Continued their previous conversation about the beef cattle breeds, today acquaint readers with the pearl of the French selection — Charolais and Simmental widespread.
Bred in France more than 200 years ago on the basis of the local livestock breeding at which you may have applied «cast-blood» Simmental and Shorthorn breeds white.
In the past, animals Charolais breed was used not only for meat and milk, but also as a working cattle. In connection with this selection led by meat efficiency and simplicity to the conditions of detention. In addition, representatives from the Charolais breed was required to obtain, especially considering the gourmet French cuisine, lean beef.
The main advantage of Charolais cattle believe his ability to make the most of good meat with a minimum of fat. This is due to cumbersome animals, high energy growth of calves and young stock, mainly development of muscle rather than fat tissue.
Charolais is one of the major meat breeds with the highest energy growth. Live weight of adult cows reaches 700-800 kg, bulls — 1000-1200 kg and more. Calves at birth weigh 40-48 kg, and by weaning at 8 months, pulling in 270-340 kg. Live weight yearling steers in intensive fattening is 450 kg. The output of meat at slaughter — 60-70%. It is lean, lean, pale fibrous, pale pink in color, with high taste.
Animals Charolais strong constitution and a well-developed body stati. The trunk is wide and rounded, the back may be sagging, due to the large body mass, wide rump, long and muscular, hams are long and wide. Color cream, yellow, turning into white.
Animals of Charolais breed characterized by overdeveloped muscles of the hind limbs, which is considered the dignity of the breed. In adult animals observe duality croup. The yield of the most valuable cuts like sirloin, rump, sirloin and rump of Charolais cattle carcasses are significantly higher than in other breeds.
According to the observations of Canadian farmers who make extensive use of this breed in the cold days under the eaves at the Charolais cows often freezes in the nipples and the skin of the udder. In the summer on the pastures in animals occur sunburn.
Most of the live weight of the animals, their high precocity and payment of food products, unpretentious, good acclimatization to different environmental conditions contribute to the spread of cattle Charolais in many countries.
Long experience in breeding imported from France in 1962 at the Agricultural Research Institute Experimental Station Balashov southeast of Saratov region of breeding cattle Charolais breed confirms that these animals without any problems adapting to the new conditions of detention, readily eat local food (hay, silage, straw spring) , good use of pasture. Charolais Cattle acclimatised to the conditions of the right bank of the Saratov region.
True, Charolais cows often is difficult calving. In most cases, this is due to the fact that the calves are born large. And the duration of labor at sharole significantly more than other cattle breeds. This should be taken into account and do not be hasty in the provision of obstetric care.
In Russia today, there are about 4,000 purebred animals sharoleporody. Main loudspeakers —
Ltd. «Christmas box» (Shebekinsky district of the Belgorod region), OOO «Free labor collective farm» and OAO «Tyumen Meat Company» (Tyumen district of the Tyumen region).
1 Simmental breed
This cattle is widespread in Russia, thanks to a good ability to acclimate and relatively high milk and meat productivity.
First Simmental breed, we considered universal, ie meat and dairy, so was not golshtinizirovannogo. In recent years, domestic breeders refocused in 2007 of «State Farm Bredy» (Chelyabinsk region). given the status of breeding plant breeding Bredinsky Simmental beef type.
Now in Russia there is a temporary user created grading Simmental cattle meat type. Breeding work is aimed at breeding of animals with a live weight of cows is 600-650 kg and slaughter yield of 60-65%.
V.LUSHNIKOV, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences