NORTHERN EUROPE

NORTHERN EUROPE

The article by S. and J. Sapetina Priklonsky (1970) is fundamentally correct raised the question of the expediency of spring hunting. This problem has been discussed many times in the press, in favor of spring hunting is given a lot of arguments, which need not be repeated. In this case, we want to focus on the specifics of hunting of the European North, where spring hunting waterfowl and forest game has a special meaning. Under the European North, we understand the territory, including Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions, Karelia and Komi.

Until now, these areas are somehow considered «fishing». About sports and amateur hunting in the North say most journalists in relation to visiting tourists and regulators hunt, did not take into account the fact that the fundamental socio-economic changes of recent decades substantially changed the direction of the hunting economy of this vast geographic area equal in size to several European States. This issue concerns not only the spring hunting, requires special consideration. However, without going into details, it is time to admit that hunting the North should first be guided not by the few hunters, for whom hunting — supplementary earnings, and tens of thousands of fans may be interested in getting some wealth, but most all regarded hunting as a means of recreation in nature.

In recent years, the North abruptly shortened sports and amateur hunting in general, and in particular waterfowl and marsh game. Back in the early 50’s spring hunting was permitted for 25 days, and summer-autumn began with August 1-10. The total duration of the hunting period is 80-100 days. Now, in connection with the prohibition of spring hunting and related start of the autumn hunting at the end of August — beginning of September, the duration of the season was reduced to 35-60 days. This reduction is not justified neither biologically nor even with the economic side. If we talk about hunting, it should be remembered that it is intended to engage in the exploitation of existing stocks of animals and birds, and not just their security. It should be borne in mind that the protection and reproduction are only dealing with hunters, who must be interested in this work, the right to «the removal of the crop.» We should not forget that the «Law on the Protection of Nature in the RSFSR» implies the protection of fauna in the interest of its wise use. Quite rightly saying AI Formozov, K A. Gladkov, Semenov and others: «… the question of the timing of hunting associated not only with organizational issues but also with environmental features of different types of game birds and animals, It calls for proper solutions expertise «(1969). Too often, issues related to the timing of hunting, are discussed in the press amateurs, their performances create public opinion and regulatory authorities hunt you enter the wrong from the standpoint of hunting restrictions.

One can cite many arguments in favor of spring hunting in the North. These contact area of ​​the North have a low population density. In the Arkhangelsk region the average population density is ten times less than, for example, in the Vladimir and Gorky region. It is clear that the extent of human impact on hunting and game animals directly to the North incomparably lower than in the central and southern regions of the country.

Speaking about the nature of the hunting grounds, we must not forget that, if large parts of the center and south of the country they were indigenous and irreversible changes in the north, they have remained almost unchanged. Vast expanses of tundra people is only beginning to develop. Even now it is time to think about how this will impact on the general development of the landscape and hunting fauna. However, there are only searching for geologists, affecting an extremely small part of the territory. The forests of the North in recent years intensively exploited and, of course, this has a certain influence on the game animals. However, the area covered by forest felling again though. This is a reversible process, while taking several decades. In terms of game management temporary change of ripe and overripe forests of deciduous and coniferous saplings, no doubt, would mean a change of the complex game animals. But it’s not a disaster that occurs, for example, plowing of virgin steppes and translating them into the category of arable land, causing irreversible disappear in certain types of typical steppe. So vanished bison or American prairie marmots almost disappeared in the steppes of the European Union.

Low population density and the relative paucity of hunters in the vast areas of hunting grounds preclude excessive concentration of hunters in confined spaces. This concentration is typical for the densely populated areas of the country. If such crowding and may occur in the North, it is only in close proximity to major population centers, such as regional centers or large industrial centers. But this is the exception rather than the rule. It is clear that the strong restrictions on time or even a ban spring hunting justified for some areas can not mechanically apply to the European North.

For North typical late arrival of waterfowl and marsh game and an early departure at the end of the nesting period. With this in mind, raised in the article by J. Sapetina Priklonsky and the question of «equal terms of hunting» (more precisely, about equal to the duration of the hunt) gains in the North is much more important than anywhere else. Several species of sandpipers flying off very early (at the latitude of Arkhangelsk curlews fly in early August). Flies the latest diving ducks leave our latitudes about the time of the appearance of «slush» on rivers. This is on the Northern Dvina near Arkhangelsk October 15-20, and under the Pechora Naryan-Mar — in early October. Thus, the deadline for hunting waterfowl and marsh fowl in the North is limited by nature, and he can not go to any comparison with the possibilities, such as Azerbaijan, where hunting can continue until the month of February. Limited during the autumn hunting in the North, of course, should be compensated by allowing spring hunting here, and for a period longer than the southern areas.

In the European North nesting birds that fall and spring pass through some areas of the Union and winter on the coast of Western Europe. It is at the northern population and not on the local birds guided hunting of these regions and countries. It is no coincidence, for example, in Denmark hunt waterfowl produced in pozdneosennie and winter months. By the way, in Denmark, the «fires back each year about 125 thousand. Common Eider» (X. A. Johnsen. 1969), the hunting of which is prohibited in the European North throughout the year for many years. It turns a strange paradox — hunting reserves of the North plays waterfowl and marsh game and has an extremely limited capacity to use the results of their work. «Reap the harvest» by many, but the hunters of the North in the smallest degree.

It seems natural that the hunting of the North, «divorcing» wetland game in their hunting grounds, should have a preferential right to its use, including by way of spring hunting.

Finally, according to information in a magazine, the decision to ban spring hunting «… was taken due to the extremely unfavorable conditions for wintering waterfowl and upland game sites in 1968-1969.». Indeed, in the southern parts of the country on the Caspian Sea and Central Asia, the conditions of wintering waterbirds have been very poor and resulted in the loss of part of the population. Perhaps these circumstances justify the ban on spring hunting in places of nesting ducks, wintering on the Caspian Sea. But where is the North European? For a long time, and many people know that wintering ducks, geese and waders nesting in the European North, located on the shores of the seas of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. This Menzbir wrote M. (1934), AJ Tugarinov (1937), SS Turov (1941) and others. More recently, we have been collected and processed over a hundred rings taken from mined in the Arkhangelsk region of geese, ducks and waders. Only four rings Pintail were domestic, while all other birds were banded during the winter or flown in Western Europe and North America (EA Nikonov and B. Leble, 1959). But in the Western European coast of the conditions of wintering birds in 1968 and 1969. They were common. Why in deciding to ban spring hunting does not take into account the data of modern ecology, tract, that any kind exists in the form populations, which are peculiar to their conditions of existence and the specific patterns of changes in the number? Advances in science should be introduced into the practice of hunting and not to mark time in the clear issue at the level of knowledge of the past century.

It is not justified and the ban on spring hunting forest game. Once the capercaillie, black grouse, along with hazel and white partridges, were the subject of procurement and trade and mining in the north in large numbers. Now in the Arkhangelsk region commodity value retained only ptarmigan in the Nenets Autonomous District. All other types of birds in the workpiece are not available and are the objects of sports and amateur hunting, although in some areas distant from the usual transport routes, retain their value as a product of personal consumption hunters. No need to give details of past and contemporary pieces and the likely production of these birds. It is clear that with the cessation of billets decreased significantly shooting and trapping of forest species and game reserves are used less than before.

Logging a negative impact on the capercaillie population. But this does not mean that he completely disappears from the place where the past logging. In relation to black grouse the opposite is true — clearings, overgrown deciduous species, the number of species increases. This applies particularly to quasi-cutting in which the stored uncut deciduous trees — birch and aspen.

Past winter could not adversely affect the number of forest game. Increased mortality of chicken birds in winter can be observed when at the beginning of winter is not deep enough snow cover, sheltering them from frost during the long winter nights. In winter 1968/69 and 1969/70 years. snow fell at the usual time, and low temperatures were close to normal, so that the ban on spring hunting forest game also was acquitted of some very adverse conditions wintering.

Our proposal on the timing and organization of spring hunting in the European North are:

The duration of spring hunting in the North must be at least 20 days. The start and end of the hunting should be determined by the specific calendar dates (not «to the arrival»). These data should not change from year to year. Strong extent of the territory in the latitudinal direction makes it impossible to identify a single calendar period for the North, but hardly justified the establishment of a plurality of terms for small areas. Probably will fit the following dates: for the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the forest area in Arkhangelsk region and Komi — from 1 to 20 May; Murmansk region, Nenets Autonomous District of Arkhangelsk region and Komi Republic Vorkuta area — from 16 May to 5 June. On the islands of the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean timing of spring hunting should be determined by local Soviets.

Recommended hunting dates are determined by the actual time of arrival and the start of waterfowl and grouse capercaillie currents. Arrivals of most dabbling ducks and geese coincides with the ice flow. The average date of the purification of the rivers of ice are: the Northern Dvina in verhovyah- April 29, at the middle course — May 3, in the lower reaches — May; Mezen in the lower reaches — 13 May; Pechora region in Naryan-Mar — 28-May. Lake Lacha cleared of ice on May 10th. Do not be afraid of that 20-day period would be excessively long hunt. Sharp fluctuations in the cold spring weather and actually cut it to 8-10 days, during which the hunter can go hunting one to three times.

In ascribed hunting areas located near large population centers with a large number of hunters, as well as in the northern regions with well-developed transport links, spring hunting should be allowed only on paid vouchers societies of hunters, and the funds received from the sale must be used for the organization of protection game.

Spring hunting in the North should be allowed only to local residents, consisting of members of society of hunters. The economy can be ascribed to allow a limited number of non-resident hunters.

The number of birds harvested during the spring hunting should be strictly normalized and should not exceed two capercaillie, black grouse three, five geese, ducks and ten for the season to ten woodcock per hunter.

S. and J. Sapetin Priklonskii consider it possible to authorize the spring hunt only ascribed hunting grounds. Perhaps it is right in the center and south of the country. There’s little game, a lot of hunters, because of the good road network game accessible. Hunting the northern lands are huge, but full of wild game is far from uniform, game are not easily accessible. This gives us the right to raise the issue of the resolution of hunting grounds in all the European North with the above restrictions. Control over the terms and rules of shooting at the current position can be performed only by hunters themselves, and why we put forward the requirement for membership in the local society of hunters.

We should not fear that the hunters of the North too deplete stocks of game. We still have a lot of completely inaccessible (especially in spring) places for hunters. They spontaneously create a kind of «nature reserves» where the birds breed without any human influence.

In the different geographical and economic regions form game management can not be united. If in some places promising semi dicherazvedenie (BA Kuznetsov, 1970), in the northern conditions the basis for the work should be put protection of fauna and its rational exploitation. This can be achieved only on the condition that the hunters will be interested in the results of its work and will have the right to use hunting fauna, the reproduction of which they are taken care of.

Unfortunately, in recent years of hunters (and of fishermen) North looms ominous sign: «Deny!» Forbids all that is possible and impossible — spring hunting, nataska dogs, fishing (sometimes even the bait), and so on. N . And this is where the population density is 0.2 to 4 people per 1 square. km! It discourages hunters from active work in hunting, and someone turns in the poachers. Unjustified restrictions incomprehensible to the public. The organization of hunting economy need not go the way of sweeping prohibitions, and in the direction of sensible management. Only then can we achieve the desired results and attract each hunter to active work.

Solving the issue of spring hunting in the North, we should not forget the fact that the northerners living in the worst climatic, cultural and living conditions than those in the more southern regions. Many, including zoologists, having been in the north for several months, at least — for several years, writing enthusiastic articles about the vast expanses, white nights, swan and goose flocks, and so on. N. But live they prefer not in the North, while in Moscow, Bryansk and the cities of the south. Expanding the use of natural resources, in particular authorization of spring hunting on larger, than in the south, the term will be for residents of the North compensation for continuous winter night, bitter cold, strong storms and other difficulties that have had to endure northerners and about which the press not often mentioned.

Leble.

Associate Professor, PhD Arkhangelsk UDC 639.1.055 2

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