Mammals

Mammals

«Terrible beast hare no!» — Said, rising from the snow just produced hare, Grandpa Egor, and smiled and looked at me. I was still naive teenager smiled at supposedly good joke old hunter, and he thought: «This is a tiger, or a bear or a leopard, animals as animals, but what a beast of a hare — the laughter, and only.» Later, fascinated by biology, I learned that there are 5 classes of vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles (reptiles), birds and mammals (animals). Almost all mammals, i.e. animals have in common is that they suckle their young with milk. So Grandpa Egor was right, and that with regards to size, because there are more small animals and the hare, for example, the shrew — with a long match and weighing less than 2 years shrew In contrast, the blue whale is also a beast, only the sea — up to 33 m and weighing up to 150 tons.

Mammals — the highest class of vertebrates that live in different environments of life: air-land, soil and groundwater and water. They are much more perfect than the representatives of other classes of animal life and differ from them:

1. High levels of the central nervous system that enables them to various forms of adaptive behavior.

2. intensive metabolism and thermoregulation perfection, resulting in their body temperature is high and relatively constant.

3. Live birth of most species and, as mentioned above, feeding calves milk.

Class mammals is divided, in turn, into two separate well subclasses:

1. Subclass pervozveri, or egg-laying. Multiply exclusively by laying eggs.

2. Subclass real animals. Viviparous. This subclass infraclass divided into two:

— Infraclass lower animals or marsupials. In species that infraclass, with rare exceptions, do not develop a placenta.

— Infraclass higher, or placental, animals. This is the most highly organized mammals, crowning the fauna of the earth.

The world of animals is extremely diverse. Each type has different physical characteristics as well as their way of life, its habitat, its food specialization, or, as biologists say, its habitat and its ecological niche. A lot of interesting and at first glance, as it were unusual in the relationships between animals. There plenty of peace and coexistence, and indifference; drama and cruelty, oppression and parasitism. Interspecies relationships are generally determined by the stern specialization. Competition and enmity of beasts more acute and severe the closer of their vital needs. Therefore, according to scientists, two species with a similar way of life can not exist in the same ecological niche.

Considerable interest is the life and relationships of animals of the same species. Population community of animals is one of the most important tools in the struggle for existence. The population is living, evolving, reacts to changes in habitat conditions as a whole. Despite the unity of the populations inhabiting some specific habitats with more or less clear boundaries, individuals in these communities live in their individual areas one by one, small families or herds. Lots of these are neprekoslovnoy property and the perimeter marked by special marks and odorous secretions, visual signs and so forth. The aliens are expelled. Fights for the common areas, especially among males.

If a lot of dramatic interspecies relationships, and sometimes bloody, the intra-subordinate relationship is mainly a problem of self-view. Of course a fight, sometimes very violent, between animals of one species are not uncommon, but the death of one of the fighters it comes rarely. Intraspecific aggression puts everyone in his place, distributes the territory among individuals in the most rational. In tournament fights of males solved the eternal question: who will have the right to leave posterity? Of course, the strongest, and it turns out that during the battle. Moreover, many stories about what these tournament battles often result in the death of one of the men, to put it mildly, not entirely untrue. Generally weaker opponent just left the battlefield. Fighting between females also occur, but are much less common than among males, and often to death. Once Rudyard Kipling said that there was a female ruthless men. Sally Kerriger, author of «Wild inheritance of nature», says that the males for the females do not die, they tend to compromise, they do not intend to die in battle because of the simple vanity. Females, unlike males, do not accept a compromise when it comes to a spouse or offspring.

For some reason it is considered to be a privilege of the unconditional love of the people, but this is not true. Many are peculiar beasts: a feeling of strong attraction to the chosen one or beloved; experience outcast; happiness and possession of reciprocity; sadness at parting; jealousy. Once the female chooses several candidates of a single, the other suitors humbly removed. The male usually never hurts his girlfriend, even if she lashes out at him, biting, many animals courtship surprisingly emotional, they appear not only passion and impatience, but also respect, tenderness and affection. Many animals, such as wolves, beavers, foxes — keep touching fidelity for life.

Mind animals since ancient times attracted the attention of man. The intelligence of animals is still considered the world’s mystery. Able to do animals think? In the XIX century. Some naturalists have recognized the existence of animals higher mental abilities. Alfred Edmund Bram in his world-famous «Life of Animals» wrote: «Mammals are distinguished by their memory, intellect, feeling and why they often have a strong and determined character … they are able to learn, observe, judge and deduce they appear … attachment and aversion, they show the joy and sorrow, anger, and humility, cunning and prudence, honesty and downtrodden. Clever animal expects ponders estimates before acting … It remembers the last for several years, and thinking about the future … «

However, not all scientists share the view of Alfred Bram. Physiologists, reflexologists believe that all manifestations of animal reflexes are due, and the animals themselves — a sort of reflex machines that are not available abstract thinking. In the late XIX and early XX centuries. ascribing to animals human feelings and actions considered viciousness thinking naturalists. In our time, scientists ethologists have shown that many animals, and especially the animals, characterized by aggression, fear, concern, anger, curiosity, longing, tenderness, hatred, tenderness. Far writer and naturalist, bio-log-hunting expert, scientist Sergey Kucherenko once wrote: «I am on the side of those who have the word» brains «of animals (at least in animals) does not take in quotes, who is no doubt that the animal the brain is not without thought, who recognizes animals have highly developed psychic senses. «

I would love to match words of Alfred Bram and Sergey Kucherenko photos of animals. On them you can easily see anger, fear, and curiosity, tenderness, and affection.

Studying for a long time the animal world, in particular the life of mammals, unwittingly come to the conclusion that modern, highly intelligent (at least he thinks himself to be) a man can learn from animals. And — what a lot.

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