Mechanized harvesting

Mechanized harvesting

ASSEMBLY stone fruit crops with special vibration machine is becoming more widespread in the USSR and in the countries with the most advanced gardening.

In the USSR such machines last three years removed sinks in farms of the Moldavian SSR and Ukraine, as described in detail in the magazine «Gardening» № 8, 1963.

The same machine in the years 1961-1963 was used in the harvesting of cherries in the orchards of the Moldavian Research Institute of Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking, collective farm named after K. Marx Orhei production management (Moldavia) and the Research Institute of Horticulture behalf I. Michurina (Michurinsk, Tambov region).

The results were good. One vibration machine, which serves five people to clean up after a day of more than 2000 kilograms of fruit and hand-worker collects an average of 50-60 kilograms.

The Research Institute of Horticulture name Michurin in 1963 removed the vibration machine cherry varieties Lyubskiy, Amorel pink and Zhukovsky. Since the trees in the middle lane undersized trapping device was a small unit, and served only three people.

Performance vibrating machines can be considerably increased if the trees to form a small number of main branches. Experiments have shown that the tree, which has five branches, the crop can be removed within 5 minutes.

When harvesting cherries vibration machine fruits fall to the special retraction device that is installed under the tree. It consists of two wings measuring 5X2,5 meters each, two trays two-meter lengths.

A more complete removal of fruit is obtained at an amplitude of 20 30 millimeters and a frequency of 650-900 oscillations per minute, or 11-12, and 1200, respectively, the average time oscillations in both cases 4-8 seconds. In this mode, the vibration of the machine can be removed from the tree up to 95% of the fruit (the same and manual doffing).

The peculiarity of mechanical harvesting of cherries in contrast to the drain cleaning is necessary, capturing almost every main branch, since the vibration is only one of them with the other drops a small amount of fruit.

Experience has shown that the mechanical harvesting straying about the same amount of fruit formation as and manual (5-25 pcs. Of the tree), and branches of Paul III and IV orders, as opposed to manual cleaning, not at all. The number of leaves is very small (an average of 0.1 kg per tree).

Vibrating machines were tested on harvesting 10 varieties of cherries and 15 — cherries. The table shows the qualitative characteristics of the machine for harvesting cherries basic standard varieties and new passing state tests.

When damaged by machine cleaning up to 4% of cherries. Therefore, special importance is the issue of preservation of the harvest before its implementation.

From the experience of the American gardeners know that the timely processing of the fruit removed with cold water wounds received in the separation of the stalk, tightened, and the fruits of a long period of time are relatively fresh. The colder the water, the better the harvest is stored.

Some varieties of cherries stalk off without damaging the fruit flesh. Therefore it is necessary to identify those varieties and to introduce them into production to make greater use of the machine harvesting.

In addition, the method for introduction of mechanized harvesting of cherries is necessary to solve another important issue. According to the current specifications in the republics of cherries should be removed from the stem, or trade organizations at lower grade product acceptance. So do acceptors canneries, although the first operation processing factory lies precisely in the department of the fruit stalks. And since most of the crop (90%) large farms immediately sent to the canneries, agronomists state farms at a meeting held in September 1962 at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements of the USSR, proposed changes to the republican technical specifications for cherries adopted canneries. Moreover, the case of manual cleaning most of the fruit is also removed without the stalk.

In order to develop in 1963 a new specification, a commission was established. It includes employees of the economic council of the Moldavian SSR, the specialists of the Ministry of Production and procurement of agricultural products of the country, the department of prices and standards of the State Planning Commission, the employees of the Moldavian Research Institute of Horticulture, Viticulture and Wine, a spokesman for the National Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering.

The Commission proposed to amend the republican technical specifications in that point, which refers to the acceptance of cherries for industrial processing. The fruit without stalks with dry margin should be in the same grade as with peduncles.

In 1963, the Soviet Union had about 20 vibrating machines for harvesting fruit stone rocks. Two sets of cars passed state tests in the Moldovan and Ukrainian machine-South stations. By harvesting season 1964 GSKB Economic Council of the Moldavian SSR issued a 50 vibrating machines.

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