If you look at the way we prepared oriental shots in the last two or three decades, it is immediately struck by one indisputable fact: we have ensured that one of your universities began to leave people who know they are studying Oriental languages satisfactorily owning them practically. In connection with the duties of the chairman of the State Examination Commission at the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies, I had the opportunity over the years to observe, with some knowledge of the language out students graduating from this institution. I always had a great pleasure to establish that the exam majority of graduating sufficiently fluent in the target language, easy to perform the duties of translators from Oriental languages into Russian and back, without much difficulty retold on the eastern language content just read an article from a Russian magazine or newspapers were able to express in Russian content immediately scanned notes from a magazine or newspaper in the target language of the east. In short, they found themselves owning oriental languages to match the degree that gave them the opportunity to start any practical work related to the language, and subject to a more or less continuous language practice in the country of the target language — and the ability to completely master this language. This is such a good practical training in language is usually connected with a good knowledge of the study of the country — its political system, economic conditions, its recent history and this knowledge to create the best foundation for a true understanding of the language, for the conscious and skillful possession.
The test me in these cases satisfaction was all the more complete that to me in my own experience it was well known what went in that respect students orientalists in pre-Soviet times. The main focus of training of Orientalists was at that time the Faculty of Oriental Languages of St. Petersburg University. I myself came out of this department, and I can say that we are all ending it acquired a working knowledge of the language is spoken only in the country during the practiced when the summer holiday training faculty trips, mostly the same way — at the end of the course as a result of a fairly long stay in the country to whom it fell to the lot — or in connection with service work, or in the course of preparation for scientific work. In other words, a working knowledge of the language battered by their own efforts, the faculty of practical knowledge is not given and did not try to give. True, there were the so-called lecturing classes, t. E. Classes spoken language with the «lecturers» as they were called in the university hierarchy had no academic qualifications teachers spoken language, teaching students native to itself language, but these classes, by the way, is very limited by the number of hours were always somewhere in the back of the curriculum, and no one — neither the faculty nor students did not attach importance to them. And they themselves «speakers» there were genuinely astonished if among them to present themselves to the audience turned out to be some eccentric, really want to learn how to speak their language nx. Therefore, the fact that the requirement of practical knowledge of the language has long been our usual and necessary part of training students Orientalists, must be considered one of the most important achievements of our university for Oriental was in Soviet times.
Another, equally important achievement of our university training in this line is the above mentioned connection is required knowledge of the modern language of the countries of the East with a good knowledge of that country — in its present state. By his own language experience, the experience of the teacher I can say that such knowledge provides the proper direction in the acquisition of vocabulary, set phrases in the assimilation, in the choice of expressions causes an informed and confident use of this language. It should be the achievement of our university training religiously preserve and fully develop them.
It should be added that a working knowledge of the language is necessary not only for the performance; it is also necessary for those who later became a research worker. It is difficult to imagine, for example, Arabist, doing research in the field of new Arabic language and none can thus turn to their own living knowledge of the language. It is hard to imagine Sinologist linguist, easily readable text Confucian classics and hard-versed in the works of Mao Zedong. Own the language experience is necessary, because there are times when only he can act as the «supreme judge» in determining that the language is possible and what is impossible.
As has already been said, is the knowledge we have in common is acquired, and only requires a decisive change in the direction of a sharp increase in the number and duration of training trips in the country the language is spoken: the only way to strengthen and expand, to make a truly living language skills acquired in school ; in this way it strengthens and expands, becomes truly alive and knowledge of the country itself.
But there is one side of the Oriental training, which in recent years far behind — it philological training.
Philological preparation requires the study of the language, not only in its present state, but throughout its history; it requires not only a study of the eastern side of which is selected as the primary specialty, but along with him and other oriental languages, one way or another associated with it; It requires the construction of this study on the basis of a broad historical, based on a thorough study of the history of the people, — the carrier of the language, the history of its culture.
The concept of language learning based on his stories, in connection with the history of the people, the history of its culture, should be extended to the current state of the language. History is present and acts in the language currently in the same extent that it acted in it and five thousand years ago, but this action is now seen much more clearly the researcher, clearer and brighter than the pluperfect. Read only the study of philology of old linguistic monuments, as it was in the past, our Oriental Studies, in our time is already unacceptable. Should broaden the scope of philology and understand that the study of any modern, printed in the printing language of the document can be the same philological work, no less «respectable» and scientifically significant. Modern languages, modern text must enter into the orbit of philological science armed with his rights on the scientific study of philology.
The scientific basis on which to build the work of the philologist, is given in the Stalinist doctrine of language: in this doctrine contains all the important terms and for the construction of Soviet philology.
Only in this way to avoid dangerous mistakes, which warned of the possibility of Stalin: error identification, mixing language with culture. «Culture and language — said Stalin — two different things.»
Situation two: learning a linguistic monument, we must remember that the language is associated with all large and diverse human activities, that he is «…
The ability to see the study of the language of the monument and, with the help of the language of the monument all the various activities of society — a necessary condition for fruitful philological work.
But at the same time we should not forget that no matter what dialect, whatever the jargon, this monument may have been written, these dialects and jargons are only branches of a common language — the language of nationalities at one stage, the language of the nation — on the other. To put it figuratively, it should not be allowed to because we did not see the trees of the forest.
Needless to say that the old Russian oriental philology did not have such a strong scientific and theoretical basis. It is guided by quite uncertain, vague in its content of cultural-historical principle. During the reign of «exercises» Marr on the site of cultural-historical principle became vodvoryatsya supposedly Marxist, but in reality — a vulgar-sociological principle. Today we were able to build a philological study of linguistic monuments on such principles, which provide a genuine scientific character of our conclusions.
It goes without saying that the construction of the philological research? on this scientific foundation it requires the development of new theoretical foundations of philological science and practical experience of the work itself, and that means — and quite a long time. Therefore, look for a philology in our oriental schools currently premature, especially since, as mentioned above, the general situation of philology still leaves much to be desired: some oriental schools it do not, in the other’s position greatly weakened .
In fact, the Oriental philological work — scientific publication monuments language of different nations and epochs, annotated translations and studies of these monuments, both literary and historical — are the glory of our domestic oriental studies, a period of stagnation of Soviet linguistics became, unfortunately, appear significantly less. This means that the oriental philology during those years has lagged behind the overall growth of the Soviet Oriental Studies. This means that no longer appear the type of orientalist-philologist generalists who are rightly proud of our oriental studies in the past.
Save this situation is unacceptable and beyond. Oriental Philology should again pick up on new scientific basis; must rebuild on this basis and Oriental philological education. It trebueteya our reality, our cultural development, it is necessary to our science. However, these two requirements are impossible to isolate us: the interests and needs of science, we are inextricably intertwined with the challenges of life.
It is not difficult to cite several facts pointing to the need to develop our eastern philology.
Those brotherly relations established between all the peoples of the Soviet Union, causing great attention to each of these people to the culture of others. On this basis, there is an intensive process of penetration in the cultural life of the peoples of the Soviet East, Russian culture, Russian literature, both classical and new, Soviet. No less intense is and insight into the culture of the Russian people of all valuable, that created the fraternal peoples of the Soviet East. The best works of literature translated into Russian, are close to us, Russian. This applies not only to the fact that these nations created at the moment; our focus extends to the cultural heritage of these peoples, sometimes, even very distant. We are close to the names of the great poets of the past, some of which are truly worthy of world fame. Suffice it to recall how expensive all of us have become names Rustaveli, Nizami, Navoi is firmly established in our common treasure of literary and more of the precious heritage of the past of the peoples of the Soviet East. But this heritage can raise only with the help of philology. This is truly the broadest arena for its activities!
Indeed. Due to the nature of written fixation and dissemination of literary works in the East researcher is usually dealing with manuscripts, with various lists, and the first thing that is needed is — to set the text itself. Huge painstaking Mr. demanding job that requires a genuine philological skill! But — this is only the first step: further the work on the interpretation of the monument on the disclosure of its true content, its historic «face» of his ideas, his artistic side. There needs researcher who would and linguist and literary critic, and historian. This is called a philologist and scholar.
Do we need such philologists? It is absurd to ask this question: we all know how great literary heritage of the peoples of the Soviet East and how little it has been studied. And it’s not limited to one fiction. How many more have to raise monuments of history, philosophy, science! In 1952, all progressive mankind, and above all the peoples of the Soviet Union, will be solemn and grateful to celebrate the memory of Ibn Sina, or Avicenna as he used to call the West. In 1952, he sang the thousandth anniversary of his death. Are we not obliged to show to the anniversary of this great Central Asian scholar of the Middle Ages at least in its most important creations? And most of the work here can perform exactly the philologists, Orientalists.
I think that the cause is still no need examples. Clearly, philologists Orientalists we need, that their work has a solid ground, she can get such a scale, such social significance of’ve never had before. Thus I repeat: we must be fully prepared philology not only to properly represent us Navoi, but in order to truly show and Jambul: the difference here only in the aspects of the philological work, its reception, but not in its essence.
The point, however, is not limited to only one of the Soviet East. The peoples of the Soviet Union, with equal care and respect for the cultural heritage and other peoples of the East. Take, for example, China.
We’re seeing now, with some attention to what we are interested in Chinese literature, the works of contemporary Chinese writers. Recently, there was a flow of remittances. And these translations once again showed how necessary philological science and here.
Needless to say, there are works that have translated quite well. But most of those who moved far from satisfactory. It is impossible to think that even the modern Chinese translation of the novel can be taken only if you know something like the modern Chinese language, which can be translated, constantly referring to the dictionary. You must be able to assess language writer in light of the overall development of Chinese modern times; you must be able to see the specific language, stylistic devices of the writer on the basis of general knowledge of the Chinese language style; you need to understand the «spirit of the age», as reflected in this work, given that only a good knowledge of life Paroda, its culture, with all its traditions and with all the new things it made modernity. In short, in order to be eligible to take the transfer, you must have the proper philological training. But it, as stated above, Pasha Oriental Education gives very weak.
Against this general background of the lack of a truly educated Sinologists philologists we appear ‘translations from the Chinese, «especially — poetic, signed the names of people who had nothing to do with the fact that the Chinese philology, but in general the Chinese language and literature in history had. The mechanics of such «translation» we know: produced a surrogate translation, called «pony», produced at the same time some persons, which include an expression that characterizes the Japanese myth of Japanese gods, «they do exist, but their figures are hidden» — in This eluchae «ozhet be not accountants publishers, but in any case from other mortals. This translation surrogate or semi-finished product arrives later in the finishing shop of a writer, a poet, who turns it into fabrikat. In this case, that manufacturer interlinear understand the text a little more than what he tells Dictionary, as for the «interpreter», he and the original is not available at all.
There are examples of that in this way «translate» and pamyatiiki poetry of the past, t. E. That especially requires special training. In order to assess the facts on the merit, let us imagine for a moment a case: Suppose that someone barely aware of the modern Italian language and even knows how to read fluently contemporary Italian newspaper takes «Divine Comedy» and produces «crib»; which then appears a poet who does not have the slightest idea about the Italian language, knows Italy only but press reports and, of course, clearly can not imagine either Dante or his age, and the poet shifts crib in poetry the best of their powers and abilities, and to your liking. Of course, with Dante we have this can not happen. Why it could happen to Navoi? Or Li Bai?
Of course, we must be grateful to the genuine cultural master of his craft, who have given us translations Navoi though through the crib. They deserve full respect for his enormous talent and labor. It is well known that these masters have made every effort to understand the original, his spirit, to understand the author himself. But these little masters. And — most importantly — it can not be considered by this advancement in our culture treasures of Oriental literature.
Looking for translators and commentators philologists. And they need to be not enough. After all, the essence of Oriental culture treasure trove for us now only truly reopened. When it opens at all, we will see that it is truly inexhaustible. Chinese literature written monuments has been two and a half thousand years of continuous development. And how many thousands of existing literature of the Indian people?
We need linguists, orientalists, educated, cultured, talented, and sensitive to the Soviet attitude towards a truly valuable in the culture of the East — and in the field of art, and historiography, and science. It is necessary to prepare such philologists on the scientific basis, as discussed above, almost How to organize such a philological Oriental Education?
Firstly, it should be organized in the overall system of literary education, which is a hotbed of philological -fakultety our universities. Time Special «Oriental Faculty» was. Now there is no scientific reason to separate the oriental philology of philological science in general. Thus it is not only in the community, in the unity of the foundations of the spiders, not only in the unity of methodology, but also in the material research. Can we today, even in the modern era to study the history of literature, for example, Japan, and, moreover, without a serious knowledge of Russian literature? Is it possible to really uncover many of the phenomena of the Turkish modern literature without attracting material -French literature?
And this situation is observed not only in relation to the new and newest time. Historical science is more and more clearly reveals the presence of deep relations between East and West, even in those times, when the peoples of East and West as if it lived completely separate lives. For example, it was reported that due to the ancient Roman Empire Han empire in China were greater than previously thought; we know about the active promotion of the Arabs, and to India, and in the insular world of the Indian Ocean and even in Tang China; we know how to persevere in India Byzantine merchants. And the whole Central Asia was the scene of a variety of works of old contiguities western and eastern world in the face of the various peoples of China, India, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, North-East Africa. I repeat, orientalists philologists brings a scholar Westerners not only common scientific bases, a common methodology, but also the contact of the material of the study. Therefore, we all need to «sit at the same table.»
Secondly, the basis for oriental literary education should form a major study of the «classic» for the peoples of Eastern languages: Sanskrit — for the new Indian languages, classical Chinese literary language — the language to Chinese, Korean, Japanese and annamskogo, classical literary Arabic — for language Novo Arab, Turkish, Iranian and some Indian. The study of classical languages - not just a school of philological study, not just a necessary element of studying the history of these other Oriental languages. We know the vitality of classical languages for the current state of the new eastern languages. Suffice it to point at least to the remarkable fact that the root structure of these classical languages made it possible for the peoples of the East in modern times to host its own scientific and technical terminology, these peoples be necessary in connection with the assimilation of the foundations of advanced science and education. But this terminology, all the while extending its sphere of circulation, has set in motion the whole weight of the vocabulary of these languages. «Classical languages» for these people — not a dead weight, and living material for linguistic creativity. Therefore, the Faculty of Philology in all its meaning must be submitted to the Department «classical» languages: Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, classical Arabic and classical Chinese.
Third, the Oriental philological education should be based on the study at least two languages: the language elected specialty, and some other Asian languages. Joining this second language may be due to different causes: the structural proximity to the main language, a great value in the history of the main language, an important role in cultural relations, and so on.. But, of course, the main subject should be one language.
Fourth, the language that is selected as a specialty, should be studied in all its history. Therefore, the history of the language courses and historical grammar should be mainstreamed in the curriculum.
Fifth, with the fullness should be submitted to the modern language, which is the subject of not only scientific but also practical assimilation. In this area should be maintained is the high degree of practical knowledge of modern language, which our oriental schools generally achieved. In this regard, the study of modern languages should be decorated with a number of lectures and workshops, and especially.
Sixth, all studies should be conducted in the language monuments in the language of documents — both relating to the past and modern. This implies the need for the widest development of a special seminar sessions in which not only provide appropriate knowledge, skills and create a genuine scientific and philological research.
Philology, as you know, most immediately in contact with linguistics and literature. Therefore philological training can provide not only a philologist in the strict sense of the word, but also the philologist-linguist and philologist, literary critic. Moreover, in the modern differentiation of knowledge for the most part it recently obtained. Linguistics and literature of our time — the science, it is independent, with its own peculiarities. And yet, it seems to me that sharply segregate these two fields of knowledge should not be. It is only necessary to create a full opportunity to be a student, if he wants, a linguist and literary critic. Therefore, the structure of the Faculty of Philology seems to me like this: Faculty is divided into compartments — on the field of philology, t. E. Has, for example, Department of Slavic Philology, department of Romance, Germanic, Finno-Ugric, Arab, Iranian, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, Indian Philology ; Department usually consists of two departments: the department of language and literature departments. Unity branch in the presence of some common courses should support the degree of unity of scientific knowledge, which is possible and necessary; The presence of the individual departments within the department and the development of specialized courses and seminars in each department will provide the opportunity to specialization.
Of course, some departments may be more than one language or literary department of but two or even more. This is necessary, for example, in the Department of Slavic Studies, which need a special department of the Russian language and a special department of the history of Russian literature and the department may be other Slavic languages and literatures.
On the other hand, it is possible that some offices hold a division into two departments for one reason or another is difficult. This applies particularly to some branches of Oriental Philology. In such cases, the time will have to be content with a common department — language and literature.
What will unite linguists and literary critics as a part of such a department of philology? The presence of three general courses: history of the people, history, literature, language and history. These courses are equally necessary for linguists and literary critics.
What will unite in all branches of the faculty? The presence of the four general courses for all departments: philosophy, general linguistics, literary theory and world history. With proper development of the business, these four areas of knowledge can even be presented special independent department, reporting directly to the faculty.
On this basis and can, I think, with a new force and a new meaning to go forward and Oriental philological science and Oriental philological education.