Two years have passed since the appearance of the brilliant work IV Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics.» This work not only made a profound revolution in the science of language, he also gave a perspective for the future development and all the other sciences.
During these two years there was a lot of work, based on Stalin’s theory of language. And only in the field of classical philology done very little. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that until now has not abolished the scornful attitude to classical philology, which was so characteristic of Marr and his entire school.
There has been a decline of research in the history of classical languages.
Neglect of this scientific field affects the whole system of modern literary education. The Latin language was removed from the curriculum of pedagogical higher educational institutions in the offices of the Russian language and literature and history departments. In the department of foreign languages the number of hours into Latin was reduced from 140 hours to ridiculous figures, up to 86 hours. The Greek and Latin languages are not taught in graduate pedagogical institutes even linguistic departments at every high school employees understand that it is impossible to conduct lectures on introduction to linguistics and general linguistics, not having received the knowledge of the languages of both new and old. Young scientists have linguists pedagogical higher education institutions did not learn the ancient languages, and of the new language usually know only one.
In the department of foreign languages was made even ancient literature course, and the students of these departments do not get in high school any idea of the great figures of the ancient culture. There is still prejudice against classical philology, some employees of the Ministry of Higher Education and Education.
In connection with such an attitude to classical philology closed «superfluous» almost all the classical department. Remaining the same — in the Moscow and Leningrad universities — take all of 10-15 people, and then a year later.
Secondary school students, where he studied Latin, in the vast majority understand the importance of this language in the general education system. Employees of the Department of Classical Philology of Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. Lenin on behalf of the Institute of improvement of teachers surveyed Moscow school, where he taught Latin, talked with students, even conducted a questionnaire that gave the students the knowledge of the Latin language. With a few exceptions, students stressed that the knowledge of the Latin language has helped them to understand a lot of Latin words that were included in the Russian language, it helped them in relation to understanding the spelling of these words, helped them in learning new languages, especially French and English.
Meanwhile, at the current position of students graduating from Department of language and literature teachers of higher educational institutions and sent to work in secondary schools, can not explain the different words of Latin origin in the vocabulary of the Russian language (the revolution, the constitution, the federation, literature, communism, the country, the Ministry of student, graduate student, doctor and many other words).
Latin is needed in the training of teachers of language and literature, and the more the two ancient languages are required in the preparation of the scientific staff of linguists. Without knowledge of the Latin language is impossible to engage in general linguistics. Good preparation for the study of ancient languages and helping new languages, especially romance.
The value of the knowledge of ancient languages and always emphasized the classics of Marxism-Leninism and the Russian revolutionary democrats. Even Chernyshevsky wrote about this to his son: «If you want to be a philologist, is engaged in the Greek language more than the Latin .. If you want to be a historian, that constantly checks the views of historians authentic source text.»
Engels ‘Anti-Duhring’ criticizes Dühring for what he offers to the younger generation of such a system, where the «dead languages quite disappear … and the study of foreign languages will remain alive … as something secondary.» Engels says that «knowledge of ancient languages» opens, «… at least for a classical education of people of different nationalities, shared them a wider horizon.» And further emphasizes that «matter and form of the native language,» which Dühring says, «… become clear only when he traced the origin and gradual development, and this is not possible, if ignored, first, its own dead form, and secondly, related to living and dead languages. «
He knew Latin, Lenin, and in his writings he often used this knowledge.
Without the knowledge of ancient languages, especially without the knowledge of the Latin language, impossible preparation Soviet educated person, the more impossible the preparation of teachers of literature and the young scientist-linguist.
It is necessary to expand the teaching of Latin in high school, it must be considered in pedagogical higher education for students of faculties of literature and language departments for graduate students. Particular attention should be paid to the training of future teachers of Latin. We must openly admit that the partial failure of the teaching of Latin in schools (and sometimes in universities) are associated with a bad selection of teachers. Qualified specialists who have a good school, very few. Many teachers have been trained Latin in the old, pre-revolutionary school or accidentally to a teaching job.
Currently, it is more expedient to prepare teachers of Latin in secondary school teacher training colleges in the literary and historical faculties and departments of foreign languages. The program should be included historical course of Latin, continuing for about three years, for 3-4 hours a week.
Especially easy to organize the departments of foreign languages Specialty itself imperiously requires the study of the Latin language: in his third year in the study of the history of language in all departments of the Faculty of foreign (French, Spanish, English and German) can not do without the knowledge of the ancient language. Some of these offices, primarily, of course, in the departments of French and Spanish languages, you can enter the Latin language as a second language. Then the students graduating from these offices will have a second specialty. The study of the Latin language, in turn, will increase the level of knowledge of the language, which is their main specialty.
Of course, for those who will study the Latin language as a second language, and must be given the proper technique. The objectives of the Ministry of Education — to organize the work on this technique. Classical Philology should take its rightful place in the system of language education, and then the knowledge of the Latin language would be broad domain of the Soviet people.