For the design of a single-track four-digit auto-lock AC 50Hz institute «Giprotranssignalsvyaz» recommends the use of double-track album is a typical four-digit auto-lock AB-2-4K-77 development schemes with additional two-way traffic.
This type of project was developed Mosgipro trance and put into effect the way to IV haul Moscow-sorting — Perovo. In the operation of this site maintenance personnel number of significant drawbacks affecting the reliability of the system interlock, which ultimately leads to lower bandwidth playout, and in certain conditions, reflected in the traffic safety.
Consider the main drawbacks of the solution. The linear chains include linear polarized relay CHL (NL) Type KMS 750, which are controlled by standing in front of a signal point relay contacts F and 3. Depending on the state of the relay CHL (NL) stand under the current relay, or LGL AP and immediately make the choice of lights at the traffic lights.
Failure of the line cable, and when it is turned off during operation (checking, testing and so on. D.) The relay CHL (LL) is without current, therefore, even when the freeness of two or more block areas at the traffic light will illuminate only yellow light (LS relay energized), with intensive and suburban passenger traffic will lead to a dramatic crash train schedule.
Such a situation is contrary to the basic principles of a numerical code automatic lock in Coto swarm freeness of two block sections verified by rail linear chains without wires and thus allowing selected lights at traffic lights.
Another disadvantage of reducing the reliability of the automatic block system, revealed in a random change of polarity line conductors (Swap cable wires or connecting wires). In this case, after the yellow light with the release of the second block section at the traffic light turns green light because the relay CHL (NL) will be under the direct current polarity. At the traffic lights will be more permissive indication that it is unacceptable for the safety of trains. After the liberation of the train of the third block section relay CHL (NL) will fall under the current reverse polarity and at the traffic light instead of green will light yellow and green lights.
These shortcomings have questioned the feasibility of this project. In terms Mosgiprotrans to 1983 included the development of a similar project on the Moscow — Lyubertsy on the main waterway with high traffic. The route of the cable runs within the city of Moscow and its suburbs, where it is constantly held various construction and earthworks. Therefore, considering mentioned, the reasons for such a model project for our distance clearly unacceptable.
In the distance was developed his project four-digit code a single-track automatic block system AC 50 Hz. In its development actively participated distance innovators and members of the public design office.
The basis of the project was to take an existing four-digit self-locking on the main waterway route Moscow — Ramenskoye, which during the operation showed greater reliability and fully meets the safety of trains. The figure shows the basic concept of the coupled signal installation type C
Turning yellow and yellow with green traffic lights operate relay F and 3.
They work on the cell type of decoder DA according to the received code from the track circuit. When you receive a code QL stands inflow relay F (available one block section), when receiving the relay code F 3, and F relays remain energized (free two-block area). To increase the number of contacts included repeaters relay F and 3 are taken as a repeater relay type NMSH1-400.
Thus, as can be seen from the scheme, a fault line conductors at the traffic lights will be lit yellow or yellow with green lights. This will allow trains to move at a specified rate.
To activate the green light in a linear chain introduced neutral relay CHZS (CIP) type NMSH 1-400. Therefore, a change in the polarity of the wires will not give linear malfunction scheme signal point.
In addition to this, the project used the scheme of supervisory control, four-wire circuit change direction, switch the track circuits, control and automatic switching power supply, etc..
The project takes into account the latest guidance and advice service signaling and communication Moscow road.
It should be noted that the draft deliberately left traffic lights with single-stranded lamps due to the fact that the technical solution to the inclusion of the three double-stranded lamps not, and the replacement of the lamps on an existing schedule will with time to failure of the lamp-holders because of their low quality and low reliability.
The project was approved by the General Directorate of signaling and communication adopted by the IPU and Mosgiprotrans to develop on the route Moscow — Lyubertsy.
ADJUSTING linear chain of single-track semi-automatic blocking
The relay semi-automatic lock (BPM) system GTSS widely used in the network of roads and access roads, industrial vehicles. Operating experience has revealed a number of shortcomings of the BPM, which were taken into account when issuing new GTSS standard solutions. However, the use of existing standard solutions to perform qualitative adjustment of linear chains is difficult.
Based on the characteristics of the circuit RPB linear chain in all modes can be concluded that the poor quality of regulation and the complexity of the optimal choice of parameters of the circuit mathematically in the circuit due to the presence of many variable parameters of variables. Among them, line resistance, the resistance of resistors Rm and Rn, the power supply voltage. Furthermore, the converter 3 with PCA-activated its output lamp and the resistor has a pronounced non-linear characteristic of the output voltage depending on the load.
Meanwhile, the safe operation of the relay R, DP and software needs and can be provided at any allowable voltage fluctuation and power supply loop resistance line circuit if the following conditions are adhered to.
In track mode, the voltage at the origin of the linear relay coil ON at least 1.5 times higher than the total voltage of gravity of his anchor; mode consent regime and removing the key-rod tension on the linear winding relay voltage is less than half the full gravity of his anchor, and the current line exceeds the current full anchor attraction relay A is not less than 1.5 times; Trip mode of arrival in the current line exceeds the current full anchor attraction relays A and DP is not less than 1.5 times.
To fulfill these conditions, no adjustment is necessary to change the circuit-linear circuit BPM, as shown in the figure, ie. E. To abolish the resistors on the output power; include an additional resistor RH, shunted the rear contact of the auxiliary relay ON (if the stage is not equipped with key-rod RchD is included in the scheme, as shown in phantom); set a maximum supply voltage, but not more than 100; A relay coil, as well as relay APs are connected in series or in parallel, if the low voltage power supply.
When making these changes should set the values of resistors Rin and Rfl. Resistor Rm is determined in track mode of departure. To fix the circuit in this mode at the receiving station blackout rule consent relay after relay ON, and at the departure station — de-energized = relay of OP after the relay agents. Then, by changing the resistance of the resistor Rm receiving station, mounted on a linear relay coil voltage is 1.5 times the voltage of the full gravity of his anchor.
Resistor RH determine the mode of consent. For this, changing the resistance Rfl at the departure station, set the current in the line, a current 1.5 times the full attraction A relay armature this station. Then measure the voltage across the relay coil linear receiving station, which should not exceed half of the total attraction of the armature voltage of the relay.
After selecting the nominal resistance and installation RchSh and Rfl at both stations check mode settings cottages arrival.
To fix the circuit in this mode at the departure station exclude excitation relay RH after tripping relay line, and at the receiving station — de-energization of the relays after tripping DP. Then measure the current in the line, which is not less than 1.5 times exceed current full anchor attraction relays A departure station and the relay station receiving DP.
Next, check the mode of removing the key-rod. To do this, measure the voltage across the relay coil linear station towards which the train. It must be equal to the voltage on the same relay mode consent and shall not exceed half of the total attraction of the armature voltage of the relay.
Sometimes there may be an overload relay A and DP modes track departure and arrival of cottages. Such congestion can be neglected due to the short duration of the current flow through the windings in these modes.
In some cases, on the adjacent stations are installed similar to the functions of different types of relays, as well as unequal power sources. This is acceptable, but prior to adjusting the scheme must be possible symmetrize impedance and type of inclusion of windings similar to a relay on the characteristics of the relay on the power supply voltage.
Keep in mind that the better the quality adjustment, the larger the current full anchor attraction relays (one coil) current full anchor attraction relays L. In addition, the characteristics of the current relay A and DP should not differ significantly.
Adjusting the BPM scheme of a linear chain of a device, especially in heavy traffic trains can cause some difficulties. Therefore, in the laboratory of the Moscow road signaling variants tested schemes RPB linear chain that do not require adjustment of parameters.
INDICATORS impulse control
VP Tsodikov, a senior engineer of laboratory automation, remote control and communication Odessa road
W ith commissioning, as well as finding faults in the current system of centralized traffic control devices «Neva» is often a need to control the availability of single pulses and the establishment of simultaneous passage of two or three pulse signals. For these purposes, generally use an oscilloscope. However, practice shows that due to the large size of the oscilloscope to work with them is not very convenient. In carrying out these works significant time savings obtained by using indicators of impulse control.
To register for the passage of the single-pulse it is an indicator, shown in. It consists of a series-connected LEDs D type AL 102 and resistor R with the resistance-5 … 6 ohms. When finding faults clamp 1 is connected to the pole PB12 power supply and probe 2 related to the different points of the circuit. In the case of passing the single current pulse at the point in the circuit the LED will flash. That indicator is convenient to use when checking the operation of blocks BTGR, GI, GU and other units used in DC system «Neva».
Indicator shown in Fig. 2 controls the simultaneous passage of two or three pulse signals. This indicator is an electronic key.
When connecting the inputs 2, 3, 4 indicator to the point in the circuit through the diodes D1, D2 and DZ to the base of the transistor T1 in the absence of pulses fed a high potential. To the emitter of the transistor blocking voltage is applied and it is closed. Through D5 LED current does not flow.
The simultaneous reduction in capacity at all three entrances electronic key causes the current flow of the emitter — base of the transistor T1. Transistor switch is opened, the LED is connected to the pole of the PB12 and ignited. This fixed simultaneous transmission of impulses. A resistor R4 for limiting current flowing through the LED.
Structurally, the indicators may be configured as the probe (Fig. 3) having a probe body 1 and 2. All the circuit elements (resistors R and D LEDs) are mounted within the plastic housing. Power consumed by the indicators is negligible and has practically no effect on the work of centralized traffic control devices.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD ACHIEVED BY DISTANCE
AE Fedotov, Head. LIIZhT laboratory, PhD. tehn. Sciences KV Berezovsky, the head of the regulatory Research Station Main Directorate of the Ministry of Railways signaling and communication
In order to further improve the organization of the maintenance and repair of signaling systems and communications, the introduction of advanced forms of work organization, increasing the efficiency of the distances and improve the reliability of the devices General Directorate of signaling and communication MPS approved recommendations on the development of standardized tasks to employees of linear production areas and production bases signaling and Communication, № DNR-58/32 dated 21. 07. 83.
The recommendations are designed industry-research laboratory «Organization Maintenance Automation systems and communication» LIIZhT together with the Regulatory Research Station and the Main Department of the Ministry of Railways signaling and communication.
Normalized production target — a rate of work, set for workers and technical workers with hourly wages. As a rule, the normalized task expressed in the given number of rules for certain types of work or in a given volume of work in physical terms for a fixed period of time.
Norm is a one-time job, and is installed on a well-defined planning period (shift, week, month, and so on. D.), After which the replaced. It can be installed as a separate individual employee-normalized job, and the team (link, team, etc.. E.) — The normalized collective task.
For linear units normalized production sites assignment consists of two parts — fixed and variable. The first part consists of maintenance work and repairs performed in accordance with applicable for this type of device, or manual process. Form and annual four-week schedules maintenance signaling devices approved instruction TSSH / 3820. Similarly, these forms can be prepared graphics and other devices.
The normalized graph is a permanent part of the normalized job. It defines labor costs vary with the equipment area, revising relevant regulations, standards and process time. For SCB devices into standard schedule made the time spent on developing practical methods to identify and correct failures.
The second part of the normalized job includes work for which the instructions for maintenance and repair are not set the frequency and volume, but the implementation of which is necessary to ensure reliable operation of the signaling and communication devices. These works include improving the reliability of devices and changes to the scheme, supervision of employees of other services, participation in the commission checks devices, technical training of employees of other services, the supply of land, works on repair and construction, and others.
Norm setting determines the costs of regulations on every job, it keeps track of the actual performance of work and the flow of work. For signaling devices as a task, you can use normalized operational work plan, which should be added to the count of the planned and actual costs for work.
Norm reference for the workers production base distance contains a list of equipment to be repaired (device) indicating the quantities of planned and actual work on the job. The shape of the normalized jobs for workers production base is given in Appendix 2. Inspect the order of reference for the development of the normalized linear production site.
The first part of the normalized job — normalized schedule — built for a specific area (object) on the basis of the calculation of maintenance costs for standard time. It defines for each time the list of planned maintenance and repair, the place of their performance, the cast and ve guise of labor. For SCB devices normalized graph is constructed in accordance with the Methodology for calculation of maintenance for signaling systems and the construction of standardized charts.
Efforts to works that constitute the second part of the normalized job, determined based on the specific site conditions. Taking the time to oversee the work performed by employees of other services, to participate in the commission checks for the passage of trains are defined in accordance with the «Model uniform standards of maintenance time signaling systems», and labor costs for the work to improve the reliability, amendments to the scheme et al. are planned based on the specific needs of the site.
For example, the calculation of labor costs for the work to improve the reliability is based on a plan to improve the reliability of the devices, which defines the name, volume and turnaround time for each plot (object). The rate for each time a job is taken from the sectoral and cross-sectoral standards of time, and in the absence of established local rules. On this basis, determined by the required contingent of artists and labor costs for the planned period of time. The second part of the normalized job should not exceed the signaling devices 35 … 40%, and for communication devices and radio — 15 … 20% of the resources working hours.
Given the large range of communication devices and radio should be on every object with a certain kind of devices (PBX, telegraph apparatus, etc..) To build a separate schedule. The starting material for the construction of standardized maintenance schedules communication devices are appropriate instructions for maintenance, processes, standard time and equipped facilities.
An example of the distribution of time spent in a normalized setting for communication devices per person as a percentage:
85 4 Execution of works on normalized graphics reserve time on troubleshooting work on plans to improve the reliability. . amendments to the scheme and modernization of equipment supply station.
In constructing the normalized job should strive to reduce downtime caused by the set-closing operations and maintenance of the workplace. For example, to reduce the time spent on crossings and crossings advisable to take into account when planning the time to move in the normalized graph. This is especially important when planning a centralized team, serving several stations and spans.
When planning work should be grouped so as to minimize the time for transitions, for example, for one day to perform work in the same neck of the station, while providing a full load of workers.
When servicing a centralized team of expedient devices with the characteristics of specific objects form the enlarged range of activities, such as: 1 complex — weekly; 2 complex — monthly; 3 complex — quarterly; 4 complex — a semi-annual (seasonal); 5 complex — work with an annual and more frequently.
However, it should take into account the technological compatibility of work and its complexity.
Normalized reference is made on the basis of sectoral, cross-sectoral and local technically sound norms of time, pictures of the day, chronometry observations. In developing the normalized job should conduct analytical work on the use of working time. Development normalized job being a group of chief
Total for period planning team (artist). . .
Compiled SHNS manufacturing site, team leader or senior electrician, engineer work, the advanced workers, members of the public.
Collective production target approved by the Chief of the production area and individual — Senior electrician. The normalized maintenance schedules approved by the head of the signaling and communication.
Normalized task shows objective data on the actual cost of work. This allows reasonable approach to the question of the possibilities and the limits of expansion of service areas.
Implementation of standardized tasks in the areas of signaling, mechanized slides, communications, radio, Automation passenger service PONAB, mouth, departments and other industrial base. Should be preceded by extensive preparatory work. This should consider the following: a list (inventory) of devices supported Electromechanics and electricians at the site; Track plan of the site with drawing floor devices; collections of standards of maintenance time and repair equipment; instructions, processes, guidelines and other guidance on the organization of work on signaling and communication.
The volume and range of works on repair of equipment and devices production base distances are determined technical equipment and existing technology and regulations. For the workshop teams, metrology, mechanization and others. In the absence of standards-time job is expressed in physical terms (pieces, linear meters, and so on. D.).
Standardized jobs are issued to the employee for the month, indicating the number and names of devices, standard time on the meter, the total time for a specified number of devices. At the end of the month summed up the plan.
The repair process area is expedient to use the card Labour Organization, which consist of a number of sections.
The first section — «Source data — contains the name of the device, the structure of its processing technology, a form of organization of labor, remuneration system and performance bonuses. This section is designed for the examination and analysis.
The second section — «The organization of the labor process» — includes a list and sequence of operations for each job.
The third section — «Workplace» — describes the location of objects (equipment and accessories) in the work area; rights and responsibilities of the employee; requirements for the artist, which specifies the skills, education, personal qualities, experience; bonus system.
The fourth section — «Service jobs» — includes the provision of tools, devices and protective equipment, medicines, necessary materials and technical documentation.
The fifth section — «Working conditions» — take into account local conditions of the production environment, affecting the productivity of every workplace.
The optimal mode of work is based on the rather general and local lighting, permissible ambient temperature, normal humidity and the absence of harmful substances in the air. The special factors include industrial hygiene requirements and aesthetics, clear rules of work and rest.
In the sixth chapter — «Standards of labor» — are standard time, defined the rational organization of the labor process and the new conditions provided for by card. Technological and physiological breaks are set at regular intervals during the working day and make up 7.1% of the time.
On the basis of the implementing organization of labor cards issued normalized job working day, week, month.
The use of maps and system performance monitoring helps eliminate the loss of working time, which will definitely improve the quality of maintenance and reliability of the devices operating on the art signaling and communication.
An important place in the organization of the RTU takes to ensure the release of defect-free products with the issuance of a guarantee of its trouble-free operation in the field. The system of defect-free work on the principles of quality assessment of each worker and the collective as a whole. In general, the level of defect-free labor is defined as the percentage of delivery of repaired devices from the first filing clerk or Senior electrician.
To be effective, work on tasks you need to be normalized to control their execution. This control is a senior electrician. At the same time the total complexity of the set and the work performed and actual hours worked (Personnel) time is determined by the level of implementation of standardized assignments for the month. The system of monitoring the implementation of the normalized job involves fixing the actual commencement, completion and quality of each of the works included in the task. Performing maintenance work signaling systems along with senior electrician monitors the shift engineer distance. To do this, he must have copies of standardized schedules maintenance. Shift engineer should have a control chart in which it is at the beginning of the working day (shift) indicates the planned work in accordance with the schedules and reports of senior electrical engineers, and in the end of the shift marks the actual performance of work in the areas distance.
Normalized task is completed at the end of the planned activities in the prescribed amount for a period of time for which the task is made. When performing more work than is set in a normed reference, it is considered to be over-fulfillment.
The organization works on normalized production orders provide bonuses of employees. Bonuses must ensure the promotion of an intense, highly productive labor, initiative and creative approach to business, the responsibility of employees for the implementation of plans and tasks, compliance with production and labor discipline.
In determining the amount of the premium it is advisable to establish their dependence on the results of socialist competition between departments, teams and individual employees. Prize workers overfulfilled normalized job, are paid at a higher rate.
It is recommended to award the engineering staff and workers for direct participation in development ‘and the introduction of organizational and technical measures to reduce the complexity of maintenance and repairs at the expense of part of savings in salaries (but not more than 30%) obtained by reducing the labor costs for maintenance and repair of automation. The working-time-worker at work on a normed assignments can be set tariff rates pieceworkers.
For the combination of professions (positions) and the implementation of the established scope of work at the number of workers with hourly wages are set co-pay 50% of the tariff rate (salary), and engineering and technical staff — 30% of the salary to the main job.
The working-time-worker Electrician and Senior electrician installed a surcharge of 50% of the tariff rate (salary) for the execution along with their main job in the case of industrial necessity duties temporarily absent employee due to illness, vacation, business trips, etc..
Electromechanics and Senior electrician supplement set for the execution of works temporarily absent electricians (electrical engineers and electricians older) involved maintenance and repair of automation devices and communications.
Breido AI Ovsyannikov 8. A service organization of railway communication devices for automatic meters.
In recent years, complicated conditions of service automation devices, remote control and communication, increased demands on the reliability of these devices, the WHO-growing complexity of serviced equipment, as well as the intensity of its use. The book presents a systematic organizational and technological approach to the development of the maintenance system devices (Stowe) automation and communication on railway transport. It outlines ways to improve both the production process and system management services. Summarizes many scientific developments and best practices in technical content devices. The authors show that the development of the maintenance system should be aimed at further centralization and industrialization of processes covering the issues of technical and economic efficiency of progressive organization MOT.
The focus is on the main production units industry — signaling and communication, which are regarded as independent production and economic systems.
Contents: A systematic approach to the maintenance organization. — Improving the organization and management system of MOT. — Improving the efficiency of the maintenance process.
Track and Auto-lock / H. F. Kotlyarenko AV Shishlyakov YB Sobolev et al.
The principles of construction of modern systems of interval regulation of movement of trains — track blocking signal auto-lock, remote monitoring and automatic protecting devices at level crossings. Ras-looking device and the theory of track circuits and other travel sensors. The main attention is given to the most advanced domestic system.
Contents: 1. Basics of track blocking and autoregulation. (The concept of the track lock, auto. — Travel optic channels and devices. — Rail chain as a travel aid and channels. — Fundamentals of the theory and methods of calculation of track circuits. — Methods of analysis and synthesis of track circuits. — Special types of track circuits (jointless, chain overlay and others.) .- Point travel sensors and channels). 2. Travel lock. (Auto-lock. — Features bilateral automatic locking systems. — Domestic auto lock system. — Reliability and maintainability interlocks. — Semi-automatic lock). 3. Auto-Signal. (General principles of signal-leveling. — Prospects for the development of systems and AUDP IRDP). 4. Automatic fencing and monitoring devices. (Automatic rail crossings. — Automatic remote monitoring and technical diagnostics).
Prokofiev VA, Matlin GM Efficiency and quality of industrial communication. — M. Radio and communication, 1983.-142 with 50 k.
It describes the quality management system of networks of industrial communication; considered their quality characteristics and methods of calculation and estimation procedure gives the efficacy of such networks.
A r a i n a b MV, Orlov EA Electrical and electrical measurements: Textbook for technical communication.
The physical processes occurring in the DC and AC methods for calculating electric and magnetic circuits. We describe the devices and methods of measurement of electrical quantities. The main provisions of electrical engineering and electrical measurements revealed on examples taken from the art of communication, and above all wired (telephone, TV-graph of outside plant).
Experience shows that the introduction of dispatching management greatly increases the quality of the operational activities of signaling and communication. Through a shift engineer heads distances get the necessary amount of information from production areas and are able to quickly solve the management issues.
The initiators of the introduction of dispatching management of the farm signaling and communication systems of the South Urals and the roads were Poletayevskaya Kartalinskaya distance. This method of management in 1972 has been extended to all road distances and has been continuously improved.
In 1979 he was issued instructions dispatching management on the farm signaling and communications approved by the head of the road. These instructions set out in detail the work shift engineer, showing their relationship to train and energy managers, assistant station operators and distance path. In drawing up the instructions into account the experience Likhovsky distance Southeast road. In 1983 instruction manual dispatch has been reprinted.
Actions shift engineer regulated schedule of the process, the form of which is shown in the Table. 1. Schedule provides: daily monitoring of the planning work for the four-week Senior electrician and annual schedule, plans to increase reliability, and receive reports on their implementation; introduction of technical staff with the governing documents of the Ministry of Railways, road management, separation and distance; report on the work of the leadership of the distance units per day; monitor the implementation of the rules of works when you turn off the devices and others. On the chart of the process of the work performed in the day shift, marked with a green pencil, and in the night — red.
A wide variety of issues decides to change engineers distances. They are skilled specialists with high theoretical knowledge and with considerable work experience. Professional development of engineers contribute to the ongoing replacement of targeted testing of linear objects, actively participated in organizing and conducting technical training.
Regularly (once every 2 years) Front signaling service signaling and communications holds refresher courses engineers with removable separation from their production. The courses, along with the study of signaling systems and communication, job descriptions practice with shutdown devices signaling when inspection or repair.
Let us consider the particular performance of his duties as a shift engineer.
Performing at distances four-week schedules maintenance signaling devices controlled by a special control chart.
Head distances can charge a shift engineer to monitor the implementation of a number of one-off activities and events. These include, for example, more frequent checks of insulation installation in the spring, urgent work on the instructions of the parent organizations, extraordinary inspection devices, measures to prevent failures and others.
In the control chart shift engineer observes appropriate symbols specified on the form of graphics, turn off all cases of SCB devices, finding in controlled facilities Senior electrician, foreman, supervisors distance RTU technology teams and admitted failures in the signaling device.
Daily distances executives analyze performance of four-week schedules, provide the necessary guidance and painted in the appropriate box the control chart.
The four-week schedule of the neighborhood (the brigade) and a control schedule shift engineer are cyclical. Using the calendar of work, we can determine what work must be performed on a specific test object at any day of the year. Cyclical control chart lets make it form a unified and used on any month of the year. This form has 58 horizontal lines (8 weeks two days the first week).
Blank control chart developed by the heads of industrial sites under the supervision of the Deputy Chief of distance signaling. However, they are guided by four week the schedules the neighborhood (teams).
Control over the implementation of annual schedules shift engineer is carried out using a special annual reference chart. This graph is similar to the control the four-week schedule. The only difference is that its horizontal rows are not days, months and years.
The number of controlled objects is enabled and technology of RTU team, significant work for the annual schedule for complex maintenance method auto-lock devices.
The cells controlling the annual schedule for the controlled objects for each month indicated (as in the four-week control chart) the number of annual work schedules an eye-trays (brigades). Work on a plan to improve the reliability included in the annual schedule the neighborhood (teams), also assigned numbers that are ciphers of these works in the reference annual schedule shift engineer.
A specific day of work annual schedule and a plan to increase the reliability of the senior electrician points, accounting for the neighborhood (team) operational plan of work for the month. Receiving from senior electrician on the implementation of an electrician (a team) specific work shift engineer shades corresponding numbers work at the annual control schedule.
The four-week and annual monitoring schedules are very convenient for analysis. They allow management to distance with a minimum of time to determine the status of implementation of maintenance signaling systems and take appropriate action.
The analysis shows that in the case of marriage, the accident and the collapse in the economy of signaling and communication operational staff admitted mainly due to breaches of the TOR and job descriptions during inspection and repairs. Only a fraction of these cases is the result of imperfections in the equipment or circuitry. In this regard, the efforts of commanders distances (including the replacement of engineers) are directed primarily at the education of electrical engineers and electricians have a high sense of responsibility for traffic safety.
Each okolotok (team) has a folder guidance on road safety outlining the circumstances and causes of the available instances in the marriage. Replacement engineer at least every 6 months over the phone checks the availability of existing guidance on the neighborhood with its controlling instance. When the actual command of the checks the neighborhood distance, public inspector on the spot convinced definition of knowledge of these indications staff.
In addition, to enhance the safety of work in the most complex signaling systems associated with shutdown devices (see. Annex number 1 instruction TSSH 3378), carried out with the consent and under the supervision of the shift engineer. At the same time enjoy the special control card. Total compiled 33 control cards. They detail the exemplary records, which shall be made in the Journal of the contractor and the inspection station duty officer, describes how to turn off the devices and test them before putting into operation. It should be noted that these cards are only to employees distances. They are used in the activity of station duty officer.
Before the production of specific work to harmonize shift engineer makes sure that you have permission of the persons concerned to turn off the devices and the position corresponds to the position of the responsible officer specified in the instructions TSSH / TSSH 3820 and 3378. In the appointment of the Executive takes into account his experience, scope of work, the intensity of the movement of trains and so on. n. If necessary, the works entrusted to Senior electrician.
With permission to disable devices (eg, arrows) shift engineer is satisfied in the knowledge-work electrician. For this, he hears on the phone text entry you should issue the electrician in the Journal of inspection and, if it is correct, approves it, making a mark in a special audit log. Then we test the knowledge of an electrician measures to avoid errors during the installation layout, as well as is noted in the audit log. After that revealed knowledge electrician about the inclusion of the arrow, the sequence and content of the checks which it must carry out in conjunction with the duty on the station before turning arrows in centralization.
Making sure that the electrician clearly knows all the rules of design and production of this work, shift engineer on the phone sends text matching. Shape magazine alignment and sample text entries are shown in Table. 4.
After receiving approval Electrician provides for the signature of the duty station post-off arrow. Fulfill the requirements set out in the record, as well as safety measures according to the instructions TSSH 3378, the duty on the station sign post electrician.
Turning off the device generates signaling actions of the agents of movement unusual situation. There are additional challenges in ensuring the smooth and safe movement of trains. In such circumstances, there must be mutual vigilance of all employees involved. Therefore, having received permission to turn off the device, electrician confirms that the duty at the station met all the requirements laid down in the record. Otherwise, proceed to the work is prohibited.
At the end of the work and the performance together with the duty officer at the station provided for the control card checks electrician prepares the recording and includes an arrow in the centralization Thus he shall make known to shift engineer, reporting to him on the phone records of the content of the arrow and turn on the checks carried out
If the record and the checks carried out its specified in the control card, shift engineer makes a mark in the audit log (see. Tab. 3) and negotiates the inclusion of arrows in the form set out in the journal coordination work (see. Tab. 4). After this work is complete.
In the case where any of the checks will be not done Electrician perform it and report to the shift engineer. Only then do the last record in the audit log on the implementation of the missing checks and will call an agreement on the inclusion of the arrow.
An audit trail of examination electrician from the beginning to the end of the work should be on the table shift engineer. And it is open to the page where there are recording device is turned off, a constant reminder of the fact that the work is not yet finished.
To analyze the implementation of the rules of production work, as well as measures all violations negotiations duty engineer and electrician when negotiating off signaling devices are recorded on magnetic tape.
Instruction for dispatch management on the road set a specific procedure for the organization to eliminate failures. After receiving a message of station duty officer or train dispatcher and specifying the nature of the failure, shift engineer is electromechanical, finds his ability to do the task, give the necessary instructions and conducts coaching. If necessary, it can be caused by Senior Electrician or Electrician another the neighborhood. In cases provided for by the Instruction on train movement and shunting operations on the railways of the USSR, shift engineer, signed by one of the leaders of the distance gives a request for the issuance of warnings of malfunction.
If the notification of refusal in the electromechanical device receives directly from the station duty officer, he shall cause a shift engineer, inform him of the problem and to obtain the necessary guidance.
The reason for failure signaling devices may be a fault in the power supply devices, elements of rail chains and centralized arrows, serving employees and distances energouchastkov way. Therefore, shift engineer shall make known Power dispatcher and operator of the way, that also send their employees to the fault. Employees of these services are not called to eliminate failure only when the nature of the fault, there is full clarity in their innocence.
Electrician, arriving to the station duty officer, met with a record of failure in the Journal of inspection and signs in her reading, indicating the date and time. If the log entry inspection is not, it should require its registration.
Sometimes electrician arrives at the fault itself in the area of the devices. He should call the station duty officer on the phone to report their arrival and ensure that you have a record of failure in the Journal survey.
If the corrective action is required to turn off the device, the electrician it draws off the procedure outlined above.
Electrician forbidden to make promises assistant station maturity troubleshooting. Failure to meet these deadlines in an environment where in anticipation of action art restore normal train traffic stopped, causing electrician and assistant station additional nervousness. This leads (in order to avoid further delay trains) Electrician give a false condition monitoring devices as assistant station — to simplify the procedure for admission and departure of trains at prohibiting signals, which can lead to serious consequences.
When a device failure on duty at the station, wasting no time, shall arrange for the promotion of trains procedure provided for PTE, technical and administrative act of station, and local instructions on how to use signaling devices. .
During troubleshooting of devices, and semi-automatic lock, requiring artificial restoration of locked chains Electrician convinced of the closure of these units by the order of train dispatcher.
Each case of failure signaling devices regardless of whether it is caused train delays or not being investigated by the procedure established by the Regulations on the dispatch management. The development of measures to prevent the violations of the devices made head of production sites and Senior electrician. Monitoring the implementation of planned activities, as well as orders of the leaders of the distance (on their behalf) is assigned to the shift engineer. Report on the implementation of activities of Senior electrician.
To restore the operation of the device at distances there is a constant supply of emergency recovery equipment, devices and materials. A list of the stock, indicating the number and the storage location is approved by the order of the head of the race. In the same order specified persons responsible for the safety and replenishment. In the field storage reserve must be approved by order of discharge from the list.
Emergency recovery reserve may be used only with permission of shift engineer who controls his presence. Twice a year Electromechanics report to shift engineer of a stock of each item of the list approved for each station.
For the convenience of controlling the availability of stock at the shift engineer there is a general statement on thick paper showing all the places of storage. The numerator (ink) contains the approved rate, the denominator (pencil) — the actual availability.
The mark of this resolution on the use of emergency and restorative margin shift engineer does in the column «Note» against the relevant item in the list. Simultaneously pencil corrected figure the actual availability of this material at a particular station. As replenishment pencil marks on the actual presence of his corrected, and the mark in the application is abolished.
For operational control over the work of replacement devices ALSN engineers are depicted on thick paper one line travel plans with distances shown in these signaling installations and track circuits (see. Figure). The top and bottom plan, respectively the even and odd lines drawn on the 12 horizontal lines, which are the months of the year. Upon receipt of information about violations of the ALSN shift engineer makes an entry in a special register. At the same time on one line in the column Plan, located at the intersection of a particular month and the track circuit, he said the number of violations. On elimination of failures on the plane also made a mark in the register of the work ALSN the reasons for violations and the measures taken.
The procedure for obtaining data on the devices as a result of decoding ALSN skorostemernyh tapes and comments on the work of device drivers on the route set together heads of signaling and communication and locomotive depot.
Instructions for dispatching management also provided a procedure for monitoring the work of the shift engineer of radio devices, sing AB, funds wired communications. For these purposes, developed the necessary accounting and reporting forms, issued orders on the order of the chief of the road maintenance and operation of technological devices by all involved agencies
Perform monthly and annual maintenance schedules technological communication devices similar to devices controlled by SCB. At a distance of great equipment of signaling devices, at the discretion of the chief of the distance and according to the approved list they shift engineer is allowed to monitor the implementation of certain types of maintenance of communication devices.
Replacement engineers have the necessary background material for the organization due to the place of work. Chiefs distances monthly plan monitoring checks connection with conditional jobs.
For replaceable engineers entrusted with a significant amount of work to monitor the implementation of the technical staff of safety requirements.
They also control the observance of safety regulations and industrial hygiene at the farm of signaling and communication of railway transport TSSH 2729 in terms of the composition of teams of at least two people. At the same time guided by a list of works, composed of Communication and agreed to the main technical inspector of trade union and the chief physician of the road sled tare.
We shift engineer and the neighborhood are all linear folder guidance on safety and occupational health. These guidelines established by the Chief skomplektovat distance to the list regularly updated and examined the operational staff. When checking the command of the linear facilities and public inspectors on the spot convinced definition of knowledge workers serving these instructions.
Significant place in the activities of a shift engineer is on account of the work of public inspectors and monitoring of the elimination of the detected deficiencies. For job accounting inspectors and their implementation is being convenient for the analysis of a special screen. The left vertical column at the screen indicate the names of the inspectors, and other columns are the months of the year. Check-up provided for each social inspector allocated to the respective month. Dates checks are applied on the screen as a fraction: the numerator — scheduled denominator — actual.
Monthly shift engineer in the prescribed form is sent to the report on the work of public inspectors, signed by the chairman of the board. Based on analysis of these reports is taking steps to improve public control, exchange of best practices in the sector of public inspectors signaling and communication roads.
A large and important work is being done as a shift engineer distances. They are equipped with special jobs with the installation of traffic control desks that are made in road communications electrical workshops. They are provided with the necessary technical literature, reference materials, equipment schemes distance signaling and communication facilities, a variety of guidance documents. All this creates the necessary conditions for the implementation of the operational work shift engineer on the organization of the operational activities, traffic safety, compliance with the rules of the work.
No room for error
Adjustment and commissioning of new automation devices are always very complicated, time-consuming and responsible operation. Therefore, all workers employed on the regulation requires impeccable discipline, accurate execution of instructions leader, who is at the controls. These qualities are necessary to vaccinate all workers, especially the young and Electrician electrician. So we always do, and no state of emergency had happened. But once…
In late November 1962 at the station Mokrous Privolzhskaya road is adjusted input devices of electric centralization. Having established telephone contact with the regulator, located at the entry of traffic lights, I instructed them to start checking devices. At the traffic lights worked odd input electromechanical 36-Khmara, M., A. Barshchou, Volkov team leader Mikhail Khmara was instructed to check the effect of the input traffic light «on», ie. E. Ignition try all five lights so that I the remote control could check readings, as they checked them directly on outdoor traffic lights. As time went by the evening twilight. Trains were taken on the testimony of the input semaphore. M. Khmara on my instructions had to leave the phone per employee, and the move to 75-100 meth ditch and check the operation of traffic lights and visibility.
He lit a green light at the traffic lights, and all three moved to see it. The phone does not nobody left. It was quite dark, the silhouette of the semaphore to be seen, but this time the passenger train should arrive Barnaul — Dnepropetrovsk. The driver could take no green light to put into action for a traffic light signal semaphore and enter the station when unprepared route. My attempts to be called to the phone Khmara, M. did not immediately reached the goal. When he finally came to the phone, I demanded immediate pay off the green light at the traffic lights. PE did not happen, although it could be.
Later, the case of violation of the order and adjust the default specifying a detailed analysis of the collective of workers involved. Sam M. Khmara was an object lesson. Then, when he became an experienced senior engineer of the site, he said more than once that the case will remember for a lifetime. The example of this violation, he builds a warning instructing subordinate employees.
Experience shows: our work related to traffic safety, do not make mistakes. This should not be forgotten.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
Labor protection at a scientific basis
VP GONCHARENKO. Teacher Ordzhonikidze Railway College
In 1982, Ordzhonikidze Railway College 80 years. More than 16 thousand specialists for steel highways of the country issued a team of teachers, putting a lot of work, knowledge, energy and experience in the education and training of students.
The staff of the college is trying to improve the learning process, comprehensively developing and improving it. So, in the previous academic year, it was put into operation a new academic study on occupational safety and fire safety. Methodical cabinet is equipped with a sound film projector «Ukraine», slide projectors «Proton» and «Speaker» tape «Yauza-209» wireless RF control working models turning and grinding machines, presses with fotoelementnoy protection. In the office of acting mounted electrical signals Railway with electrical grounding and vanishing devices, circuits, electric locks, locomotive signals, workplace locksmith repairman and lekalschika, ventilation system, model railway bridge and a working model of an electric overhead lines.
There are tools for different purposes: to determine the parameters of the microclimate (thermometers, aneroid, psychrometers, barographs, thermographs, hygrographs, catathermometer, actinometers Noskov et al.), To measure the resistance of the grounding device (devices MS-08 and M-416), for insulation resistance measurement of electrical equipment (testers, ohmmeters and Ap), to determine the occupational noise (Sound meter type Lyautey, psophometers UNP-60) and vibrograph for measuring vibration.
Picked up a great set of visual aids: Protective dielectric means for safe operations in electrical installations (clamp meter, dielectric rod lights with neon lights, portable ground insulating rubber gloves, boots, galoshes, claws, safety belts, rubber mats and others.); Industrial gas masks, respirators, goggles for electro-gas welding and other work; guards, mittens and gloves; noise-absorbing headphones and others.
There is a set of fire training facilities, two pumps MP-600 and MP-800 with a set of water-pressure fire hoses and shafts, various fire extinguishers, foam generator, helmets, protective clothing for workers and fire, lighting electric lights, a set of fire arms and others.
On the walls there are colorful posters, charts, diagrams, stands with the magazines «Firefighting», «Safety in Industry», «Health and social security», «Hygiene and Sanitation», «Hygiene and Occupational Diseases», «Soviet trade unions’ «The trade union activist-tion», with educational and reference literature. Here corners equipped to provide first aid for injuries and lesions of people electrocution, sanitation and hygiene and fire safety in industrial plants and railway transport.
A total of educational-methodical office has more than 300 educational posters, filmstrips and 1000, 30 tapes, films on the subject of occupational safety, 200 volumes of books and spravochikov, over 600 leaflets and brochures. Established elektroekzamenator to which part-Lena card with control issues. Listed allows teachers OSH conduct classes with students clearer, more confident, more interesting.
Invaluable assistance College in equipment cabinet with all the necessary installations, tools and devices have many organizations. Eto- Gosgortechnadzor the Terek District, technical labor inspectorate of the North Ossetian oblsofprofa, Republican and mining labor inspection Dorprofsozha paradise-profsozha SKZHD, House Republican Health Education Committee of the Red Cross of the North Ossetian ASSR. To assist in the work of a number of industrial enterprises and the fire of the city of Ordzhonikidze and the Chechen-Ingush ASSR.
Job training and methodical study of labor protection and fire safety in our college is not limited to the educational process. Cabinet established and acting in college on the initiative of the Fire Department of the Interior Ministry and the Board of the All-Union Voluntary Fire Society of North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, became the headquarters carried out in technical work on labor protection and fire safety, the center of propaganda of the organization’s knowledge of educational-methodical work and volunteer fire brigades . It conducted monitoring of the safety of work in the classrooms, laboratories and training workshops, check the condition of labor protection and fire safety in the school as a whole. Audit results are discussed at meetings, meetings of the administration and public organizations College.
For the purpose of the planned work on health and fire safety administration, the party bureau, and identified a number of technical trade union activities. For example, a teacher of labor protection introduced in the State Examination Commission. It is planned in the future on the basis of educational and methodical study organized by the University of labor protection and fire safety visits to establish a construction crew to check the status of occupational health and safety in the field harvesting in state and collective farms. The order of the instruction sent to the industrial practice of students: if earlier it was engaged only deputy director of apprenticeship training, now involved department heads, class teachers, teachers — social engineers on labor safety and fire prevention. With this instruction became more complete, thorough, businesslike and concrete.
Modern commander production in any sector of the economy, and on the railways in particular, should be able to organize the production process at the assigned site so as to prevent accidents and damage, injuries, occupational diseases and fires. Therefore, teachers in the classroom convince students that labor protection and fire safety is a matter of engineering, without deep knowledge which can not be in production efficiency and skillful commander.
However, to be allowed to program the time to study the subject does not allow students to thorough enough to assimilate the knowledge obtained. In addition, between programs and curriculum coherence and consistency there, they do not fully take into account the requirements for this discipline Trade Unions and the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the USSR.
The current training program for current technical railway transport, approved in 1967 GUUZom at the rate of labor protection, in our view, is obsolete and requires revision. The program includes the study of the subject is distributed as follows: 60 hours devoted to the general course of occupational health and safety, 20 hours — a specialized series of labor protection in the study subjects on a specialty, 6 hours — on lab work. Experience shows that it is more expedient to provide at all times fully instructor leading a course of labor protection. This program will allow it to conduct a more complete detail, with teaching students practical skills.
An important stage in the preparation of a commander’s staff course and diploma design. " It is here revealed the ability of future technology, engineering alone, technically competent to think, correctly put into practice the knowledge acquired. Unfortunately, the technical schools this important form of practical training program does not exist and is not applied to the subject «Occupational Safety». Meanwhile, there is a positive example of this kind of work in Gorski * Agricultural Institute, which have been developed and protected by 17 graduation projects purely on labor protection and fire safety on the basis of educational and methodical study (departments in this institute is not).
It complicates our work irregular flow from higher authorities guidance materials: various decrees, regulations, orders newsletters. For example, 13.08. 1982 was approved and adopted by the All existing provisions on investigation and recording of injuries, but in college this important document is not entered so far. In order to have the necessary materials, teachers are turning to the workers of technical labor inspection in industrial pre-acceptance and discharged from the main provisions of their documents. I would like to receive education and other regulatory documents on labor protection on a regular basis and first-hand *
It should pay attention to the training of teaching staff for the protection of labor. It is necessary to organize regular courses on the basis of special institutions of labor protection like other sectors of the economy, where they could get acquainted with the modern methods of analysis and injury prevention, to examine the visitors’ OSSS, learn from industry-leading companies, to see the new equipment and devices, visit the museum or exhibition of occupational safety and fire safety., In addition, it is advisable to legalize the situation, according to which the post of a teacher of the subject «Health and safety» would be appointed a person who worked in the production process or safety engineer for at least 3 years.
It should be noted also that the textbook «Occupational safety in rail transport and the transport I Construction» ed. LV Loshchinina (M. Real, | 1976), for which are currently being trained, out of date, it did not reflect the requirements of TV.Guests and Occupational Safety Standards, safe work practices in the locomotive, track facilities, the farm signaling and communication insufficient fire safety section. It should soon revise it or publish a new textbook.
Finally, a few words on the status of staffing of teaching aids for studies on occupational safety and fire safety. Unfortunately, the factory manuals «Layout» bad application implements educational institutions. Thus, in the 1982- 983 years. Our college has received from her instead of 80 items of existing models and schemes only 8 posters more than 100 items we ordered the factory, but so far not received a single kit. In addition, the products of this factory is obsolete, it is time to revise its range of its products, many of them replaced by more modern ones. It is also necessary that the factory produced models and electric circuits and fire safety.
These difficulties significantly hinder the improvement of the learning process of students. This leads to the fact that often after graduation young professionals poorly guided in matters of labor legislation, have only a superficial understanding of the organization of labor protection and fire safety in the workplace, do not know the order instructing employees on safe work practices and procedures for investigation and accounting accidents and others.
It accumulated a lot of unresolved issues. The faster and better they will be addressed, the greater the benefit will be the company, the state will receive a lot of help. And the faster and better will solve the problems posed in the field of labor protection and fire safety of the XXVI Congress of the CPSU and the November (1982) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee for the Advancement of all parts of our economy, including the Ministry of Railways.
SETTING RADIO ACS TYPE zhru
The editorial office receives letters, in which readers are asked to publish articles about setting up and checking the various components such as radios zhru. The proposed following article on how to configure ACS says the developer of the device Art. Laboratory engineer radio VNIIZhT MI IOF.
Antenna matching unit (ASU) hectometer range radio zhru type described by the author in the development of the article «Antenna matching device to high. N. D.» («ATIS», 1972, number 9). Until 1981 locomotive JR-K-LP (42RTM-A2-FM) and stationary JR-K-SP (43RTS-A2-FM) radio station train manned by such automation. They had a common design and decoration were universal for these stations.
In 1981 it was decided to equip the locomotive radio automation easier. In the scheme of a simplified version of ACS no OT switch and inductor L1; ACS design has not changed. This ASU provides the only inductive antenna. In this regard, setting universal automation, as well as recommendations on the use of equivalent antenna suitable for the ACS operation performed by the simplified scheme.
This is done because the locomotive radio antenna devices structurally designed the same and represent a piece of wire (cord) … A 14m long, suspended above the roof of the locomotive at a height of 0.4 … 0.6 m and at the end of the grounded (electrically connected with the roof of the locomotive). Input electrical characteristics of such antennas is also quite monotonous.
Installing ACS in the body of the locomotive is not difficult, since the operation on Locomotive Works — and at the depot quite worked out and practically does not differ from the installation of automated control stations JR-ZM. It is important to properly configure AMS, as the results of the settings can be seen on the transmitter power and the status of antenna-feeder devices.
Consider the method of setting universal automation. On the universal ACS (produced before 1981) there are 4 control settings: «Antenna» (capacitive, long, short capacitive, inductive), «Adjusting communication» (1 … 10), «Setting rude» (1 … eleven); «Setting smoothly» and the unit «The current antenna» and switch its sensitivity («1A» or «for»). Note that this indicator ammeter and absolute indications can not be used for any electrical calculations of antenna-feeder devices.
Before setting the ACS, ensure that the antenna is securely connected to the trigger terminal «A», and terminals «P» and «3» ACS bridged. You should check the reliability and quality of the ground (Connect the end of the antenna to the roof of the locomotive), and the purity of Oreshkova insulators antenna.
It is known that the input parameters of the standard locomotive grounded antenna parameters of two-terminal equivalent, consisting of series-connected inductance L and resistance, the value of L is mainly determined by the total length of the antenna, and is about 14 mH and resistance may be in the range of 2 … 6 ohms.
When bad connection en tennogo input jack «A» automation or in poor contact with the other end of the antenna to the roof of the locomotive resistance r increases, and may be more than 20 ohms. This is unacceptable, since a large part of the transmitter power is consumed for heating the contact connections. Similar phenomena can be observed with the antenna dirty isolators.
It is known that the input impedance of the antenna locomotive has inductive character, so the regulator «Antenna» must be set in the «inductive». Regulator «Adjusting communication» is set to «5», «6» or «7» depending on the quality of the antenna (its losses). So, with a good antenna (g «3 ohms) are used to» 7 «, if the antenna is worse (g» 6 ohms) — the regulator is set to «6» or «5». Regulator «Setting rude» when L »14 uH is set to» 4 «or» 5 «.
If the locomotive antenna is shortened or lengthened, it is possible to set this control to the position of «3» to «6».
The switch indicator device «current antenna» is set to «IN.» Then include the radio transmission and slowly rotating the «Setting smoothly» achieve maximum ammeter. If the readings are small — scale ammeter switch to «1A». Then turn the knob «Setting rude» to the left and right are not one division and the regulator «Setting smoothly» achieve the maximum ammeter.
Similar operations to configure ACS to install the regulator «Adjusting communication» to «6» or «5». At the maximum ammeter replaced chayut-position controls that will facilitate the setting of ACS when working with the same locomotive radio antennas. For an objective assessment of the power transmitter and an antenna-feeder devices is advisable to control the setting of the transmitter to the antenna equivalents, having a constant inductance L = 14 mH and a resistance r = 3 and b ohms.
As the inductance is convenient to use a large coil Vario matching device radio station JR-ZM. This coil has inductance L L? 14 uH, its quality factor Q yes … 190 200. Active resistance r = 3 and 6 Ohm recommended manufacture of 5 parallel-connected resistors MLT type-2, respectively 15 and 30 ohms.
Guard DEVICES centralized traffic control system «Luch»
Enacted developed by the institute «Giprotranssignalsvyaz» typical design decisions 501-05-25.83 TU-20-81 «Guards Device Manager XYZ centralization of» Ray. «
Unlike typical design solutions 501-0-49 TU-16 «Guards unit centralized traffic control system» Neva «new solutions provided for the following: increased number of controlled linear points to 32, while the number of controlled train and shunting routes per linear point — to 100; capacity of the system via remote control is 8000, and via remote signaling — 1840; Code of chains manages route shunting movements and the transfer of commands related to traffic safety; transmission of information on the technical condition of automation devices, remote control and communication at the stations; the ability to connect devices to the DC post any party line code; the use of equipment on silicon transistors; Cross-system installation; cabling on top of the cabinet.
Typical design solutions consist of three albums: 1 — Explanatory Note 2 — scheme standard cabinets, 3 — general schemes.
Creative search-wide road
EA Lemper, Art. Engineer distance Gorky-Moscow Gorky road
Innovators and inventors of our distance contribute to ensure reliable operation of automation, remote control and communication, increase traffic safety and improve working conditions. Improving the forms and methods of work, innovators are actively seeking solutions the main production problems.
When the operational state of a distance of 530 people in 1983 to take part in creative activities 137. They made 172 innovations. Introduced into production five inventions. From the use of innovations and inventions reach an annual economic impact of 66.5 thousand. Rub. According to the results of the road conditions of socialist competition team of innovators distance was awarded first place among the enterprises of the Gorky branch of the road. For achieving in 1983 the best results in the road of socialist competition rationalization and invention management Gorky road and signalers Dorprofsozh awarded Certificate of Merit.
Success in innovation activity achieves N youth race. Every year in the search for innovative involved more than 50 young workers. In 1983 they made 70 proposals, the use of which resulted in savings of more than 10 thousand. Rub. For high performance in technical creativity Senior electrician Anatoly Krylov Viktor Yermolaev, Lyudmila Lebedeva, Peter Manevichi and electrician Irina Trifonova was awarded the title «Best Young Innovator of the Gorky Railway.»
During the creation and development of their use are constantly carried out systematic monitoring and assistance from the leadership race. Rationalization work is seen in the company as one of the key performance indicators, and taken into account when summing up the results of socialist competition between sites.
Technical Search enterprise is closely related to the work of the primary organization of VOIR. As a creative association of employees, it plays a significant role in the deployment of the initiative of the workers and technical workers, contributes to their technical and creative growth, actively helping to solve production problems.
At the heart of inventive and innovative work on the course — planned. Long-term plan drawn up for five years. Its content is specified in the annual plans. Each area is assigned according to the conditions of work, number of employees and their qualifications. This provides a relatively uniform loading of the creative. Now, when the whole team is working on a distance of execution of tasks of the fourth year of the eleventh five-year plan, our thematic plan, taking into account the specifics of the enterprise, orientiret innovators to address the most important issues of production.
A common form of collective creativity in the distance are the public integrated creative team (OKTB). They have 29 and they unite in their ranks 140 people. Members OKTB help innovators in performance of drawings, calculations and design proposals. The structure consists of the heads of OKTB production sites, senior engineers, senior electricians, engineers and leaders of manufacture. Through active OKTB offers improved design and increased the number of development with economic benefit.
Best OKTB are passenger station automation, headed by VP Sheshokinym central post centralized traffic control area Gorky — Arzamas (Head of LI Lebedeva), signaling station Gorky-Moscow, headed by AL Gruzdev, repair and Technology section [Head VM Silant’ev) and others.
Senior Engineer SG Kaganovich, Senior electrician LI Lebedev and AL Krylov developed the scheme and have made themselves control for measuring and control devices for automatic connection to the control room dispatcher centralization. From the use of this offer by reducing the labor costs of annual economic effect of $ 2 thousand. Rub. The proposal on a road show-competition got second place. Head of production division VP and Sheshokin electrician Vladimir Lapshin set up a stand to verify the origin of pointers passenger trains. Get an annual economic benefit of 800 rubles.
The rationalization work attaches great importance to determine the effect of using the proposals and inventions. At a distance of half of the calculated cost-effectiveness of the proposals introduced in production. In determining the effectiveness of using «Guidelines for determining the cost-effectiveness of new technology, inventions and innovations» and the factsheet DTSNTI «The monetary valuation indicators of operational work, repair and maintenance of devices for the Gorky Railway.»
In order to promote employees in technical creativity and successful fulfillment of socialist obligations at a distance annually contests for the best innovations, best young innovator, the best area for rationalization work. The team race takes an active part in the ongoing separation and expensive parades con courses on inventive and innovative work. In these competitions annually distance wins prizes.
Much attention is given to the promotion of innovative activities. For this communication in the home is equipped with area for rationalization, which placed socialist obligations and the results of their implementation, thematic plan, portraits of the best innovators and team awards. On the stand you can see the work plan of the Council of VOIR, information, maps, publications TSNIITEI MEAs.
Promote the development of the rationalization of the technical information and the promotion of the latest advances in technology and excellence groups of related companies. In the distance there is a public bureau of technical information. Scientific and technical information is considered on a monthly basis on the technical advice.
Descriptions of new products with practical value are transmitted to the head portion for introduction into production. For the use of technical innovations workers are awarded quarterly from the fund for promoting invention and rationalization.
Below are the descriptions of some innovations workers distance Gorky Gorky-Moscow road.
A method for processing plate holder mechanism UOPP
Sets of plates to the mechanisms pointers departure of passenger trains (UOPP) come from the factory with the holders of which are not always suited to the holes drum mechanism. This makes the plates move heavier. Therefore electrician has to process them. Processing is carried out with a knife or needle files, to which spent a lot of time.
Electrician SV Vasiliev handles electrosolderers holders. To do this, the tip electrosoldering he drilled a hole diameter of 3 mm. The diameter of the hole to the diameter of the drum mechanism.
Treatment holder is as follows. Included electrosolderers into the hole and removed the tip is inserted into the holder. The heat carrier is made of nylon, receives the desired shape and size.
The fee for the relay RN
T o in the introductory phase control panels type TAP-40 and PT-60 applied voltage relay type RN. These relays have neshtepselnoe switch wires to its terminals are connected with screws. Replacing the relay RN — inconvenient and time-consuming work, moreover, has to do with the replacement of a partial power failure.
Senior electrician RTU VI Ermolaev offered a peculiar way of plug-in relay RN. Relay 1 through the card 2 is connected to the panel 3. relay outputs instead of screws, previously screwed ‘pins on the banana 4 fuses. This design does not violate the relay, and only provides contact with the card installed in the relay. The pins are easily removed, additional threads are not required.
The fee for the relay is shown in Fig. 2. It is made of PCB or Micarta thickness of 5 mm. The board drilled four holes of 5 mm diameter for fixing the board to the panel, and four holes with a diameter of 5 mm for the installation of brass plugs, which fit pins. The sleeve is made of brass tube, which is inserted into the hole and the two sides flared. The proposed fee allows you to replace the switch without turning off the voltage, improving working conditions and safety.
A method of pouring water in batteries
In the operation of batteries such as the UK often have (weekly) to refill them with distilled water. A method of topping up with distilled water into the bottom of the battery offered a senior electrician NA Kayanovich. Due to the different densities of water and electrolyte water is coming up from below and thus uniformly mixed with the electrolyte. Density is controlled by a refilling hydrometer more accurately.
1 glass tube with a rubber tip 2 is immersed in the battery 3. Clip 4 glass tube is connected to a rubber tube 5. Its other end is in a container with distilled water 6 and held there by means of the load 7. At the end of the glass tube is placed in a special foam .
The proposed device allows to eliminate the overflow of water, reduced work time electrician servicing batteries to fill, check the electrolyte density and voltage on batteries.
How to make a groove
T o increase productivity while gouging grooves in walls and ceilings for hidden wiring electrician ME Pyuro produced a special device in the picture below. It consists of: 1 cutter, cutter heads for 2, with the bearing holder 3, 4 and guard attachment to an electric drill 5.
In operation tool inserted into the electric drill. Include the electric network. Through the proposed device on the wall (or ceiling X is obtained the necessary groove, and which is laid wiring.
Battery low voltage
AL BELOUSOV engineer
In the journal «Automation, Remote Control and Communication» № 4 for 1983 was published description and diagram of a simple battery tester is not sensitive to a change in polarity of the input terminals.
The device can be improved by using the principle of «stretching» of the scale measuring device, can significantly improve the accuracy of measurements. For that a zener diode connected in series with a meter — milliammeter (Fig. 1 shows the battery tester). The lower limit of the measurement of UCT + 1,5 B, where UCT — voltage zener D5. The upper limit of the measured voltage set selection of the resistor R1. At face value, indicated in the diagram, the device allows a high degree of accuracy to measure the voltage across the terminals of the batteries within 10 … 15 * The measuring range can be changed either by using another zener diode (lower limit), or change the nominal value of the resistor R1 (upper limit) .
The battery tester can be used by any or milliamp ammeter with a current full deflection of 100 mA to 3.0 mA. In the case of a current milliammeter full deflection in the range of 3.0 … 20 mA, the resistor R2 should be deleted from the circuit.
The device operates as follows. If the battery voltage is within a predetermined range, the LED does not light D2 (the outputs D1.3, D1.4 present a logical «one» — high potential). By lowering the voltage LED lights up and shines continuously (at the outputs Dl.l — D1.2 present «unit», and the output D1.3, D1.4 — logic «zero»). With increasing voltage LED «flashing» with a frequency of 1.5 Hz. It should be remembered that the work of this scheme is managed by the LED D2 «zero» on the output element D1.3, D1.4, connected in parallel. It is possible to increase the load capacity gates series K176LA7.
The lower limit is set resistor R1, the top — resistor R2. Brightness LED govern the selection of the value of the resistor R6. The frequency of «blinks» You can change the selection of the resistor R5.
The device is designed to control the battery with a rated voltage of 12 … 24 V. When a voltage of 18 V nominal resistor R3 should be increased to 620 ohms.
The battery voltage can be controlled also by means of the circuit shown in Fig. 3. There is applied K155LAZ chip series. The circuit operates reliably and significantly improved the accuracy of the installation of the threshold voltage (the error does not exceed 0.1-0.2 V) to include zener D1 (D814A). In addition, the device is collected under this scheme provides a greater brightness LED DZ (AL307B).
Maximum current consumption is approximately 2 times greater than that of the device assembled as shown in Fig. 2, and is 35 … 40 mA. When monitoring voltages above 16 V the resistance of the resistor R3 should be increased to 1 kW.
Instead, the chip can be used KM155LAZ K155LAZ instead D814A- zener zener diode D808.
The devices collected by the above scheme, do not require adjustment and the healthy cells start to work immediately. It is only necessary to set the correct measurement range as shown in Fig. 1 or threshold levels as shown in Fig. 2 or 3, feeding the input of growing tension within the specified limits and controlling it with any DC voltmeter class 1.0 … 2.5.
Schema Changes in the transistor T7 and PPT PTIVah
AF MAKSIMOVA Art. Electrician Abakan distance Krasnoyarsk road
As you know, the upgraded devices PTIV selective communication and POS replace polarized FP7 applied electronic transistors T7 and T8. During operation PTIV BSA and our distance found that they sometimes fail signal Call. The reason for this, in our opinion, is unstable (a semi-semi-open) the transistor T7, the base of which is filed with respect to the emitter potential of zero. Germanium transistor T7 has a low thermal stability, and when the ambient temperature increases parasitic currents therein increases. As a result, it becomes permanently open, including at baseline and at the end of call.
Head of the production area of our distance VP Shishkin offered for reliable locking of the transistor T7 to change the scheme enable it by adding a voltage divider of two resistors of 20 ohms and 1.5 ohms, as shown in the figure. With this inclusion the base of transistor T7 is supplied with respect to the emitter potential of about -0.1 V, securely locking the transistor T7 in the initial state and after the call.
After the modification scheme of the transistor T7 of its current in the circuit base — emitter voltage is 10 mA, and the power consumption of 1 * 10-6-A. Reliability receivers PTIV and PPT thus increases considerably.
From the Editor. According to experts VNIIZhT described AF Maximova reliable way to lock the transistor T7 is only a partial solution to increase the reliability of receivers PTIV and PPT. To eliminate unstability of POS devices and PTIV necessary to increase the thermal stability of the electronic relay, for which it is expedient to replace silicon transistors KT503A KT315D or germanium transistor MP37 (T7) and KT502A — MP40A (T8).
It should be noted also that the transistor T8 type MP40 is not designed for the maximum current of the call may also fail. In this case, it is possible to replace the transistor MP25A.
FIXTURE for Extrusion SLEEVES earrings wits turnouts
Worn bushings earrings wits turnouts are generally removed two people. One supports the Ways of Communication paw earrings and other knocks sleeve. This can strain the bolts securing the earring to the wits, and a violation of the insulation elements of wit earrings.
To eliminate these drawbacks senior electrician distance Konotop Southwest road AD Sevastyanov and electrician NG Lutsyk offered a simple tool. This device (see. Figure) consists of a bottom 1 and top 3 washers. The outer diameter of the washers 60 mm and an internal 45 mm, height 20 mm washers. Washers are interconnected by welding three metal plates 2 of height 140, width 25 and a thickness of 5 mm. Inside the top 3 washers welded nut 5 with thread tape. This screw nut 4 is screwed on one end of which has a handle and the other ball 6 is pressed against the bearing. When pressing out sleeves trimmed sergovoy used roller 8 length of 47 mm from the connecting rod or control. The upper part of the roller 8 is made a recess 7, which dimension slightly smaller than the diameter of the ball 6.
Before pulling out the sleeve designed to cut roller 8 put a new sleeve. Then install the device by first placing it roll 8 with a new sleeve. Turn the handle screw 4, developed by Extrusion is carried out and installing a new sleeve.
Adjustment of the light beam photoelectric devices
TY Alukom Electrician distance Bugulma
SN Zaitsev Electrician
Such construction allows smooth adjustment of the filament lamp both vertically and horizontally, and the luminous flux increase by 25-30% compared with the same bracket.
This device can be used not only for adjusting the position of the filament bulb in the head of the illuminator, and photoresist CSF-1, since it is identical to the mounting bracket lampholder.
IMPROVEMENT OF EQUIPMENT B-3-3
The GAC devices for the protection of track circuits from short-term loss of train shunt when skipping long wheelbase cars used photovoltaic devices. Photoelectric device consists of the illuminator and the photosensor. The fixture head is ZHS12-25 Traffic light bulb. The filament of this lamp should be placed strictly on the optical axis of the lens of the illuminator.
Operation of the photovoltaic devices has shown that this requirement is not always fulfilled, as the lamp holder is rigidly fixed by three bolts and can not be adjusted. As a result, it does not use the possibility of a larger luminous flux, and in adverse weather conditions (fog, snow) photo device is unstable.
We have changed the design of the filament lamp-holder as shown in the figure.
The lamp fixture 1 strengthened in the three threaded bolts 3 MB, which put on the sleeve 6 with springs 5. textolite board 2 made three holes 4 MB threaded under the three adjustment screws. To be able to install the spring bushing attachment board shortened by 3 mm and drilled the hole to a diameter of 8 mm to a depth of 5 mm.
Such construction allows smooth adjustment of the filament lamp both vertically and horizontally, and the luminous flux increase by 25-30% compared with the same bracket.
This device can be used not only for adjusting the position of the filament bulb in the head of the illuminator, and photoresist CSF-1, since it is identical to the mounting bracket lampholder.
IMPROVEMENT SIGNALZATSII EQUIPMENT B-3-3
The equipment in the 3-3-acoustic and optical signaling changes in the level of frequency control (QC) is only available for automatic level control (AGC), which is inconvenient for the staff.
In our scheme LAZ made changes in the level of the optical signal CN to manual mode, as well as an acoustic alarm restore the CN or replace the fuse for the AGC mode.
For optical signaling between terminals 2 and 6 switch B2 block AGC set D7B type diode D (see. Figure). This diode manual mode creates a power circuit relay P2 and mode AGC prevents burning lamps L2, signaling the lock motors.
For acoustic signaling scheme button instead of the toggle switch is set in Kn (TP1-2) liquidated contact H-H Relay EEO added n-type diode JJU D7B. The diode prevents the acoustic alarm via toggle switch (alarm can be turned off only by removing the signal fuse).
The described signaling scheme used in the apparatus B in our 3-3 LAZ more than three years ago. Over the past period of operation failures in its work was not observed.
Instructions on the calculation and use of technological windows mechanized and automated hump yards / MPS USSR. Heads. Ex. movement. Heads, Ex. signaling and communication. CD-TSSH / 3436: -M .: Transport, 1983.-8 — 3 to.
Instruction is intended for workers, developing graphics technology providing scheduled maintenance windows for floor hump devices, including employees of departments of roads, stations, signaling and communication.
Contents: The main provisions. — The duration of repair work. — Calculating the optimal windows. — The order of EKON. — Example of calculation.
Fundamentals of Economic Studies Vladimir Vinogradov, LA Myachina, Yuri Petrov, Mikhail Romanov; Ed. YD Petrova. — Textbook for technical schools of rail transport. — M .: Transport, 1983. -224 to 50 to.
The role of transport in the national economy, considered scientific organization of labor, regulation, organization of wages, cost accounting, planning, production and business activities in rail transport. The information about the functions of the staff, the structure of the company, outlines the issues of socialist labor discipline, improve product quality, efficient use of capital assets, the profitability of enterprises. The authors introduce the development of socialist competition in rail transport, the brigade form of labor organization.
Much attention is paid to the economy of the linear enterprises of railways, in particular signaling and communication.
The textbook is intended for economic training of workers in the manufacturing and technical schools, railway transport.
Brigadier method of transport. — M .: Transport, 1963.-S.-87 (Steps team contract). -35 To.
The book introduces the process of formation of the development and improvement of forms and methods of work in a team contract. In particular, it describes the implementation of the brigade form of organization of work on the railways. DETAILED DESCRIPTION impact Brigadier method to improve the use of time, the growth of labor productivity and operational efficiency mechanisms devices, improving the quality of work. Showing the socio-economic aspects of this progressive form of organization and incentives, given the method of evaluation of the work crews.
Ushakov VN Dolzhenko OV Electronics from the transistor to the device. — Moscow: Radio and communication, 1983. ^ 320 s-1 p. 20 k.
We consider the basic foundations of the theory of signals, the foundations of physics and characteristics of semiconductor devices. The principles of operation and construction of basic electronic devices (amplifiers, oscillators, impulse items and digital technology, power supply) and provides simple methods for their analysis.
Efimov IE, Trump IY Fundamentals of Microelectronics: A textbook for university communications. — 2nd ed., Rev. and dop.-M. Higher school, 1983.- 384 s-1 p. 10 to.
The book outlines the basic provisions, principles and directions of development of microelectronics; The physical foundations, construction, structural elements and hybrid semiconductor IC and LSI; provides information about the range of domestic major series of digital and analog ICs, data on their quality and reliability.
Neiman VI structures of information distribution. — 2nd ed., Rev. and Sub-M .: Radio and communication. 1983.-217 C-75 to.
We consider the structure of the communication networks and switching nodes, their most important properties, methods of analysis and synthesis, and shows the characteristics of these structures, implemented in communication systems. Given the attention of both analog and digital distribution system information.
W t a g e r VV electronic switching system. — M .: Radio and Communications, 1983.-231 with 80 k.
The modern switching system analog-digital networks and their elements and nodes. The questions of the construction of centralized control systems and software. Particular attention is paid to the introduction of electronic systems into existing networks and the formation of analog-to-digital networks.
The book is intended for professionals involved in the design and maintenance of switching systems.
Smirnov NI, Shirokov VB Evaluation of reliability of integrated circuits. — M .: Radio and Communications, 1983.-102 with 30 k.
Dan’s method of estimating the reliability of integrated circuits (ICs) in industrial conditions taking into account correlations between the electrical parameters of the same type of elements are integrally made.
SIGNAL RELAY TYPE №Z
In the journal «Atis», 1983, M-D to 2 liters and published an article «signaling relay GDR production.» In her response of our readers come from the GDR A. Boehme, head of the plant WSSB, which produced these relays.
A. Boehme tells you information about plant-Issued WSSB new neutral signaling relays type N3. Relays of this type are small, their design is similar to that described previously polarized relay type RP. These two relays form the basis for a structural system, type 3, which is soon to displace structural system 2, include those described in an earlier article normal neutral, small signal, neutral travel and other types of relays.
Signal relay type N3 ‘has up to eight contact groups and meets the following specific requirements for signaling equipment: the forced displacement of con-strokes, thus achieving an absolute correspondence between the position of the armature and the state of all contacts; full opening of the contacts due to the presence of two points of contact for each contact; protection from improper turn plug relay, which is achieved by using the contact pins of different configurations, and in exceptional cases also different variants of inclusion of windings; strictly defined rate of return, which has special significance for the signaling relay.
This provides high reliability of the relay.
Alarm relay coil N3 type can have one or two windings. The appearance of the relay is shown in Fig. 1 structure with Fig. 2.
In some embodiments, relays are semiconductor diodes, for generating a deceleration dropout. Furthermore, these diodes smooth surge pulses generated at the time of the winding switching. This allows for a warranty period of switching from 4 to 14 parallel connected relay.
Relay N3 type can be fitted with a protective cover.
To install the switch panel used with solder connection or with plug inclusion. Each panel can be provided cap to prevent improper installation.
Power relay N3 type is carried out with direct current. The excitation voltage relay — 100 V. Depending on the contact set of the power consumption varies from 0.9 to 2.5 watts.
The response time of the relay from the moment the control voltage to the circuit of the front con tact less than 135 ms. Return time from the time of removal of the control voltage to rear circuit contact no more than 10 ms. If you have time to return diode switch for at least 30 ms. The dropout ratio of at least 0.25; In specific embodiments, the indicator relay least 0.68.
The relay contacts may be someone mutation circuits AC and DC with resistive and inductive loads at cosqp ^ 0,87. Resource according to the load is from 5-10 * to 310e positives. When you turn on briefly to 10 permitted switching current up to 12 A. The permissible continuous load currents on and off is 3 A.
Normal operation of the relay is provided in the temperature range from -30 to +70 ° C. Dimensions 92x85x34 mm; weight of about 390 g
Abstracts of papers placed in the magazine number 2, 1984
Switching system and the body ‘poobrazovanie stations ESK 3000E. Lebedinsky AK Zverev RI «Automation, Remote Control and Communication», 1984, № 2, p. 2-5
The schemes and describes the switching field of telephone exchanges type ECK 3000E for two variants of the station capacity up to 1000 and more than 1,000 rooms.
Calculation of cable networks of electric centralization. Gleanings-lis h 3. A. «Automation, Remote Control and Communication», 1984, № 2, p. 7-10
A brief description of types of electric power load centralization. The formulas for determining the cross-section forward and reverse wires. Showing examples of calculation of loads with unilateral, bilateral and combined power.
The approach to determining the economic efficiency of trunking rail transport. A e K for a. «Automation, Remote Control and Communication», 1984, № 2, p. 10-12
The article deals with the creation of methods of calculation of economic efficiency of the main telephone in rail transport.