaries, or also for foreign-Russian? I think that is basically feasible. And not just dictionaries for the languages of the people’s democracy. IV «…» Thus, every language has the characteristic of this historical moment vocabulary. It is hard to imagine the ability to read contemporary foreign texts (and for that foreign-Russian dictionary and is intended) if it does not include such language as a foreign language as fully as possible.
We note in passing that the latest Russian language should be given to the Russian-foreign dictionaries, the latest foreign — in foreign-Russian. The glossary of the latter can be represented and the newest Russian lexicon, namely those words that are included in the appropriate foreign language: for example, in Japanese-Russian dictionary to the word collective — koruhozu, although there is no word skorostnik needed in Russian-foreign dictionary, but not in the Japanese-Russian, as the Japanese do not have word with the concept, and therefore can only be distributed (explanatory), translated from Russian, not characteristic of the modern Japanese language. The same applies to russkoyleksike, dayuscheysyav a translation. For example, unobjectionable if a Japanese word sёsay-on, the British, and so detailed. N. Will be transferred only with words detailed, thorough, detailed and not a word; but bad if Russian deployed in the value of its quality, which, in recent years it has actively displaces its synonyms will not be taken into account even in a small Russian-foreign dictionary.
As should be based the selection of the rest of the modern vocabulary of the language? The answer to that derived from practical purpose dictionary. As a small dictionary intended primarily to work on the press, the texts of socio-political content, to the extent it should give full socio-political ‘vocabulary in the new and the old (but not obsolete) parts and widely — the vocabulary of economic (non- narrowly technical terms). But, of course, this should not be limited vocabulary; small dictionary, which is the first of any language should not become a terminological or industry. However, no doubt that a small dictionary, because of their size are not able, without reducing the practical value, to be unconditional general. Staying dictionary generic, it must have a certain bias, their profile. We have already pointed out that dictionary, is a first for any language, as the Russian-foreign and foreign-Russian, the profile is determined by the appointment to work on specific areas of the press and the completeness of the inclusion of elements specific to the language of recent decades in these areas. In the glossary, this profile is created, with the main body of the vocabulary of a general nature (including the most basic everyday), on the one hand, the inclusion of tumors and primary selection of words and combinations of socio-political nature, and the other — except for the words and phrases irrelevant and having narrowly domestic limited use. Just giving certain profile can serve as a guiding principle in compiling the glossary and thus provide a practical and scientific value and a small dictionary.
Of course, such a profile dictionary is not suitable for reading fiction. But you have to look the facts in the eye for any selection of words in the vocabulary of 20-30 thousand words language with a rich vocabulary of will for this purpose is not enough. For translation needs of fiction have to create large dictionaries — they are on the line, following the summary. As for the reading of literary texts in order to study a foreign language, then to output the corresponding large vocabulary possibility of such a reading can be provided with special benefits and educational Reader with corresponding subscript dictionaries.
Traditionally, however, the question of the glossary is allowed otherwise. The basis of his presentation placed the «most common» or «vernacular» vocabulary. That is the normal procedure in the preface: «In the dictionary includes the most common in the modern Russian literary language, the word» (Russian-Moksha Dictionary, ed. Potapkina); Dictionary «contains the most used words of the modern Russian literary language» (Russian-Hungarian Dictionary, Ed. A. Haas, ed., I. and K. Maytinskoy Valkovsky); Dictionary «contains common words of literary and spoken Russian language» (Russian-Portuguese Dictionary, comp. AK Vlad ed. Brandao); Dictionary «contains the basic and most common words in the Russian language» (Russian-Karakalpak Dictionary, ed. NABaskakov); Dictionary «contains common words of the literary and the spoken language» (Russian-Swedish Dictionary, Ed. AP Valenius) and so on. d.
We should not think that such wording in any way substantiated. It is well known that upotrebitelnost, frequency — a relative term, depending on the nature of the survey question, ie. E. On the basis of provisions in the literature survey. Work on the establishment of lexical minimum in the study of a foreign language, for a long time and seriously raised in teaching practice showed that, «starting from the second thousand coefficient of repeatability of words is so small that it can not be conclusive evidence in favor of a particular word in the language» . It is obvious that, even having done a tremendous job of counting the frequency (in fact, this work is not carried out), yet you can not get a convincing indicator for the selection of 20-30 thousand words. In fact, as from this point of view can be justified by the inclusion of a small dictionary of available almost any Russian-foreign language dictionary words as sideburns, ballad balm, bow, hippopotamus, white, hemp, pumice, foam, peaks (MAST ) Poluda, blanket and so on. n. Let me doubt even in the lampshade, which begins (not counting a) of almost any Russian-foreign dictionaries, and foreign-Russian, if that word in the language sounds the same. Conventional concept of «most common» is visible here, so to say, to the naked eye.
But the main objection to the principle of selection of words for «vernacular» is that it can not provide the proper structure of the dictionary. On this quite specifically pointed LV Szczerba: speaking of that «enormous work» survey language Soviet press, which would be «the only scientific solution of the question» (about chastotnosti.-H. F.), it adds that » Eventually she decided not to issue (on the composition slovnika.- NF) Finally, since the translation dictionary it is not in common words in general, and in need of money transfers from the Russian. » Common words cover all areas of nature and human life. But a small vocabulary and can not and should not cover them all. It is an attempt to do this, normal for a large — vocabulary and only for it practicable, in the short leads to its practical inferiority to that feeling of irritation from enjoying the dictionary, which says L. Szczerba. Characteristically, the dictionary enjoying their complaints on the lack of the right word or expression invariably accompany reproaches for placing the ballast. Bilingual Dictionary type considered here — not general education allowance; it should be useful as a guide for a specific type of work. And his practical purpose requires the inclusion of a set of words that are important for a number of socio-political topics, but are not commonly used; On the other hand, it may be missing words that are not required by the nature of work. This can be explained as an example. Tags: dog, cat come in everyday speech, and in a number of ready-made expressions in the vicinity of the power animals to human life; Tags: cow, horse, sheep and so on. n. can meet the economic text on this branch of the economy; but hippopotamus, kangaroo, zebra — a vocabulary required in the textbook of zoology and geography (in the chapter on the fauna of the tropical countries) or in the description of the zoo. However, in practical translation work a little article about the likelihood and zoo and talk about it, at least one and the other can be an important priority, and to provide special reading textbooks small dictionary can not. If the words: dinner fork commonly used in everyday speech, and the words cereals, fats and so on. N. Can occur in the economic paper that affect nutrition and supply of the population, the vanilla, which surprisingly lucky in our dictionaries, and cinnamon, with cloves, which some in the paddock, oven, which usually include small dictionaries and kamforka, which often forget — all these are the words of a narrow use, the inclusion of which is relevant only in a large dictionary. After all, if we imagine that the content of a call transfer or require word vanilla, still find that a small dictionary does not provide the whole vocabulary of the context in which the word with the highest likelihood may be encountered. A typical example is the traditional inclusion in the DOT card suits no-name cards, card games, and so on. E., While in the short dictionary superfluous and that, and another, and a third, but in any case no real application can not find one in apart from the rest. On the other hand, words such as skorostnik, forestry, gathering, sselyat, decartelization, remilitarization, can not get into the dictionary on the basis of «most frequently used» or «vernacular»; however, they have to get into the dictionary — it follows from the above the main characteristics of the profile.
So in other words, does not require his inclusion in the dictionary for its intended value, may enter into general use in the composition of the idiom or laptop, for example, as a symbol of the vile jackal predator ostrich in the expression «the policy of the ostrich.» But in this case, this usage should be given in addition to the direct, and if this is not done, then the corresponding word with its literal translation is in the dictionary dead weight.
The principle of comprehensive selection, based on the practical issues of working with specific text, can be the basis for the solution of the problem and of the special terminology. It is necessary to realize the futility of the inclusion in the dictionary selected, randomly selected special terms. Take, for example, the terminology of linguistics. Word of the phoneme, voicing can meet only in special works on phonetics. But if the dictionary is designed to read such works, it requires thoughtful selection of dozens of terms; and if this can not be done, then there is no need to give and phoneme. On the other hand, as a bilingual dictionary should «not giving all that give other dictionaries (monolingual and terminology. — N. F.) still leads the reader to them, especially to the explanatory dictionary,» to the extent justified by the inclusion of even a small Dictionary of the few linguistic terms that are used as labels in the dictionaries of the language. Thus, a small dictionary (this is — without a doubt, but I think also great), not being able to provide a reading of the special literature, should generally be limited to that «special» terminology which is metabolized by a common language, and thus ceased to be just a special . However, this terminology to the dictionary common type is not as special terminology and words on a common language. The plug can not be given only Electrotechnical Vocabulary, and the front — in the military. Another example: the names of diseases such as typhoid, cancer, tuberculosis, are included in the dictionary because it is a commonly used word, not just medical terms. Colds, cough — and the usual words of everyday speech. Word dizziness, dislocation and used figuratively. But colic or stroke in a brief glossary of inclusion can not be, nor should be included no actual medical term, which belong only to special medical works. From this point of view, should not be put to the task of the compilers of the dictionary included in the Dictionary «special terms» in general, identifying this or that percentage that it should occupy.
But there is a notable number of special terms that, while remaining such, fall within the general language of the press, as this area of the economy, technology or science is of particular importance; walking excavator stepped into the general press from the moment the attention of the whole of our country rushed to the great construction projects of communism. Small dictionary should to some extent take into account such words and phrases, a term of art in the narrow sense.
As for the terms, which in its literal or figurative meaning became the property of a common language, their selection is based on the profile of the dictionary. Of course, with respect to the question of individual words can be unclear: it can not be solved by mechanical features and versatility. The boundary layer of special terminology, which went down in a common language is mobile: it depends on the level of development of culture, economy, technology, and therefore, it is different in one language at different times, and in the languages of different nations. It may be different due to the language and the time: for example, in the Russian language the planet — the word of a common language; in literature, particularly in poetry, often found several stylistically elevated expression of our planet (Wed Mayakovsky: «For the joy our planet is poorly equipped — we must snatch joy in the coming days»). The Japanese language is unambiguous word Ryu: Say — an astronomical term, just as special as ours, for example, the asteroid; semantic and stylistic equivalent expression of our planet in the Japanese Chikyu is the word — literally the globe. So if in a small Russian-speaking another language, including Russian, Japanese, dictionary word planet is appropriate, in a small Japanese-Russian dictionary as appropriate to dispense with the word Ryu: Sei (Planet). As in all other cases, the dictionary work in a specific decision on the inclusion of certain terms is required living knowledge and sense of language, combined with the general guiding principle. They, in this case should be, in the broadest sense that the composition of the dictionary of its practical purpose, ie. E. A clear understanding of the context in a broad sense, on the content of the text or speech, in which the term or word that stands on the border between the term and word of a common language, has a probability figure, and its inclusion only on condition that the possibility of understanding the vocabulary lexicon of the context as a whole.
Drawing glossary consists of two points. The first — the establishment of the principle of selection of words. Here the principle of the proposed line glossary of social and political profile of vocabulary and complex method of selection, with a clear awareness that in a small dictionary should enter the latest vocabulary, characteristic of the modern era, and that a small dictionary can provide the translation of literature. Second, — the choice of words, ensuring the completeness of the required profile dictionary vocabulary; in the process of selection formed the basis of the principle concretized and specified. The general principle could be the basis for glossary dictionaries of different languages, but the specific vocabulary compiled for each language in the department-ness. In foreign-Russian dictionaries it is made, of course, experts in this foreign language. And what must be drawn up in the vocabulary of Russian-foreign dictionaries? Is it advisable to Russian vocabulary was compiled by experts on the Japanese, Hungarian and English language, and, moreover, still each one individually? It is hardly necessary to specialists in a foreign language, a direct deal which give an accurate translation of the Russian material, were primarily concerned by this Russian material, t. E. The selection of relevant vocabulary, and that’s very important, the registration of the modern usage, t. E. developed in recent years, sustained phrases. Has matured to the establishment of a typical Russian glossary for Russian-foreign-language dictionaries, and of course, it is to the Russian language specialists have developed a vocabulary and its systematic replenished.
However, the question may be put is only Type glossary, as Russian vocabulary for Russian-foreign language dictionaries in particulars should vary depending on the second language. Some differences can make a word required specificity of life, culture, and political conditions in each country (for example, in the Russian-Japanese dictionary sweet potatoes, beriberi, Buddhism, and so on. F.), But they are unlikely to be more than a few dozen. More important another point, which is clearly manifested in one of the differences between the explanatory monolingual dictionaries and bilingual dictionary. Dictionaries without much damage in practical terms cut vocabulary by properly educated derivatives. DN Ushakov excluded from glossary «all adverbs are formed from the corresponding adjectives and the value of which is easily derived from these adjectives.» In the «Dictionary of Russian language» status. SIOzhegov, are not included in the basic vocabulary, and are only in the basic words, t. E. Still without explanation, nine bits of derivative words, including «relative adjectives derived from nouns and denote different kind of relationship to the subject (action) and the quality of property or arising from the relationship to the object (the action), «» proper return of verbs’, adverbs and others. Similarly enter Japanese dictionaries. In particular, they usually do not include any verbs formed from nominal basis through formative sura, although such verbs make up at least half of all the verbs of the modern Japanese language (and in journalistic and scientific style of a much greater part of them). Bilingual same dictionary can produce a reduction of derivatives only if the correct formation of derivatives in one language corresponds to an equally correct, uniform way of their education in another, which is not always the case. Here are a few illustrations. In Japanese, there is no return of collateral; Orientation of the lexical and, moreover, expressed in many ways. Therefore, in the Russian-Japanese dictionary verbs return the collateral can not be excluded. It transferred to the diverse Japanese Russian relative adjectives. The first — «a different kind of relationship to the object and effect» can be expressed in different forms, and secondly to express a relationship may exist more than one form. Very wide meaningfully genitive, but this form to transfer Russian relative adjective can be used with confidence only if and to the Russian language an adjective can be replaced with the possessive case of a noun, for example: the school (for the yard, on the construction) — Gakko: -But (school — Gakko :). Teki suffix, which forms adjectives, close to the Russian formed suffix -sk, with weak expression of the values of quality, it is safe to use only during the formation of the Japanese abstract nouns from adjectives, nouns and only those which are formed from the root of Chinese components: political (on the issue ) — Sei-dziteki (policy — Seiji). But such nouns in the function definition often do not require registration of grammar as an adjective, and form a defined compound word: political situation — Seiji-jo: tie. If the adjective has a value «in terms of anything, in the sense of something», a form of change: the political role of something) — seydzidzё: but. The following relationships are expressed in special forms: drink for anything, in anything, such as the Arctic (about clothes, but not about climate, not about the expedition) — kёkutiё: but (Arctic — kёkuti). It is meant for someone, something, for example, the student (about the magazine, which is issued to students and not students themselves) — gakuseymukino (student — gakusey); year (of the room) — natsumukino (summer — Natsu). Shaped something, such as a screw-rasendzёeno (screw — Rasen). Available color of something, such as a ruby - kogёkusёkuno (ruby — kogёku); Of course, if you mean ruby ruby, the transfer will be different. Consisting of a substance from something or close by the nature of the substance to something, such as a protein — tampakusitsuno (protein — Tampak) and so on. D. Listed here are only part of the possible «relationship to the subject matter» and only a portion of the corresponding forms in Japanese language. All these are the adjectives in the dictionary status. SIOzhegov excluded from glossary as a purely relative and given without explanation at the appropriate nouns. It should be a relative adjective acquire qualitative value, a translation of his change, and not always use the same noun: for example, the stone — consisting of stone: Yixing (Stone — ishi); on objects made of stone: isidzukurino, and in a figurative sense: ISI-but-young; gold — and composed and made of gold: Kinnow (or fire), gold in color: kinsёkuno, and in the value of the precious can be transmitted only by word kintёno — precious, t. e. Kinnow laptop does not matter. But this diversity of forms is not exhausted. A number of purely relative adjectives from nouns is not formed, the relevant Russian noun, but from synonymous, but is not used independently of the root component. For example, although school — Gakko :, but the school within the meaning of -upotreblyayuschiysya school (school supplies) — gakuё: but the ring of Japanese Islands and ring — rindzё: but, and so on. D. Finally, a large number of relative adjectives which together with its defined form stable combinations are transmitted in Japanese with a complex defined word: school age — gakurey and school worker — kyo: in.
Enough has been said, to make sure that a purely relative adjectives in the glossary Russian-Japanese dictionary can not be ruled everything, as is done in the glossary Russian Dictionary; the same must be said of many other categories of derivative words. In general, this situation is true for other Russian-foreign language dictionaries.
To a certain extent the same is true of the non-Estonian-Russian dictionaries. An example is the issue of excluding Japanese dictionaries verbs formant Sura. Formant this does not bring in any additional word meanings, he just takes it from one grammatical category to another. Therefore, these verbs are easily excluded from glossary Japanese dictionaries. But even exclude them from a small Japanese-Russian dictionary unacceptable. Small dictionary does not provide all the basic word stock, but thematically limited «section from the linguistic reality,» he should give as much as possible all relevant here lexicon, thus maintaining the correct proportions in all respects: the exclusion of verbs with Sura would create a distorted picture of astonishing poverty of Japanese verbs. In addition, these verbs with different match in the Russian language is not always fully understood without translation. Sura can form a verb and a transition, and intransitive, and not every meaning of the name of action (poten actionis) allows us to understand what is in this case the verb: kondzetsu — eradication, kondzetsusuru — eliminate, hatten — development hattensuru — to develop, not to develop, Jaca — destruction hakaysuru — to destroy and break down, to be destroyed. Verbs with sura can in Russian meet the whole phrase: Sindal — diagnosis sindansuru — diagnosis, dzissen — practice dzissen-Sura — to put into practice (and not practice or practice) bye: and — attention, bye: IRMS and be careful and pay attention. Finally, sometimes the word in Russian can be solved exactly in the form of the verb, not the name of Mo: sinsuru — rush headlong rush anything without disassembling the circle. The value corresponds to the name of the action is understandable, but it is so difficult to be expressed in Russian, that if the word is to meet the interpreter in a Japanese text in the form of name, any proposal to transfer will be rebuilt so as to convey the appropriate word verb, or translation will approximate what is permissible in context, but is highly undesirable in the dictionary. So, in the foreign-language-Russian dictionary the exclusion of any category of derivative foreign language can not be carried out indiscriminately, even if it was possible in the explanatory dictionary of the language.
Thus, the correct attitude toward educated derivatives inevitably leads to significant differences in the glossary between bilingual and relevant explanatory dictionary. And, as this ratio is determined by a second language, this question can not be resolved in a universal manner for the glossary of Russian-foreign language dictionaries.
These are the most common questions relating to small glossary of dictionaries.
II. Tackling phraseology
Directly to the glossary on the question of borders phraseology. Under this common name refers to the practice of lexicography disparate things: on the one hand, the freely constructed proposals, illustrating the value of free speech, on the other — all sorts of set phrases. These latter are the subject of further consideration.
One group of stable combinations of its exceptional importance for dictionaries should be allocated in particular: those attributive phrases that Acad. Vinogradov in his work «On the main types of phraseological units in Russian language» called a «compound term». Expressing the same concept, and thus becoming the equivalent of the word, carrying the nominative function, they are in determining the composition of the dictionary should be considered and treated on an equal basis with words. Technically speaking, they must migrate from the phraseology in the vocabulary. Neither Dictionary, however small it may be, making its «cut-out of the linguistic reality» can not be limited to «words householder» and overlook the category of «equivalent of the word.»
A small selection of dictionary terms should be determined by the constituent general profile of the dictionary so that any snow or Baba guinea pig in it, of course, no place. But at the same time in any bilingual dictionary, this selection is largely dependent on a second language. The Russian-foreign language dictionaries for Russian composite terms, apparently, should be presented particularly well as translating them for the most part is difficult; it can not be made by free translation components. Thus, in the Russian-Japanese dictionary have to give not only the composite terms, the components of which in one way or another deprived of its direct values (such as railways), but also those in which each of the components retains full sense (such as the peace movement ) as they are transferred in a special way: either a word (for example, the railroad — tetsudo public opinion — Yoron) or other components, for example, freedom of conscience — sinkё: but dziyu :, literally — freedom of religion, the peace movement — Haven-ёgo-undo :, literally — the movement to protect the world). Finally, there is a phenomenon that is analogous to the «related values» could be called «related equivalents», namely, some of the words are equivalent in another language corresponding to them only in certain idiomatic terms. For example, genron is the Japanese equivalent word for word only in two cases: the freedom of speech — but genron-dziyu: the power of words — but genron-Thi-Qar.
The non-Estonian-Russian dictionary for Russian, compound terms may be included in much smaller numbers than in the Russian-foreign language. They can be limited to those whose value does not arise from the clarity of the component values. When the components retain their direct value, an integral part of the concept, the term most, even if one of the components, and requires a special translation; for example, if by: shu: as the definition of public means, the public, and denva — phone, it is not difficult to guess that to: shu-DZNVA need to switch your phone for public use; just as it is easy-otozhestvit Japanese-Haven-ёgo undo: a Russian peace movement. However, when the Russian-matched compound term is a single word, in particular the special term, with all clarity foreign language combinations to find this Russian words sometimes resembles the process of solving a crossword puzzle, for example, rieki-Height: Boone is not necessary to translate the share of profits and dividend. Therefore, clearly, but are sent into one word compound terms should be incorporated in a foreign-Russian dictionaries. If the non-Estonian-Russian Dictionary is tailored to the interests of persons who do not know the Russian language, as it should provide ready-Russian translations, the number of compound terms to be included in the dictionary, increases dramatically.
Composite terms are created in a language continuously. Neoplasms of this type are extremely characteristic of the last decades. Join them and included in the dictionary of those who are difficult to translate from Russian or foreign understanding for bilingual dictionaries — a matter of great importance.
Next in importance for a brief dictionary are all those phraseological units — indifferent unity or fusion — which are housekeeping, t. E. Act as prepositions and conjunctions. Everyone knows that if there is a category of words, the greatest incidence of which is supported on any text, then this is the official word. Therefore, there is reason to think that performing their role phraseological units on the frequency of use are on the first place among all the other stable combinations. Therefore, even a brief glossary should include «equivalents words» of such nature as to force by (something), because, as yet, meanwhile, etc. N.
Generally all types of stable phraseological units are most important for inclusion in the dictionary type considered here, all those who, being stylistically neutral, are included in the basic fabric of the language. This definition is well suited to the two groups that have been allocated for the above grammatical features as mandatory for any dictionary: a deputy nouns t. E. Compound term and prepositional Union and sayings. On the other hand, it is easy to identify as an extra for a small dictionary of the idioms, in the broadest sense of the word, which is colloquial or emphasize conversational in nature and has the expressive coloring: leave on beans and a side full sun can also be left out, like overeat henbane or zero attention. The situation this applies equally to Russian-speaking another language and foreign-language-Russian dictionary — this kind of idiom is, I suppose, in any language. A small dictionary can not include everything, and if it is focused on texts and a certain kind of conversation, this idiom can donate the most painless. By the way, this kind of idiomatic, with proverbs and sayings, should be the content of individual dictionaries. Quite another thing are, at least, and completely unmotivated, a combination of full seam that lack specific conversational color and any special expression, such as the time, the matter is so-so, you never know who (where t. H.) etc.
It may seem that the allocation of the entire mass of stable combinations of the two groups as mandatory for any dictionary of grammatical features, and the exclusion of third-stylistic features is an elementary logical error — a violation of the division base. But it is not so, because the colloquial expressions expressive color among the first two groups does not happen — because the damn doll or a wet hen, of course, to composite terms do not apply.
The bulk of phraseological units, subject to the fullest possible inclusion in the dictionary, not counting the two abovementioned groups that make up stable verbal and attributive combination of all sorts: representing paraphrase verb (such as make a decision) and zameschayushie absent from the verb (such as adoption of a resolution); long-established erased images (such as to put at the forefront, the apple of discord, applause) and neoplasms such as to focus, to increase the pace. Takogo’roda phraseological units available, probably in all languages, partially are difficult to understand in a foreign language, but it is especially difficult to translate into a foreign language: they almost never yield the free transfer of components, and not all of them can be easily replaced synonymous and freely translatable word or expression. Therefore, as much as the writer should strive to avoid those clichés, a bilingual dictionary must strive to reach them. After all, the very transformation of these expressions in the stamps shows their common coined by; therefore, the translator, in all probability, have to deal with them. To improve the practicality of vocabulary, especially Russian-foreign language dictionaries for Russian, the expansion of this type of phraseology is no less important than the expansion of the glossary. In any case, almost more important to allow the interpreter to use the dictionary included the right word in the right context, ie. E. In familiar phrases, rather than included in the vocabulary words that do not match the profile of the dictionary of lexical meaning or stylistic coloring. On the other hand, the discharge of stable combinations of the above type, as well as composite terms, during the last decades has undergone changes and replenished neoplasms. But in determining the profile of the dictionary already indicated that the maximum fullness of those elements that are characteristic of modern language and make something new that distinguishes it, is exactly what can make the dictionary linguistic value.
Bilingual dictionary may require the phraseology, the need for which arises from comparing the two languages - for example, a mismatch word boundaries. Thus, in the Russian-Japanese dictionary have to give a number of combinations available with the addition of a verb or a noun with the definition because it corresponds to the Japanese one word to join the party — nude: that: Sura peacetime — heydzi. In contrast, the Japanese phrase, it is clear from the values of its components, may correspond to one word lo-Russian: dzinko: -but about: st be Translation — densely populated, but not with a large population, but the ISI-A: First — rocky, not with numerous stones. About phraseology due to translation requirements, it should be treated separately. While we can confine ourselves to stating that the bilingual dictionary and the composition of the phraseology will inevitably be different from intelligent monolingual; this difference shall be composed and availability of combinations required for translation reasons, and in the absence of illustrative examples, only one task — to show the functioning of words in any text value on the living: for illustrative phraseology in a bilingual dictionary almost never enough space.
Given the enormous importance of language for any kind of stable phraseological units and the need to include phraseology required bilingual dictionary, we must assume that the concept of «short dictionary» should not be seen as it actually happens when other dictionaries in the 20-25 thousand words do not give much no phraseology. Dictionary with so many words is «short» on the size of the glossary, but that does not mean that it is permissible to restrict to a minimum the development of the meanings of words or related material phrasebook. Poverty leads to the development of that vocabulary, especially Russian-foreign-language, is known for its part in the dead list of words unsuitable for free use, and does not provide a full understanding and translation of the text or conversation. From this viewpoint, the ratio should be set between the number of words to the glossary and the size of the dictionary as a whole. And from this point of view, it should be determined by the main direction of extension of the translated material in the middle of the lexical dictionaries, following the brief.
III. Accommodation phraseology
It is impossible not to touch a fairly urgent problem, which is closely associated with the inclusion of all kinds of sustainable Dictionary phraseological units — the question of where to put them. This question may seem a minor technical detail, but in fact permit it due to some fundamental points, and so is not just that, it seems, there is no dictionary, which would be before the end of sustained any single principle of accommodation phraseology satisfying and preparers and users of dictionary. Criticism on this occasion we hear constantly. Dictionaries are usually silent about the principle adopted in their accommodation phraseology — you can suspect that this omission is due to a lack of any articulated principles. The exception is, it seems, the only one, «the Russian-French dictionary,» ed. LV Shcherba where the rules of use written, «given under the expression of the words, their constituents, which is the most characteristic combinations; so that the driver is given a passenger passenger and a coffee grinder mill. » This wording is even illustrated one example of a group of stable combinations of leaves enough space loss. Let’s see how it is applied in practice. Permissible to assume that the «typical» word in conjunction sleeper is sleeping, and in combination baggage car, train hard, soft wagon — wagon. Check this assumption fails only in relation to the last combination, as all four are the word train, and the first three, and again when the respective adjectives. Combinations of railway (which of the two components are considered «typical»?) No, under a tin or a road — this phrase is given in alphabetical order by first component in a series of single words, between a piece of iron and railroad; but the political economy and the red corner are not worthy of such an honor, and given twice under their constituents. Twice under both components is given, and the Milky Way, although like the Milky might be called «characteristic word.» A threefold term goldsmith given three times at each of the three components. Examples are taken at random, they are easy to multiply. All of this — the picture, familiar to many dictionaries, and lighting it was taken Russian-French dictionary, only to show that the principle stated in the introduction of single rooms stable combinations could provide support to the compilers of the dictionary.
We have to hear other proposals: putting sustainable phraseological units under the «support» word; to place them under the first component. The following is an attempt to show, firstly, that no satisfactory general rule can not be created — placing phraseological units should be determined by their type; second, that the assertion that all double room phraseological units have excess or negligence, inappropriate. Putting stable combinations for each of their components in many cases requires the very essence of bilingual lexicographical work. To prove this below discusses some phraseological group.
Among verbal stable combinations can they highlight the value of such a discharge: the combination of a noun to a verb denoting action, the idea of which is closely associated with the noun. They in turn are divided into two groups.
The first group is a verbal noun or verb — the type of decision or action, and the combination means the exercise of the action expressed by this noun: to make a decision to take action. Some of these combinations is a paraphrase of the verb: to decide the same resolve. Such verbal combination is like a verb synonymous splitting into two parts: one expressing its lexical meaning — the name, and another that performs its grammatical function — verb. It must be noted, however, that a combination of verbal and substitutability and verb synonymous limited. In some cases, the name, with the ability to determine the adjective allows a broader characterization of action than it allows the verb adverb. Therefore, although the victory is tantamount to win, but to win a complete victory is hardly amenable to replacement by quite win and maintain an interesting conversation and can not be replaced at all interesting to correspond. In other cases, a combination of a verb is not quite synonymous with the verb: to put an end not that finish, finish, and even not quite the same as to do away with (something); impose conditions not what make arrangements. Such combinations, therefore, can not be attributed to a simple paraphrase of verbs. But anyway, next to one of the verbal part of the combinations are relatively synonymous verbs, next to another such verbs is not. In the latter case, the combination of the verb as it replaces the missing in the verb: decision and resolution are almost synonymous, but to adopt a resolution equivalent to decide and adopt a resolution — the verb is indispensable. However, in one respect, these combinations are the same verb: verbs are more or less devoid of lexical meaning. This phenomenon in general have long been drawn to the attention. So, Mr. Winokur said that «in certain circumstances, the real meaning of the verb disappears and turns into a dependent verb word, acquiring all the hallmarks of a formal element of speech … It also includes some fossilized verbal metaphors, like» negotiate", «take measures" and a long list of other transitive verbs that do not have a specific meaning without their subjects and additions. » This «semantic flawed,» as it calls Vinokurov, does not always translate into «emptiness.» The uniqueness of the combination to pass a resolution and submit a resolution suggests a total loss of the lexical meaning of the verb. Resolution and accept and tolerate the verdict only tolerate, limit and put and set the beginning and end only put restrictions and conditions only pose — all this serves to illustrate how unimportant lexical — both direct and portable — meaning of the verb in that they hand. Probably in the history of the language is the use of these verbs to describe these actions are explained, but the modern consciousness is unmotivated, and therefore unlikely to successfully call such verbal combination «fossilized metaphors.» In other cases, lexical meaning verb perceptibly more or less, for example, coupled to pay attention. Yet, if we compare it with the role of the verb in expressions draw the energy for anything, pay all my love to someone, it is noticeable that in the first case, the lexical meaning weakened. Indeed, in the second and third cases pay interchangeably through direct, in the first case it is possible only in the sense to draw someone’s attention to something, but not in the sense of note — namely, in this sense to pay attention to is the implementation of the action, designated a noun, and only for him, it is a combination of verbal noted.
In the second group of combinations of verbal noun refers to a substantive concept, but a combination of all means use the object for its intended purpose. Often such combinations are free, and therefore they can not be called stable, and it is possible only due to the frequency of use, as ordinary mentioned repeating. In such cases, the verb is lexically them quite complete, such as in combinations of tea, listen to the radio, which differ from any other available combinations of the verb with the addition of only the fact that they have given life to a noun and a tea party listener. However, in some cases, and in such combinations lexical meaning of the verb is weakened. For example, in conjunction skating opportunity to replace the verb verb ski run without changing the value of the combination as a whole, shows the superiority of the values of some of the noun, so that an accurate representation of the action is created only by the interaction of the two components. And to put in combinations to put the thermometer, put yellow card, put a samovar, set sail only means to do what it takes to the subject could be used for other purposes, and the specific nature of the action is understandable only in conjunction with the supplement. The lexical contribution to the value of this verb combinations * generally incomparably smaller than in the case of skating, but it is not part of such a grammatical combination as a whole, which is to maintain or to paraphrase verbs correspond and signal — to correspond and give the signal. Yet it should be noted that the combination of the second group, t. E., Where the noun has a substantive value, weakening the lexical verb cases are rare.
For the bilingual dictionary stable combinations of this type are of interest as far as, unlike free combination lexically verb and full complement, they can not be translated literally; with respect to the first group, it is usually, as with the second — partially. Accordingly, the predominant role of lexical noun retains its value and its permanent transfer, the impossibility of literal translation only applies to the verb. Thus, the Russian combinations of such a verbal or verbal noun in Japanese often correspond to a verbs formed name, which is the equivalent of Russian noun and verb formant Sura, for example, in a lecture — to Guy, a lecture — to: gisuru at struggle — that: to wage a struggle — that: to: Sura, and so on. n. Incidentally, such a correspondence course, as and Russian verbs in these cases, as mentioned above, are in the grammatical noun appendage. Only in the Russian language of some verbs: to take, to lead, to, put, and so provide. D., And the Japanese have a nearly universal — Sura. But it happens that such a Russian verb combination corresponds to a similar Japanese, which literally repeated only a noun, for example: take action — sёti-on to: Dzur (primary importance to: Dzur — to make clear) to order — meyrey-on Kudasov (basic value Kudasov — down, Wed. modern — down directives, but in this expression of Russian verb has a much more full lexical meaning), to give an example — Ray of Agar (Agar main value — to raise).
When comparing Russian and Japanese verb combinations with subject noun appears that a significant portion of them in both languages is a free combination, and in another part of the lexical verb is defective or is associated in any one language. Thus, the combination of playing chess with a full Russian verb to play matches in the Japanese Shogi-on utsu where utsu deprived of a full-fledged lexical meaning (of utsu see below). verbs inverse relationship occurs in combination — to put banks and kyu: kaku about tsukeru (tsukeru literally — put).
All stable combinations of this type, in which the verb translated ‘freely, should be placed in the dictionary. But where? At what word?
The first answer: the noun. Not because they have something to add in relation to the disclosure of a noun or its equivalent in another language. But because they are one of the most frequent cases of its use, it is one of the most common contexts. Do not let the word attention — pay attention at the word the question in one of his meaning to ask the question in another place (to raise) the question, with the word chess — play chess — is to doom using a dictionary to ensure that hundreds of times to look for the right combination of elsewhere, often with the verb, which has several meanings, is part of a series of stable combinations, where just this oochetanie not so fast, you can find (yes well even if use a dictionary to guess it to look, and not take advantage of the translation of the verb in its literal sense) . Therefore, from a practical point of view, the combination of persistent verbal, lexical center of which is a noun, you have to give when the noun. Yes, so it is usually in the dictionary with more or less developed phraseology done.
The second answer: the verb. These combinations are directly related to the disclosure of the values of verbs, especially those which are widely used for the «service» of nouns. Combinations decide to take action, to participate, to put in communication, to raise the issue, and so on. D. Can and should fully return to their respective noun. But is it possible to give a correct picture of the system of meanings of the verb take on his life in the language, if silent about the fact that he is «a combination of forms Some nouns meaning» produce some action"… In accordance with the value of a noun. » And if we consider that Russian-foreign-language equivalents Russian Dictionary gives the word, and in these combinations take translates, for example, the Japanese language is different, whether that is possible, without causing them to give a full picture of the Japanese equivalent of the verb?
In conjunction with the subject noun verb can be more specific, but the associated value. Acad. Vinogradov identified related values like those that «may appear only in relation to a strictly limited number of concepts and their verbal designations.» Naturally, this is strictly a limited range and must be listed in the dictionary. An indication of the possible additions is particularly important in one case. In «phraseological groups formed implementation unfree related meanings of words,» You can discern the different lexical component ratio. Combined besprosypnoe drunkenness lexical Weighted both words, although the first has a narrowly limited range of use. Word droop, screw up clear and without amendments. If you recall the expression of his visor, you can see that in combination takes longing, anger, and so takes. D. The value of the whole sum of the value of parts. But another matter related values, such as verbs shoot break. The claim that shoot means to produce and break — arrange causes instant internal protest, which removed reminder supplements: to shoot — Merck imprint mold, a copy of the plan and so on. N .; picture; to break — a tent camp, a garden, beds and so on. n. Perhaps permissible assertion that the shooting does not mean to produce, or rather, do not remove the means to produce and phraseological combinations shoot up, remove the mold and so on. d. mean to produce a copy of the , manufacturing mold and so on. n. In other words, the verb in these combinations lexical lives entirely at the expense of supplements. Only one of them is absorbed (the photo in the original combination photo shoot), he began to live a second, full and free life. How can you give an idea of the role of the verb shoot and its Japanese equivalent, if fully distribute these phrasal combinations of a noun?
So, the question of where to place these combinations are two answers, or rather one answer — put them twice, and the noun and the verb. Of course, the repetition of such combinations may be somewhat reduced. Firstly, sometimes can not provide them with nouns (e.g., they can be safely omitted in some of the above additions verbs removed and split); Second, you can often restrict the verb referring to the possible additions, in which these combinations are given. But at least in this form, the repetition of the verb mainly required; to do this, it means to reveal the full meaning of the verb and to concentrate in one place it transfers or even a reference to them. Give them as a noun, it means to save time enjoying the dictionary, which otherwise would have to browse the dictionary in search of what he naturally waited to find under the appropriate nouns. On saving these lost minutes, emerging with long-term use of a dictionary of thousands of people in the whole «man-hours» to forget the luckless zealots save paper by the quality of the dictionary, to raise the cry of repetition in any dictionary of idiomatic combinations.
We can not say no to illustrate the material non-Estonian-Russian dictionary. For example, in the Japanese language has several verbs that Japanese dictionaries are especially polysemy: it is attributed to thirty values. The major importance of each of them — the indication of a particular gesture. In fact, by themselves, these verbs have a very small number of free and associated values; mainly the same way they are used in conjunction with a number of additions; verbs here are more or less lexical flawed, indicating the different actions, the real nature of which depends on the value additions. Depending on the greater or lesser loss of lexical meaning (direct or laptop — indifferent to) the verb in such combinations is either almost like oglagolivayuschy appendage or a combination of all idiomatic.
For example, the verb Kakeru has the following values are available: hanging, hang, cover, cover (something); sprinkle, spray (something); vzveshivat (on the scale); multiplied by (mathematically); to sit (the person); spend (only «time» and «money.») In addition, Kakeru is part of a series of stable combinations, such as: Wan-o Kakeru — set the trap (noun translated literally everywhere); dzey-o Kakeru — tax; dempo: -o Kakeru — send a telegram; denva-o Kakeru — call; ёbidasi-o Kakeru — place a call; Icarus on Kakeru — anchor; Kigali about Kakeru — offer prayers; kotoba-o Kakeru-pay word to anyone, to speak to anyone; Kura: -o Kakeru-deliver excitement and concern; Mando: -o Kakeru: — delivering concern; Hopes of Kakeru— ask a riddle; nasake-o Kakeru — to have someone sympathy (literally nasake feeling); Nozomi-eru- about how to count; seme-o Kakeru (deprecated) — set the siege; toi-o Kakeru — to ask the question, and others. What is the name of the main activities related to the amendments, it is clear from the fact that many of the above combinations in other languages, for example, in Russian, corresponds to the verb of the same root as the noun: to impose, telegraph, telephone, calling, praying, worry, worry, bother to think, to sympathize, to hope, to besiege, to ask. Include Dictionary makes these combinations Nondeducibility their values from the available values of the verb; when putting the noun — very frequent use of the noun with the verb (because with it expresses the main action associated with it). But clearly that’s not to mention the combination of the verb, is not to give an idea of his character role in the language. Worse still ascribe to it as free those values that he gets only in combination next to the complement. So usually do Japanese dictionaries, for example, one of the best dictionaries «Dzien», edited Simmura in which the verb Kakeru assigned 25 values. Just after the Japanese sensible act and Japanese-English dictionaries. For example, one of the best — Takenobu — interspersed with free Kakeru gives the following values: 8. hire, engage, call; 10. set, lay (a trap); 12. give (a person trouble), and so on. D. It is obvious that even if the connectivity of these «values» is stipulated, it still gives the wrong idea about the verb. So naught, and this form of development: to put (trap); send (telegram, call); call); throw (anchor); to ask (a question, riddle), and so on. d. This form gives a distorted picture of the lexical independence in these combinations are not only Japanese, but also Russian verbs (this is especially palpable in the verb to ask). Therefore, it is impossible to fully enumerate the verb these combinations should indicate: «The image of some combination of nouns, which means perform an action within the meaning of the noun-see. Wang, dzey, Dempo denva :, and so on. d. «; This will not only give the correct picture of one of the functions of the lexical verb, but also opens the possibility to understand its application in similar combinations are not included in the dictionary.
Almost the same role as Kakeru plays utsu verb, the main value is to beat, strike. However, the stable combination of its lexical meaning is much brighter than the verb Kakeru. The nature of the two verbs can be illustrated by comparing the three-one combination: dempo: -o utsu, dempo: -o Kakeru, dempo: -o Okur — to send a telegram. In the latter verb Okura — used to send in its direct meaning free. In the first verb utsu similar Russian verbs to beat the combined sound the alarm, used in the original literal sense — to tap out the telegram that the value received a telegram. Finally, in the latter case applied defective lexical verb, with a total value of «perform an action according to the value additions.» Combined with utsu also natural to repeat in the noun and, at least in the form of links to the noun, the verb, for the reasons set out above in the analysis of the verb Kakeru.
Now consider the question of the terms of the composite in terms of the possibility of a double room in a dictionary.
Not only in Russian-French dictionary LV Scherba, but also in other dictionaries, particularly in the Russian-Japanese, the combination of a sleeping car, baggage car, train hard and soft carriage are twice under both components. Why is that? The Russian-Japanese dictionary they are placed under the noun because the word syarё :, which is given as the first translation of the word car is a technical term used in the railway business. The text of a general nature for the translation of the word car is necessary to resort to words denoting the more restrictive terms — certain types of cars. This is indicated, first of all, the litter in the corresponding word in syarё :, the second is the next two transfer kyakusya and Kasia with a reverse transfer of passenger and freight labels and, thirdly, the presence of immediately six Japanese words corresponding Russian combinations : sleeper, baggage car, and so on. d. When adjectives sleeping and luggage these combinations placed second here’s why: Both these adjectives have a very narrow range of applications, t. e. may be determined by a small number; Meanwhile, their translation in isolation does not provide any of the major cases of drug use. If the sleeper — Sindal, sleeper — Sinday and bedding — Yaga, the giving isolated word translation sleeping too much, but to give it and restrict it, it would be to simply understand the problem translation dictionary. Regarding hard words, in this combination it is applied it is not free, and in this case, as usual, requires special transfer. Giving the translation of this adjective in its free values, of course immediately to the Japanese and compliance in one of the very best-selling cases of its application in which these translations can be used. So compliance is a word that serves as a translation Russian combination as a whole and, by the way, opened and synecdoche combined hard wagon — to: sёsya — literally train hard beds (Wed fr., Wagon a banquettes non rambourres) respectively soft wagon — nansёsya.
This example demonstrates the main reason for the double space compound term: the need for each component of the display range of its application and to all the foreign-language equivalents which allow translation of the word in context. In the other cases, each of the components maintains its value and these combinations do not add to the sense of its opening (van), in other cases, translation combinations prevents the possibility of misunderstanding, and hence the translation of this component in the combination (hard car).
Obviously, if a compound term in one language into another language corresponds to one word, it should be given under the term of each constituent. Explanatory monolingual dictionaries can be limited to the link, but the translation of bilingual dictionary in a word, apparently, easier to repeat the translation itself, you make a link. If, as is often the case, only one of the components changes its direct value or permanent transfer, we can restrict placement of the composite term once, namely, in this case is: freedom of conscience, only a conscience, that according to the value of the second word in this case translates sinkё : -but dziyu; t. e. freedom of religion; Freedom of speech is only a word, as though its meaning is not changed, but the Japanese equivalent of it in this particular case: genron-but dziyu :. If it is carried out consistently the principle of steady reduction of such combinations, at least at that of the components to be translated which in this combination can not take advantage of its permanent transfer, is using the dictionary can have confidence that the absence of any compound term (from the circle vocabulary covered by the dictionary ) means the ability of its literal translation.
The same motives can push for a double room and shaped the unity and adhesions, especially those that are in the nature of service or auxiliary words and therefore widely commonplace. That at least is a fusion, it is necessary to indicate the development of speech and an extreme measure and because it is determined by one of the specific and common use cases and that, and another word. In particular, it should be done when a fusion is translated in a word, such as Japanese, at least — or bitch-nakutomo samete.
We can not bring one additional arguments in favor of such a double room units. There are words that are the center of a rich idiom, for example, in the Russian language the word language in Japanese — scullery — mouth. Of course, this must be concentrated in the idioms such words as she describes their special role in the language. But precisely because idioms when they are very much at work on the text just right can be difficult to find. The secondary space for the second component facilitates the use of a dictionary. In addition, this second component is sometimes’ is less common words, and using a dictionary rather inquire about the meaning of this particular word in a foreign language, perhaps without knowing it idiomatic expressions. From this point of view, if necessary, restrict the link, such a link is sometimes better to do with the basic words.
But in general, if necessary, for reasons of saving paper, limited to a single location such phraseological units, it is difficult to find any general rule, such a restriction, and the least acceptable mechanical principle premises combinations of their first element. For example, the above has been observed that if a word is sharply distinguished abundance idioms in which it occurs, it is natural to focus with him all idioms, regardless of whether the word is in it first or second, will it bite language or do not dare to say. Generally, when a phraseological unit is the word which by its lexical Weighted dominates the whole combination, so-called «support» the word, it is as if attracts a combination of: a bone of contention is not the kind of apple, and the entire expression is natural to see if word strife (although the word Apple wants to mention it is because this component is losing its direct value). But in terms of the dispute because of the damn, damn, using the term LV Scherba, is «typical» and the word is infrequent that in any dictionary it is necessary only for that expression, and which should be given by it. (By the way, here’s a case where it is clear that a person who knows little Russian, will look for the word damn, and not a dispute). Finally, if phraseological unit includes only one significant word, naturally given combination under them than under the particle: nevertheless at least, not then. Thus, with a single room phraseological units of a place can be determined by various moments, and so the compiler or editor of a dictionary has to address this issue specifically for each case, of course, guided by general considerations, but at the same time relying on their living knowledge and flair language .
These are the most common concerns about the rational constraint location and specifics of lexical material in our modern small bilingual dictionaries.