Intensive gardening PREVENTS huge amount of manual work. Is created in the All-Union Institute AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY MACHINE mechanized one of the most labor-intensive operations — pruning fruit trees. The machine is controlled by one person. She cuts herself unneeded branches to pick them up. PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES seven times, and the costs are reduced by seventy percent.
Always thought that fruit trees need a space, then the harvest will be. Agricultural science has proven the opposite — give birth to larger fruit trees, if planted densely, only need to limit their crown, thin out. The well-bleached branches fruiting accelerated by three to five years, and the yield is increased and a half to three times. This so-called intensive gardening. In the intensive orchards need to form a specific shape of the crown and the volume is constantly cut and remove branches that between rows of trees could pass a tractor.
Cut the crown by hand clippers, with ladders and stands, cut branches must be removed from the crown and also manually. Between what area of intensive orchards growing: in 1975 it amounted to 171 thousand / ha, and in 1990 will exceed one million. How much you will need obrezalschikov?
Recently, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering created a prototype device for full mechanization of pruning fruit trees. The machine is mounted to a garden tractor unit, consisting of a rack with mounting brackets. One of the arms mounted vertical cutting machine with eight circular saws, on the other — horizontal with five such saws. Each saw has a hydraulic actuator and is moved in a predetermined direction system of hydraulic cylinders. Grab hold cut branches and puts it in a cart hitched to the tractor. Hydraulic machines powered by the tractor’s hydraulic system. The machine can be selectively cut some branches or at the height of two to four meters, cut through the light passageway between the trees at the same height and cut along the contour of the crown.
It turned out mechanized pruning not only impairs the growth of the trees and on the other hand, favors the annual growth of shoots and the diameter of the trunk. The new machine is provided a device for automatic disinfection cut. Once the saw cut branches mounted on a spring-loaded blade housing "pipette" irrigates cut disinfectant, contributes to the rapid tightening of its bark.
It is particularly important that the increased yield and fruit quality. For three years the collection has increased by an average of 3,3-52.1 quintals per hectare, the number of large (diameter greater than 65 mm) the fruit increased by 7-29 per cent and small — has fallen to ten and gradually eroding.
The machine is controlled from the tractor cab directly, replacing seven to ten obrezalschikov. The economic effect of one machine — more than ten thousand rubles a year.
Now the unit developed in cooperation with scientists VISKHOMa Chisinau GSKB of gardening machines, passes the state test. During the years 1981-1985 a pilot plant Chisinau GSKB must make two thousand such devices. Complex machines, which, along with the new device includes machines for processing bulk palmettnyh and gardens, will solve the major problem of full mechanization in the orchards of our country.