This name is given to specialized farms in the Rostov region.
— It’s a good farm — assured me at the Rostov Regional Committee of the Communist Party — it is a member of the Exhibition of Achievements of the national economy. Organized in 1932. Gardens there! Yes, you go, you will see.
Recommendation given to the farm, inspired me and I forget about a thirty-heat, immediately I went to this farm.
On the territory of the farm goes Azov irrigation canal, which draws cool nice and pleasing to the eye wildflowers, interspersed by green shores. The gardens here are really, as they say in the old days, red! Alright!
About two thousand hectares occupied by fruit trees, well-protected forest belts of violent winds, often rampant in the Rostov region.
Slender young apple trees in the gardens adorn their white trunks, which reflect the sun’s rays, protects them from burns. Especially attractive trees on dwarf rootstocks. Young plantings planting in 1954, they were completely full of fruits. In 1963, they collected 136 quintals of apples per hectare … Truly, «small but precious!»
This sector is not only concerned about the cultivation of the crop, but also about its preservation. Last year they finished the fruit storage capacity of 500 tons with a refrigeration unit. This will save up to 300 tons of spring fruits and sell them in May, fully justify the construction costs.
By the end of this year, the farm will become operational cannery 5 million. Conventional cans. And in the future it is planned to increase capacity to 20 million. Cans.
The farm 11 teams fighting for the title of communist labor collectives.
Working systematically improve their professional level. In winter, the farm work agronomic rates. Almost all the young people involved in night school. Six people in absentia study in fruit and vegetable Michurinskom Institute and two at the Kuban, 16 — Michurinskom in college and one — a student of Rostov University.
It turns out, the farm is beautiful not only for its gardens, but also people and their affairs. About them it would be interesting to know our readers — I thought, and asked the state farm director Yaroslav Petrovich Luneva talk about the experience of the team of the farm on cultivation of high yields and the prospects for the economy.
Here is his story.
«Red Garden» — the largest specialized fruit farming. The gardens spread on the 1745-acres, including 736 acres of fruit-on. More than half of this area is occupied with a predominance of apple varieties Reinette Simirenko, Calville snow, Parma winter gold, Pins, Winter Banana, Anis Kuban, Pepinka Lithuanian, Reinette Landsberg, Kronselskoe transparent Pisguda Reinette et al.
Our gardens provide tens of thousands of tons per year of production, rewarding the team for the hard work of the farm.
To obtain good yields in a timely manner, we carry out all complex technical measures. We pay more attention to caring for the soil. In between the rows of fruit-bearing orchards it contains mostly under fallow. Autumn plow to a depth of 14-22 cm, and during the growing season spend 4-6 cultivation. In between rows of young garden on an area of 165 hectares grow beets, peas, melons. Beets get 300-400 quintals per hectare, and peas mowing hay.
The soil in the tree trunks loose 1-2 times over the summer, the winter is not to dig.
Apple trees are forming on the sparsely-tier system. Detailed pruning fruit trees must be done every year, but we are due to a lack of workers, unfortunately, we hold it every 2-3 years. This, of course, degrades the quality of the fruit (especially those varieties as Pepinka Lithuanian, Anis Kuban, poured white and etc.). In this case, we could help special machines that would restrict the crown from the sides and from above. But these machines we do not have.
With soil fertilizer business we have is the case. Every year, each hectare of irrigated fruit-bearing orchards receives 4-5 hundredweight of superphosphate, 3-4 quintals of ammonium sulphate and potassium chloride 1-2 quintals. But manure (25-30 tons) per year does not fertilize the entire area, but only 50-60 hectares.
In non-irrigated orchards of fruit-bearing phosphate and potash fertilizers (under the same rules) to make under the autumn plowing, and nitrogenous — under spring harrowing and cultivation. In irrigation, besides the basic fertilizer application, give 1-2 fertilization with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers in irrigation furrows. This is done by craftsmen of the farm sprayer fitted with a disc for spreading fertilizer. However, it is we still have not quite perfect, and fertilizers are applied unevenly. Therefore, we appeal for unity «Soyuzselhoztehnika» with the request to give us the machines that can make the required amount of fertilizer regardless of row spacing and seeding depth.
Irrigated gardens furrow. When autumn recharge irrigation give 1000-1200 cubic meters. meters of water per hectare and two irrigations
— Of 700-900 cubic meters. meters. Watering in our conditions are so effective that if they implement the entire area (now the farm is irrigated by only 290 hectares), that can be doubled, and in some tracts and triple the yield. We estimate that the cost of the organization of irrigation throughout the garden area — 700 thousand. Rubles — will be repaid in full two years, but this project is three years, and the funds for its implementation has not yet been identified.
In the control of pests and diseases common system of measures. I must say that we have learned to deal adequately with such pests as codling (apple and plum), but with zeuzera pyrina fight very hard, but in recent years it has caused great damage to gardens. We were very excited, and we turned to the candidate Biological Sciences AA Anfinnikovu, who has been studying this pest, to help us. The scientist quickly responded and sent her book. But we do not use it earned: it is well documented pest biology, but there is no action against him. Therefore, from the pages of the magazine «Gardening» once again we are asking all scientist and industrial worker, advise us how to defeat this terrible pest.
Now a few words about the apparatuses for pest control. Currently, the industry stopped producing hose sprayers OPT-15. It is not right. Because fan sprayers OV-7 is working satisfactorily, even though on a plan, and they are good.
In general, it should be said straight out that mechanization in the gardens we are engaged in is not enough. We talk about it a lot and for a long time, and still works such as tree trunks weeding, harvesting, pruning, clearing the cortex, whitewashing of trees, not yet mechanized. But how many hours are spent on them!
I would like to «Soyuzselhoztehnika» did not leave the painful question unanswered.
The daily work of gardeners still meets many other unresolved issues. For example, scientists recommend in the irrigated areas of the garden with calcareous soils sow alfalfa. But as soon as practicable to implement under furrow irrigation? If the cut grooves, after the first irrigation of alfalfa nothing left.
It is also recommended to carry out the last vegetation irrigation two weeks before harvesting. But at that time in the crop year is as chat, that person finds it difficult to pass, and not just a tractor with implements.
Timely made all agromeropriyatiya, every year we grow a good crop. In 1963 he received 102 quintals of apples, plums and cherries by 87.8 by 28.5 quintals per hectare. But we’re not quite satisfied with the results of their work. Harvest may be much higher, it is the experience of the individual teams. For example, the second team (Brigadier K. Tikhonov) on the area of 51 ha collected on 134 quintals per hectare apples and plums on the area of 22 hectares — of 104 quintals per hectare.
Another great success achieved individual links. Link CG Koval whose performance ranks first in the sector. On the area of 8.3 hectares it received 184.2 quintals per hectare plum.
Production costs have significantly lower planned. Thus, the cost of pome fruit crops quintals according to plan in 1963 was to be 11 rubles 64 kopecks, and in fact was 8 rubles 54 kopecks, stone, respectively, 16 rubles 76 kopecks and 8 rubles 60 kopecks.
To gardening was more intense, it is necessary to lay larger gardens on slaboroslyh suspensions. We have an area of about 400 hectares planted apple trees grafted onto Dusen type III and V. On seven acres with dwarf plants, laid down in the autumn of 1954, the sixth Brigade (Brigadier MP Garneva, team leader AG Dubinin) in 1963 collected 136 quintals of apples per hectare.
What are our plans for the future?
Firstly, to improve housing. Our farm profitable every year we get higher profits in 1963 were received 769 thousand. Rubles of profit at the plan of 525 thousand. Rubles, but build small residential buildings. And in this lies the greatest threat to the further development of the economy. The fact is that even now we are experiencing great difficulties in the labor force. This is mainly due to the lack of living space. Seriously to be engaged in fruit growing, not having enough of the constant, skilled labor force, it is impossible. Therefore, by 1970, when all our gardens come into full fruition, we expect to build a 50-apartment houses 16-22. Secondly, in the coming years we will begin construction of an irrigation system with a pumping station on the Azov irrigation canals. This will irrigate the gardens on the area of 1500 hectares. The irrigated fruit-bearing orchards in the area of 200 hectares, will be to lower the groundwater level, as they have risen due to the high filtration of water from the Sea of Azov and the lack of a good channel of drainage at the site.
In the current year we will finish construction of three warehouses for storing pesticides. Construct mechanized refueling site for the preparation of working solutions. To make better use of fertilizers, soil conduct biological studies, which form the soil map of the farm.