«Head of State» Jozef Pilsudski pretended crazy!
The founding father of modern Poland is considered to Jozef Pilsudski, who made great efforts for independence.
For this, he in January 1919 was awarded a hitherto unprecedented title of «head of state». I must say, for the sake of achieving the goal of his life — the restoration of Poland as a state -Pilsudsky did not disdain any means.
Jozef Pilsudski Clemens Ginyatovich Koschesha — this is the full name of our hero — the son of a wealthy nobleman. He was born on December 5, 1867 in the family estate, located within walking distance from the Vilna (Vilnius).
After finishing Wilen-tion gymnasium Jozef went to study at the Medical Faculty of Kharkov University. However, he stayed there for long: in 1886 for participating in student riots Pilsudski was excluded. But a basic knowledge of medicine he later came in handy.
Jozef together with his elder brother Bronislaw joined a group of conspirators who planned to murder Russian Emperor Alexander (case «Second March 1»). He headed the conspiracy of Alexander Ulyanov, the elder brother of the future leader of the proletariat. But in March 1887 the conspirators were arrested. Bronislaw Pilsudski with Ulyanov and other leaders of the terrorist group were sentenced to death. However, in approving the sentence for the king replaced the gallows Bronislaw 15 years of hard labor. Jozef is a minor (in the Russian Empire, majority is attained at age 21), was sentenced to 5 years in exile in Siberia. However, waiting for shipment to the place of settlement, he took part in a riot in Irkutsk is central, for which he received an additional six months in prison.
After his return in 1892 from exile Pilsudski joined the newly created Polish Socialist Party. For a long time he was involved in publishing work, promoting the idea of »Polish socialism.» But in 1900 he was arrested again. And then it useful medical knowledge: Pilsudski decided of being a lunatic. He skillfully feigned madness, so much so that even invited to conduct a psychiatric examination, doctors found him mentally ill. From Warsaw’s Pilsudski was transferred to a prison in St. Petersburg closed psychiatric clinic, where he escaped May 1901.
Special for robbery
After the start in 1904 the Russian-Japanese War, Pilsudski decided to enter the service of the enemies of Russia — the Japanese. He went to Japan and offered special services of the rising sun to create the so-called Polish Legion of captured soldiers of the tsarist army -polyakov origin. In addition, Pilsudski had promised to supply the Japanese command espionage information about the Russian army. Legion Japanese did not form, and receive intelligence agreed in advance Pilsudski paying a tidy sum — 20 thousand pounds.
The war, however, did not last long, and it won the Japanese closed Pilsudski credit. I had to make money, «the revolution» in the Russian Empire. And only with the help of «eksov» (Expro priatsii): Pilsudski led the so-called boevki who began to rob banks and mail trains. It woke talent hijacker. The loudest robbery committed by militants Pilsudski became a raid in 1908 on the mail train at the railway station without-are far from Vilna. Prey raiders began to 200,812 rubles and 61 kopecks. Pilsudski, who knew Karl Radek wrote that he was very much like other social-hundred-adventurer — Boris Savinkov.
Union of riflemen
Shortly before the First World War, Pilsudski created the so-called «Union shooters» — a paramilitary organization of the Polish Socialist Party. He became the head of the union. Soon Jozef found sponsors its «Arrow»: Austrian secret service helped him to begin the formation of the Polish Legions. That’s was the First World, and the Austrians were looking for any allies who were willing to fight on their side against Russia.
After the war Jozef led his «musketeers» to conquer the freedom of Poland. With the retreat of Russian troops from the provinces Privislyanskih Pilsudski began campaigning among the Poles for the creation of the Polish state. He ordered his legionaries not to swear the Governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary. For the Germans disbanded the legions of «musketeers» and Pilsudski himself was arrested and imprisoned in the fortress of Magdeburg. There he stayed until the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany. And in January 1919, founding the Polish Sejm proclaimed Pilsudski «chief of state.»
Bay its, beat other people!
In this position Pilsud-sky had much to war as internal enemies and external. Also in 1919 Poland was attacked by Soviet Russia in 1920, captured Kiev. Soon the Red Army launched a counteroffensive and reached Warsaw. Shaking with fear Polish politicians proclaimed dictator Pilsudski. He managed to turn the tide of the battle for Warsaw, and defeated the troops of Tukhachevsky. In 1921 in Riga, it signed a peace treaty with Russia, in which Poland withdrew large areas of Belarus and Ukraine.
But the policy had time to recover from fear, in March 1921 adopted a new constitution in Poland, in which the rights of its head were severely curtailed. Pilsudski, who took it as a personal distrust of him, resigned. Almost five years he lived as a private citizen at his villa.
About Pilsudski as a politician remembered in five years, when things in the country were quite bad. Inflation and unemployment rolls over, Poland’s economy was on the verge of total collapse.
Pilsudski, relying on their former «foreign players» and sympathizers commanders of the Polish Army in May 1926, a military coup. After three days of street fighting, which killed about four hundred people, Pilsudski’s troops occupied Warsaw. However, without the carrot has not done. The political parties were dissolved and established the country’s authoritarian rule, called «rehabilitation mode» («recovery»).
In addition to the portfolio of Minister of War, Pilsudski was still prime minister. He established a brutal dictatorship. Political opposition was persecuted as a legal means (in Poland have been several high-profile trials of opponents of Pilsudski) and by force (the dictator’s opponents were beaten and sent to concentration camps for an indefinite period). For example, in 1930, on the eve of elections to the Seimas of all the opposition were arrested and imprisoned in the dungeons of the Brest Fortress. By the way, when Pilsudski was created Bereza Kartuska prison. The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in 1933, went there to gain experience in the suppression of dissent.
In 1935, the Polish Sejm adopted a new constitution, which granted the aged Marshal almost royal powers. But Pilsudski did not manage to take advantage of them: he was already seriously ill. He died of liver cancer on May 12, 1935, the ninth anniversary of his military coup.