On the coast of the Sea of Japan, in the south-eastern spurs of the mountain range of Sikhote-Alin, 35 in 1935, was created a branch of the Sikhote-Alin Reserve. The area of protected area of 150 thousand hectares of the South Ussuri taiga mountain. 5 years later, in 1940, the government decided to declare an independent branch of the state reserve of national importance.
The purpose of the organization of the reserve — the preservation and study of natural systems liana coniferous-deciduous forests of Southern Primorye, protection and restoration of reserves found in them valuable and rare animals, including mountain, wild sika deer, tiger, leopard and relic plants — ginseng, yew, Aralia and others.
The modern territory of Lazovsky Nature Reserve, amounting 116.5 thousand. Ha, 98% is covered by forests, has an extraordinary abundance of species and forms of trees, shrub and herbaceous vegetation, a common list that includes more than 2.6 thousand titles. The main tree species are oak Mongolian and Korean cedar, but along with them are widely grow Amur velvet, Manchurian walnut, several species of birch, linden, maple, ash and other hardwood trees, as well as spruce, fir and larch. Of particular interest are the yew-dimorfantovye grove on the island of Petrova and hornbeam grove in dry tract microbiota key and thickets near Black Mountain formed relics of the Tertiary period. The peculiarity of the forests of the reserve is even more emphasized the abundance of tree trunks intertwined vines of various actinide grapes and lemongrass and abundance in the thick undergrowth of thorny shrubs Aralia, Eleutherococcus and the devil.
No less rich and varied fauna of the reserve, which exists in a mild maritime climate and abundant food supply. Only mammals reserve list includes more than 70 species, of which almost half are animals preserved in its natural state only in the Far East as. for example, the Himalayan bear, Siberian tiger, mountain, spotted deer, Far Eastern wildcat, weasel-Ussuri Moger, raccoon dog, Manchurian hare, marten, Nepal Mr. Hare many others. In addition, there are numerous and widespread throughout the country valuable hunting game animals such as deer, wild boar, musk deer, red deer, brown bear, sable, Siberian weasel, otter, fox and squirrel. More than 270 species of avifauna includes a list of the reserve, among which are such wonderful birds such as mandarin duck, merganser, blue magpie, blue-and-white flycatcher, grosbeak and Chinese Egret.
Among reptiles reserve, there are 10 species, stands out for its beauty and size of the black, with lateral yellow stripes Amur snake, reaching 2 meters in length; numerous wonderful green — or gray with bright reddish-yellow spots and stripes tiger too; ubiquitous and poisonous snake — cottonmouth variety of colors related to two types — Pallas and the eastern cottonmouth. The reserve was discovered colony of rare in our country, and little-known snake — Japanese grass snake. «Concerts» tree frogs and toads, amphibians, other voices do not stop in the woods from spring to late autumn.
The territory of the reserve in all directions crossed a lot of big and small rivers, streams and springs, among which the largest waterway is the river Sudzuhe, Syauhe, Imbishi and Sandagoy. Sometimes after heavy rains the water level rises during the day for a few meters, and then the most subtle fontanelles turned into torrents. These rivers and streams serve as spawning masu, chum salmon and other valuable fish species, as well as the eastern border of the reserve is washed by the Sea of Japan, lists its flora and fauna sharply replenished at the expense of marine life.
Even in this brief essay can get an idea of the exceptional originality and scientific value of the natural complex of Lazovsky Nature Reserve — one of the most remarkable parts of the virgin nature of Primorye. Now no one has any doubt that, as the country’s largest reserve of wild sika deer, mountain and Tiger Reserve is unparalleled. However, the remoteness of the reserve of the major cultural centers and the consequent ignorance of scientific and public organizations outside the edge of a sharp contrast Lazovsky Nature Reserve of Sikhote-Alin, have caused numerous reorganizations Lazovsky Nature Reserve. Reserve for the years of its existence, has experienced turbulent history of ups and downs, and at times the brakes are bringing to naught the idea of organizing it.
In 1946, the size of the protected area has been increased to 339 thousand. Ha. It is a regime that period reserve covers all the typical landscapes and plant formations and habitats of protected species of fauna. But in 1951 reserve was abolished. It took years to restore it again. However, since the elimination before recovering in 1957, it was damaged not only the nature reserve. Much more seriously affected by the consequences of its elimination in people’s minds — the destruction brought up over the years the concept of the inviolability of the protected mode. Not only that reserve has been restored to a much smaller area — 179.6 thousand. Ha and alienated from him the most valuable areas, but also in the further cutting down of the reserve requirements have become the norm of behavior managers of economic organizations of the district and region. Suffice it to say that in the period from 1959 to 1963. redrawing the boundaries of the reserve was made S times and eventually its area decreased to 116.5 thousand. ha.
Simultaneously there and plunder of natural resources of the reserve: it cut down the forest, burned the whole tract is extremely developed was poaching. These outrages are often made not by individuals, but were «organized» and conducted under the pretext of lack of grazing, the need for construction materials or wood, or the need for burning hay. Until now, the reserve is not returned located far inland from the outer boundary of the former island of cedar, mercilessly cut down farm «Kiev».
But not only in the complexity of the conservation area is the difficulty faced by the reserve after his recovery. Tract Ta Chingou where previously housed the central homestead of the reserve, it remains far from his preserved part. Under the leadership of energetic and active director BI Grishkovskogo Kievka village from scratch in 1959, construction began on the new manor. In a very short time, for 2 years, the reserve has built 5 residential buildings not 9 apartments, the building management, warehouses, stables, were deployed on the periphery of the construction of cordons and taiga huts.
With the strengthening of the material and production base staffed the staff of researchers, engineers and technical workers and forest conservation reserve. The scientific department of the reserve launched a broad program of research and began preparing its results for publication.
However, once the translation reserve in the category of the branch in 1961, resulted in the inevitable downsizing of such reorganization, the blow was followed by his main activity has been paralyzed for a long time. Actually, as a scientific institution Reserve has ceased to exist. «Remote» leadership of the research staff of the branch, reducing research funding have generated insecurity of employees in the future, some of them has been reduced, some moved to other scientific institutions. Reserve came to be regarded only as a basis for the collection of scientific material. Rich collection were taken.
The first priority was to strengthen the collective reserve reserve status. Shots forest protection strengthened by replenishment specialists and dismissal from office of persons compromised poaching, inactivity and violations of labor discipline. The basis of the security operation was put pair and group patrolling rangers and systematic sudden departures operational teams. The results of these measures not long in coming.
Enormous damage reserve in previous years was applied to forest fires. The lack of a permanent snow cover, prolonged dry autumn, a thick layer of fallen leaves and strong winds cause the high flammability of forests of Primorye. From the smallest spark burn out in a few hours, hundreds of hectares of forest plantations, as the causes of fires, as population growth and development of the district road network every year becomes more and more. Conducting complex fire prevention measures (cleaning rides, intertillage bulldozer mineralized bands prorubki trails and breaks) reduced the risk of fires.
Along with the strengthening of the security work directly reduce violations reserve status and helped the revival of mass-explanatory work with the population to promote the protection of the nature and objectives of the reserve.
The growing interest of the masses in active recreation, travel and excursions to the most beautiful natural areas of the country imposes a great responsibility on state reserves, to assist in the organization of tourism.
The contribution of the team of Lazovsky Nature Reserve to the cause of improving the protection of nature reserves and received a well-deserved positive evaluation.