Arhitektor01 Chaika and Konstantin Khalturin
The problem of large-block construction is part of a larger problem sheathe the industrialization of mass construction. Progressiveness large-block construction lies in the fact that it is in its idea is a kind of factory construction.
The difference between the large-block houses and houses large-panel, which emerged in the development of these two branches of the factory housing, is that the main walls of large blocks of uniform and blocks in the walls of all the functions of the wall material in the houses as with panel and frame-and-panel walls certain elements of the walls have different functions (frame oteplitel and so on. n.).
Currently, the difference between these systems prefabricated housing disappears. The practice of large-block construction has shown the advisability of further enlargement of the blocks, which in their area more close to the panel. At the same time improving the system panel construction leads to a simplification of its structures and induces go to homogeneous (single layer) panels, t. E. To the same aggregated units.
In Leningrad, widely developed large-block construction. The most characteristic feature of the Leningrad practice — it is a considerable variety of applied architectural and design techniques that continuously for nearly 25 years improved.
Large-block construction of Leningrad passed different stages. The most interesting phase of the construction, when there was a transition to the use of units with finished outer texture.
It should be emphasized that in the large construction must be respect for the basic principle — Compliance sizes and designs prefabricated complex mechanization of construction. Planning solution of the complex building large-block buildings and architectural designs of individual buildings are defined according to the organizational forms of industrial construction.
In practice, the design has to meet two forms of this dependence.
In one case, construction sites and complex mechanization (including equipment factories, their assortment of products and systems of machines) are designed at the same time, therefore, the system is developed and mechanization created during the design of construction projects. Under these conditions, of course, there are opportunities for improvements in construction.
In another case, the complex mechanization already exists and must be considered when designing a large-block buildings. This form of dependence is almost the most common, as heavy machinery have a long amortization period, and they are used by a number of years. It goes without saying that in this case the possibility of planning and design solutions are limited.
The principle of the prefabricated modular elements determines the number of significant features of architectural and design solutions. For example, the technology of manufacturing blocks for different parts of the building will be more economical than the greater consistency of these blocks and copies of each type of unit.
In practice, such a construction of the Leningrad typing provides a modular prefabricated building parts and the size of the blocks, unity step piers finally repeatable sections, fragments and entire buildings.
Proper selection of the absolute value of the module is crucial for reducing the number of types of prefabricated elements.
In the Leningrad construction for large-block and brick buildings received unit 40 cm. It is selected based on the thickness of the inner walls, which should be regarded as the most rational.
In the works of the Leningrad Research Institute of Public Utilities in 1934, it was found that in determining the linear dimensions of the subject modulating be correct to exclude the thickness of external walls. Leningrad branch of the USSR Academy of Architecture in his work came to the same conclusions.
Unity module of 40 cm adopted for large-block and brick construction, allows the use of both types of construction of a number of similar prefabricated buildings.
With multi-row systems, cutting walls of the capital, ie. E. At four or five rows of blocks on the floor (height) postelistost masonry blocks and their composition vperevyazku form walls, resembling the familiar rustication of the walls, but only with stones increased in size. Because of this, a feeling of a scale not larger blocks. The hell it is equally characteristic of both four- and pyatiryadnym cutting.
Comparing different systems of cutting, were used in the large-block construction of Leningrad from 1934 to 1950, it should be noted the advantages of the Four industrial system, although at the same time it leads to the famous overscale blocks. More frequent repetition of the same series to a four-row system reduces the number of types of blocks and the blocks themselves olypaya quantity to reduce the total amount of 20 — 25% (compared with pyatiryadnoy system).
It is necessary to say that in practice, the construction of Leningrad impression overscale masonry of large blocks more often compounded by the fact that large-block buildings were set in a number of plastered brick houses.
Attempts to destroy this impression «overscale» by introducing false (in textural layer) cutting units have not led to positive results, as the false joints differ significantly from the design; facades nearhitektonichnuyu received treatment at the same time, many types of blocks, with the introduction of false cutting, increased dramatically; also increased labor costs.
When enlarged cutting the outer walls of the capital characteristic pattern of masonry joints does not disappear; it still remains a factor in the appearance of buildings krupnoolochnyk; However, the consolidation of units gives more opportunities to search for new architectural solutions.
In the design process of cutting capital of the walls is necessary to conform to the positioning and size of openings, as well as to take into account the way of supporting the floors to the walls.
Depending on the system floors, the walls are designed for their supporting slots or grooves. Distribution of horizontal joints must be such as to ensure easy installation and floor elements to the slot or groove is located within repetitive series.
Prior to 1950, the average optimal weight block was passed to 1500 kg. The accumulated experience in engineering and installation work has allowed the organization then go to the application of the block weight equal to the maximum capacity of available cranes (three tons).
The exterior walls of the building blocks within the enlarged one floor is divided into two horizontal rows of blocks. Each series consisted of the same type of stone: blocks, jumpers or block prostsnkoz.
But it turned out that the system Progonnaya ceilings corresponding to a cutting walls, connects the layout of premises: to conceal runs non-oohodimo was’ placed under the partition runs.
The system, designed for laying slabs as flooring, two-row was a new system, which was developed by «Lenproekt» in cooperation with the Leningrad branch of the USSR Academy of Architecture. » In this system, typical floors wall is formed of three main types of blocks: Block of walls, blocks and drip-jumper blocks.
Application of overlap in the form of flooring gives complete freedom in dealing with floor plates. But if you compare the two systems and cutting the number of units do calculations, potreonogo for identical repetitive sections of the walls, it is not difficult to see that for two-row cutting of the 3 types of blocks (on the floor) increases the number of required units by 30%. Increasing the number of blocks is due to the fact that the cutting according to this system are the small blocks sill webs and pads.
Increasing the number of blocks respectively reducing their average weight. If two stones forming the wall elements in the floor, their average volume is 1.8 mgt ;, and the average weight — 2.7 m, then when cutting the same part of the wall 3 stone blocks average volume of 1.2 M and the average weight — 1.8 tons.
Meanwhile, increase in the number of blocks and a decrease in their average size (weight) is not desirable, because they lead to a decrease in the efficiency of industrial construction method. In the future, improving the cutting of walls, we should strive to increase the average amount of units by eliminating the small stones.
Of particular importance in industrial construction are typing and repeatable elements.
All large-block buildings in Leningrad were designed and carried out in blocks of typed assortments; This applies both to the wall block, and to other parts of the prefabricated building.
The first assortment of typical block wall was created on the basis of the construction of an experienced pilot house, carried out in 1934. Gage was prepared for the Four blocks with a height of 3.50 m and a floor covered all the massive blocks. The height of the block was 86 cm, length — 50 cm to 300 cm. This assortment existed almost until 1951. It should be noted here that in 1939 for the construction of a housing estate in the 21st quarter of the Stalin Avenue was created by the same gauge, designed for pyatiryadnuyu system.
Currently, the Institute is applied compiled «Lenproekt» assortment of massive blocks for the enlarged cutting of three types of blocks on the floor (ground floor at the height of 3.30 m). The assortment includes 70 types of blocks of the outer walls, 40 block types of internal walls and 9 types of blocks for walls with channels. This sample gauge widely used in the design of buildings.
State of the art construction enables in large prefabricated elements of the building of any architectural complexity. The foregoing describes only the technique of large-block construction. But it is clear that large-block plastic solutions facades of buildings should be based not only on the technical possibilities: it is necessary to conform to the economic feasibility and the measure of artistic expression.
Application raskrepovok, cornices, balconies and other drafts of architectural elements and details of the construction of large blocks can be widely disseminated. It should, however, avoid excessive variety of reasons, causing the need for a large number of individual products, which hinders the proper organization of factory processes. Uncritical use of traditional forms of stone buildings complicates large-block construction, leads to false nearhitektonichnym the façade reduces architectural expressiveness of buildings.
Decor fronts must comply with cutting building blocks, factory methods of production units. Wrong projected architectural decorations can be extremely complicate and raise the price of large-block construction.
In Leningrad used three receiving performance of architectural details of facades: it is about the details, performed directly on the blocks during their manufacture, of parts mounted or overhead, and finally about the details of the mortgage. The practice of large-block construction of Leningrad demonstrated the feasibility of performing all three types of architectural details (if different architectural techniques)
In the large-block construction can be widely applied stucco details.
It is possible to recommend the use of colored plaster and various textured surfaces: their use is consistent with the basic principles of large-block construction allows us to achieve a variety of architectural decisions in the same block sizes.
Applied recently in Leningrad enlarged cutting the walls (in blocks weighing up to 3 tonnes) yielded positive results in the search for an architectural image of a residential building, carried out by industrial methods.
I was overcome overscale masonry. The integrated cutting — two-row (from two kinds of blocks on the floor) — is not associated with the usual scale of the normal lining or rustication of the walls. Smooth field, which clearly revealed pattern cutting, made it necessary to include in the composition of facades horizontal rods connecting the vertical and horizontal rows of blocks in the group. But still the question remains about the proportionality of the blocks with architectural details.
Another already mentioned our type of enlarged two-row cutting developed by the Leningrad branch of the USSR Academy of Architecture in collaboration with the Institute «Lenproekt» (cutting of the three types of blocks on the floor) and the currently accepted in the large building on the avenue Stalin creates a tectonic motif jumpers, and blocks forming a wall between the windows, organically included in the architectural composition of the facade.
Architectural appearance of facades made of this type of cutting meets the character of residential development and tectonics of industrial construction.
But experience has shown shortcomings and construction of cutting. Large blocks of partition having size limits make it difficult to build expressive architectural composition, limit the size of the pitch and width of the window.
The architecture of residential buildings play an important role ends of buildings and parts of the walls that do not have a solid mesh windows. In these sections of the walls is most clearly revealed cutting blocks. Here, this cutting becomes subject jumpers and no longer has the architectonic logic: put poking heavy blocks alternate with narrow and light bed-units.
Especially felt the lack of architectural rough ends of houses. But in the end, a received or that kompozitsinnoe decision, cutting the wall at odds with the architecture of the main facade.
It should also be noted that the decoration of facades often nemasshtaben, parts or crushed or excessively larger. Encountered in the practice of large-block composition facades of buildings in the shape of brick houses usually sharply reduce induced-strialiost building and significantly increase the cost of his.
Available in the architecture of large-block buildings of Leningrad architects realized the shortcomings of the city, who are eagerly sought ways to further the development of this important sector of the industrial housing.
In order to overcome these drawbacks, the Leningrad branch of the Union of Soviet Architects in 1953, held an open competition for the design of the architectural composition of façades krupnoelementnogo house.
As a result, competition revealed a wide variety of possible methods of composition of facades of houses krupnoelementnogo industrial construction. Among the proposals made can be called a method of solving the walls with open joints, seams in the subordinate grids of the total composition of the facade: the reception with patch elements, closing the seams or at the intersections of joints; reception neutralization vertical joints by introducing into the composition of the facade of bay windows and decorative balcony panels and others. They not only do not exclude each other, but on the contrary, subject to a single production technology can help to find the necessary diversity of architecture massozogo large-block construction.
With the further development of technical progress (the development of new efficient building materials, increased capacity and degree of industrialization of construction) wider and richer will be the prospects of development of architecture krupnoelementnogo multistory apartment house.
Feasibility and architectural principles of construction of large-block buildings require the organization of the construction of a large complex consisting of a number of quarters. It is obvious that the construction of large-block buildings on isolated sites profitable enough, because it is linked with the installation of heavy installation equipment.
In Leningrad, only the first large-block houses were built apart. The experience of complex construction of the 13th district on the avenue named after Stalin prepared the ground for a genuine transition to district development. The beginning of this development is the projected construction of the 44th district on the avenue named after Stalin.
The layout of the quarter, by volume solution of its building and separate buildings considered especially threading-speed construction of large blocks. The project provides repeatable fragments of buildings and entire houses.
It seems to us that the work on further improvement of large-block construction should focus mainly on the following issues.
Using local raw materials, it is necessary to expand the range of new efficient materials. Such materials can be light concretes that are based on expanded clay and shlakopemzy (termozita), silicates, silicalcite and foamed silicate.
It should improve the assortment of blocks and other prefabricated elements, thus eliminating the shortcomings revealed by the practice of construction.
It is necessary to increase the degree of typing sbornosti buildings and precast elements.
It is important to achieve a mass transition to district development. It is necessary to take into account that in the industrial methods of construction of buildings and typing prefabricated factory-built special requirements to the planning of residential areas. Disposition of quarters should allow maximum repeatability of the individual buildings and their parts, which in turn will provide favorable conditions for the further typing of prefabricated elements, and simplify the assembly process.
An important task is the creation of projects to re-use them.
Finally, the need to improve the set of typical residential sections including construction of these sections of the large-sized precast elements.
At the present time is extremely limited set of mastered textures for outdoor decoration of buildings, while the use of a variety of textures can greatly enrich the architecture of large-block buildings.
By increasing the volume of production for the needs of large-block construction, factories that produce prefabricated elements must work together in order to seek to expand their technical capabilities and product range.
It is very important in the development of large-block construction of the mass is the establishment of a universal fleet of rigid forms and universal forms for the production of shaped blocks. This park is to be created.
The key to the new rapid progress in the construction of large-block, his strong recovery and improvement is a complex solution architecture designs. engineering equipment of large-block buildings, organization and mechanization.
The centuries-old experience in the construction of bricks has developed a range of traditional designs and construction techniques. This has contributed to specialization and division of responsibilities of architects, designers and production specialists.
A new, radically different methods of constructing buildings require new architectural and design techniques. The close interdependence of architectural, design and production problems in the construction krupnoelementnom clamoring for new organizational forms, new qualifications to during the design completely would provide comprehensive development of emerging, sometimes very complex questions.
Large-block construction is still in its infancy. But his value to the industrialization of the entire Leningrad building is very large. As such it has played and continues to play the role of a major experimental facilities to develop a range of advanced modular designs. Many structures used primarily in the homes of large blocks, for example, prefabricated foundations, flooring slabs, stairs and so on. N., Then found wide application in large brick building Leningrad.
The same can be said for a number of assembly arrangements.
All this taken together should lead our architectural and construction obshestvennost give particular importance to the further development of this type of industrial construction.
A significant number of large blocks built and inhabited apartment houses allows to draw some conclusions with regard to their performance.
A study by the Leningrad branch of the USSR Academy of Architecture in 1953, in-service inspection of houses of large blocks in Leningrad and large-panel houses in Moscow and Magnitogorsk revealed positive and negative qualities operating buildings.
Layouts and sections aligned industrial houses do not differ significantly from the standard layouts made for mass construction and are quite comfortable.
Thermal quality of boundary walls of most homes industrial building (with no assembly defects) are sufficient. The same applies to the large-block houses Leningrad cinder block walls with a thickness of 50 cm, and residential buildings of reinforced concrete panels with oteplitelem of foam with a total thickness of 30 cm in the design, built in Moscow and Magnitogorsk.
A typical disadvantage of large-block houses built in years 1950-1953. in Leningrad and large-panel houses Khoroshevskoye highway in Moscow, where he used planks overlap width less rooms are cracks on the ceilings at the seams between the panels.
The second disadvantage — sound conductivity and conductivity-vozduhopro these overlaps, which also causes a violation of the thermal regime of houses
Some operational deficiencies of buildings industrial building are the result of artisanal production elements to the factory setting, as well as the result of carelessness during assembly buildings.
For example, a number of shortcomings Leningrad large-block houses was caused by the fact that the assembly building was carried out of the blocks produced from the plant without sufficient drying; This caused the appearance of moisture in the form of damp spots on the walls.
As has been observed, in normal buildings dampness fades.
To prevent cracks in prefabricated ceilings and to eliminate excessive sound transmission must go on elements (panel) ceilings on the size of the room. Elements of walls for better insulation of premises should be made as to the size of the room and quite soundproof.
To eliminate the air flow through the walls at window openings and eliminate possible defects in the grouting between the blocks, should be carried out further work on the enlargement of building blocks factory setting window frames in blocks. We must make greater use planning sections, providing the location of the transverse walls and partitions against the joints of exterior walls.
In general, satisfactory performance lined up and occupied buildings of the industrial building, the reduced terms of the construction of buildings, progressive industrial methods of construction to ensure high productivity — all this gives grounds for the widespread introduction of industrial housing in the practice of housing.