The problem of raising labor productivity in beekeeping, for that matter, in any sector of the economy is not new and has always, at all stages of the development of any industry, has been the focus of beekeepers. They are constantly sought, sometimes unconsciously, to improve their work, improve its performance.
Take for example the wild, the state of our forestry industry, when people hunted honey, taking his bees settled in the hollows of trees. Then the man did not care for the bees themselves and often condemns them to death from starvation. His work was difficult and unproductive. Hunter realized that if to saw wood board, put it close to their homes, the apiary (the place carved, visited the, in the forest), and show concern for the safety of bee family, his work will be greatly facilitated and can produce more honey. Thus was born bee beekeeping.
Then Hunter invented the wooden hive and started making hives of twigs twigs, straw, clay. This is also dictated by the need to improve productivity. And hunters have turned beekeeper.
The invention is a framework through which ‘hundred was easy to move around in the hive, made a revolution in our industry, as people are able to more actively and consciously influence the bee colony, to make it produce more than his honey. The scope of the invention had an enormous impact on improving the organization of labor in apiaries, paved the way for the study of the nature of bees.
Just to improve productivity were invented extractor, artificial honeycombs and other equipment, tools, and mechanisms began to use migrations to honey and pollination of crops, have mastered the techniques of artificial O queens, began the production of packaged bees. Such production development constantly held in conjunction with science. Production and science always rely on each other, complement each other.
These advances in the science and practice allow beekeepers to organize work very productively, create a large, high-value and highly profitable farming and mining in our country a huge amount of honey.
The full extent if we use all of these features? No, not complete. After all, we are still very low production load, and the honey is extracted, based on the labor force, too little, as rightly said in the report of Comrade. Kovalev.
However, let us turn to the experience of advanced beekeepers. What allows them to get a lot of commercial honey? First of all, a high productivity. That allows Bashkir Pozolotina beekeeper, beekeeper Pushnenkovu Smolensk, Voronezh beekeeper Baranov serve 3-4 times more accepted norm of bee colonies? The decisive rejection of the artisanal methods of care for the bees.
The framework was a hive of Russia and all European states victorious path: he quickly swept from the face of the earth aboard ,, deck, collapsible boxes, sapetki, pottery and other utensils, which have led bees. Beekeeping was fine, a subsidiary occupation and, therefore, together with the framework hive and appropriate instruments, tools, mechanisms and techniques to successfully instilled amateur, homemade devices and how to care for bees. Look at the literature of the time, refer to the price lists of the old companies — which only they do not have: the tens and even hundreds of designs of hives, feeders, drinkers, diaphragms, blades, chisels, kocherezhek, voskotopok and voskopressov, separators framework skrepiteley hives matkouloviteley, trutneudaliteley, devices for listening to the bees and so on. d., and so on. n. How many did not appear necessary for the beekeeper and harmful to the bee colony receptions care of bees, causing partial or complete disassembly of sockets, such as a cursory examination, the main spring and autumn the audit reduction and expansion slots, numerous techniques to remedy trutovochnyh families struggle with swarming, family-corrective slabyshey, agitation (speculative) feeding.
We ought to be protected from all this amateurish collective and state farms apiary. But this, unfortunately, did not happen. Moreover, it kustarschina, has been supplemented and extended with new «achievements:». Look at the current literature, look through the magazine «Beekeeping» and you will see a "bouquet" This lyubitelschina which recommended collective and state beekeepers. That only in this bouquet is not expanding and narrowing streets reechki for laying between frames, bedroom flyby, pavilions on wheels voskostroitelnye framework medopergovye and yeast feeding, partial printing of honeycomb and even use perfume to enhance the flight of bees, and so on. D. and so on. n. you name it. It came to that demanded by beekeepers to conduct a sort of passport for each family and to record how much the family is taken dano- frames with honeycomb, honeycomb, food, brood and many other information. But the twin-content bees — a top amateur amateurish. How much to invest labor, how much to worry bee family to get away from it 5-6 kilograms of honey!
And what if the bee colony left alone, not to torture her, then she will not collect honey more? It does not interfere with her work normally beekeeper himself, interfering with daily and rough in her life? The answer can be only one: the bees collect more honey, and a beekeeper will invest less time and effort. Examples of this more than enough and the magazine given them quite a lot.
Therefore, it is necessary to decisively clear beekeepers work of useless or even harmful operations. It should be clear from the apiary superfluous, useless inventory and equipment. Each new technique to care for the bees, each of inventions and innovations must first assess the economic point of view. It is necessary to firmly close the access to the apiary everything that does not contribute to better organization of work, leading to an unpayable flow of funds and materials.
Beekeepers, heads of state and collective farms, specialists must take into account the experience of the foremost that, release your work and apiary from various artisanal tinsel hundred pi serve 2-3 times more bee colonies, not the bottom, and even increase the gross and marketable honey collection. 150 families — this is the lowest production rate per beekeeper, independent of climatic zones, such as bribery, breed of bees and hives.
In January 1964 marks 150 years to the invention PI Prokopovich frame hive. It was a hive of vertical system, and had three or four compartments. In the future, the vertical hive multihull became widespread in America, and we borrowed a beehive in Europe. What made this exchange? Certainly losing streak! Beehive Dadant — Blatt did not result in the expected increase in honey yield, but beekeepers demanded much higher labor costs to care for the bees.
Beehive system Dadant — Blatt, as already noted, has spread rapidly in our country, but soon discovered it is constructive imperfections. The volume turned low. It is inconvenient to use. It is no accident many of our beekeepers practitioners and scientists began to modernize and do invent new systems and structures hives. On the agenda is acute so-called problem of the hive, which is unabated all the time worried about virtually all beekeepers.
In the 40 years of its existence, our magazine has published hundreds of articles and essays on the improvement and invention of hives, a «new and rational» methods of care for the bees, but the production did not accept any of these proposals. Only the methods of beekeeping in double-hulled hives and hives-loungers, allowing to increase the amount of the hive and the exclusive use of poluramok got something a spread.
But what gave the double-hulled hives and hives beds? It’s nothing. But they demanded increasing the already huge amount of work to care for the bees. None of the area, whether it’s Siberia and the Ukraine, the Caucasus and the Baltic States, or any other area (.mozhet be, except for the Far East) have not risen any honey yield or productivity of beekeepers.
The matter was not in the hive, and in the frame. It is great. A paradox: large frame and small hive! Yes it is. Beehive adopted by American beekeepers, has a frame less lower than the frame Dadant — Blatt. This allowed them to not work scope and whole buildings that, in turn, allows you to increase the volume of the hive is virtually unlimited. That is why industrial apiaries bee colonies to develop enormous power and load a beekeeper often is 1,000 bee colonies. That’s why American beekeepers no longer involved in the invention, hives, they have no problem hive. They believe that the system and the construction of the hive they finally resolved, as well as system design and stools. Bike or samovar again invent!
Before the revolution, we also began to spread on the multihull hives. In other places, he penetrated to the collective and. sovkhoz apiaries. Unfortunately, the techniques to care for the bees remained the same, ie Dadant. But still at such apiaries ever production figures were lower compared to the apiaries, equipped conventional hives. A frequently were higher.
Recently I became a hive of multi reappear in the collective and state apiaries. The results are so promising in many different areas of our country that beekeepers experienced these hives, believe that it is time to withdraw from the production of hives all structures on the frame Dadana- Blatt and manufacturing continue only multihull.
Some objected to the introduction of multi-hives. And no, they do not result in actual data. Yes, they do not have such data, and so they put forward baseless arguments against multihull hives. Such, for example, as there is no experience of what to do with hives old buildings (and in fact a lot of them), cellular economy is not immediately undone, honey flora does not allow to have such a large number of hives in one place, multihull hive high, and it knocks the wind, do not know how much to buildings, and so on. d.
What can you say to that?
It is not true that there is no experience. This experience is in the collective and state farms of the Voronezh region, the Far East, in Bashkiria, Kazakhstan, in the Kuban region, in Ukraine and in many other parts of our country. This experience has been in pre-revolutionary Russia. There he is in foreign countries. Only we must not be lazy to learn it, use it.
Hives old structures must continue to operate. We know that now out of production locomotives and electric locomotives are now produced only. However, on our railways can still be seen locomotives series «u» and «b», issued 100 years ago. And it’s very good that they «work» for the benefit of the Soviet economy.
Cellular farm just can not be undone. Yes, and it is not necessary immediately. For ease of transition to multihull hives are invited to take the frame size 435 X 230 millimeters. It is only necessary that the bee family in the new hive has provided enough cells. A start production of artificial honeycombs new standard-business, does not cause any technical and organizational difficulties.
Honey flora does not change from that will or will not be entered or left the new hives older. It is necessary to keep in one place for so many bee colonies has been provided to securely trade honey harvest. It is necessary to apply the migrations and hives multihull open the best opportunities for the transportation of bees.
Assume that the translation multihull hives in the apiary will not increase their productivity, although this is unlikely. But the beekeeper will be 200-300 households instead of 50-60, and consequently receive five to six times more marketable honey.
Hive multihull high. It knocks the wind. In this respect and remember the words of P. Prokopovich. Responding to his opponent, who argued that the vertical hive high, and it must be tied to a pole and without the wind it overturns, Prokopovich wrote: «In the continuation of 27 years of beekeeping, first in 500 hives, and now in 2700, I have a decent hives are not tied to a pole spear … but may be needed for each hive and have had spent 3 pennies. Here one must not even spare the workers; It does suggest that the beekeeper will be lazy and unable to stake stick, otherwise it would have all been his thing. «
We do not know how much it is necessary to buildings for our area. You can not nominate ignorance as an argument against anything new. It is necessary to know when to argue. You must be fully aware that the hive in three buildings, as recommended types of drawings, developed by the Institute of beekeeping, is not necessary, since the volume is less than the volume of its two buildings in the Dadant frame. Multihull hives must produce no less than 5 buildings, and in some areas for 6-8 more cases.
The hive must be always on the personal qualities necessary to ensure the bees feed abundantly, have highly productive queens, cell frames have a complete set on the number of cases.
When you go to the hive multihull and the most important thing is that the beekeeper decisively, once and for all abandon dadanovschiny, it was time to throw in the amateur kustarschina garbage pit. After all, it is necessary to firmly grasp that the beekeeper operating each frame, will never reach such a high productivity, and will not get as much honey as a beekeeper, operating whole corps.
Against this, no one will argue.