Prospects and opportunities for the development of hardware production in Russia highly appreciated by foreign experts and analysts. What is the basis of their findings?
First of all, Russia is one of the world’s largest steel producers, which enables cost-effective to solve the problem of providing hardware production of raw materials and the workpiece.
In — Second, Russia has a technically trained engineering personnel who are able to solve the problems of the organization of modern hardware production.
B — Third, when you reach the desired level of production costs in the production of hardware, you can ensure high profitability.
B — Fourth, the introduction of modern technologies in many sectors (construction, furniture industry, household and other instrumentation.) Involves the use of high-tech and high-quality hardware. This problem is solved by imports, which today has reached a level that allows businesses to create, based on his replacement.
In — fifth, because of the drop in demand in the traditional markets in the industrial machinery and equipment for the production of hardware engineering industry, enabling the production of such equipment, are experiencing some difficulties in its marketing. Russian hardware industry is in need of retooling, but the national investor is still too weak to solve this problem. Huge financial and technical capabilities of the West allows Russia’s hardware industry to make a qualitative leap in its development. It is the use of more external rather than domestic financial resources will in the coming years to give Russia’s current hardware production.
Presented the concept of development of hardware production in Russia raises many questions. I would like to respond to those that are most frequently asked by readers of the magazine «Hardware,» and participants of Russian market of metalware.
The first and most common question. How to organize the financing of the creation of the company, where and how to get money for his organization?
Creation of an enterprise — is an investment process that requires significant investment. These costs can bear the investor — the founder of the company, but now very common practice when an investor has sought assistance from the bank in the form of medium- or long-term loan. This practice is called "Project Financing". Typically, the bank loans of 50 to 85% of the cost of the investment project in the presence of the borrower is sufficient reliable and liquid security for the repayment of the loan.
As large metalware enterprises tend themselves able to solve the problem of financing of its development, for them we do not talk.
If we talk about the average and small businesses, today in Russia there are a number of programs to support small businesses.
Is it possible in Russia to create a modern iron and steel production in the fourth redistribution?
What you need for this?
On the questions of the readers of the magazine «Hardware» responsible coordinator of the Council of the Association «RosMetiz» AA Semenov, one of the authors of the proposed concept.
However, these programs are unlikely to provide effective funding for the creation and expansion of small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the industrial sector: too high interest rates and insignificant in terms of time credit.
In this connection, great interest for small enterprises represent sredne— program and long-term lending Taiwan Export-Import Bank (The Export — Import Bank of the Republic of China). The program is focused on the financing of imports of Taiwanese industrial and technological equipment, technologies and industrial products. In the Russian Federation, with the programs of Eximbank Taiwan has six major banks:
Gazprombank, Alfa — Bank, International Industrial Bank, Bank Uralsib, Bank and Globex Guta — Bank. Thus, the answer to the question of where to get additional funding is available.
The question remains, how to get it? And in this issue, unfortunately, it is not so simple as we would like. There are problems, and they need to be addressed.
Let’s deal with credit. Suppose we want to create a new hardware production for the production of self-tapping screws. The contract value of such companies with production 50—80 tonnes per month is about 1 mln. US dollars. The company will produce almost all kinds of thermostrengthened "screws" with any type of head length to 90 mm and a diameter of 3 to 6.3 mm. The structure of this production is not included -galvanika one process step, which is supposed to do for co-operation on a neighboring plant, where there is spare capacity and the quality of coverage we are satisfied.
Approximate payback period of such enterprise, staffed by Taiwanese equipment, is from 1.8 to 2.5 years.
The total costs of the investor to create above the enterprise amount to 1304 thousand. Dollars, including: — 1 mln. US dollars — the cost of the equipment (including the cost of transportation and insurance);
— 50 thousand. Dollars — Payment services engineering companies (5%), which will make commissioning;
— 15 thousand. Dollars — Payment of design work and all kinds of approvals;
— 50 thousand. Dollars — the payment of customs duty;
— 189 thousand. Dollars — VAT on the cost of equipment and commissioning.
Of course, all these costs are recurrent: the value of fixed assets amortization and VAT paid in the future are offset within three years.
However, the pull "out of pocket" such means the strength is not for every investor, especially when it comes to the creation of small businesses. And here, perhaps, it is appropriate to talk about lending options offered by Eximbank Taiwan.
The loan may be granted in the amount of not more than 85% of the contract value of equipment and commissioning work, ie 892.5 thousand. USD.
Payment of the remaining 157.5 thousand. Dollars borrower must provide at their own expense. In addition, the borrower pays for the design work, as well as VAT and duty on arrival of the equipment.
With these payments the total initial cost of the borrower be 411.5 thousand. USD.
Upon receipt of the loan the borrower will be required to provide the bank with the relevant provision of its return (guarantee of another bank guarantee of third parties or pledge of property). At the same time as security against the loan as collateral may be taken and purchased equipment. His collateral value is usually estimated at 50% of the contract value, ie, in our case, the collateral value of the equipment will not exceed 500 thousand. USD. Thus, the need to find additional collateral in times as 392.5 thousand. Dollars, or about 44% of the loan amount.
The shortage of collateral for the loan can be solved through joint efforts, if the investor (he is the borrower) will participate in the program of the Association of Small Business Development in the hardware production in Russia.
You can, of course, to purchase equipment for leasing. When leasing lump sum provided warranties or guarantees less, but it also remains, and to solve this problem is still needed.
How to create a company that produce, how to ensure supply and distribution? It is the second most important question asked by breeders.
Make their own decisions is not always easy. Yes, it is the lack of reliable and volume of information — this is the second problem of the creation of metalware enterprises in Russia. Often confronted with the statement that it is necessary to produce "screws" and only after the next manufacturer of high quality fasteners understands that this is not a solution to the problem created by the range of production, given the important question: what to produce?
How is the concept of the range? The solution to this problem is to provide import and export company. Centralization of import and export shipments — one of the goals of the Association.
How to Build "right" import, in which traders are interested? Quite simply, as the world. We need to make the purchase more profitable products. Reasonable price, high quality and best payment terms -That’s the main criteria determining the interest of the trader. If there is a stable sales, controlled range, the answer to the question what and how much to produce, it becomes obvious.
No need to ask the producer of the future, he wants to produce. It is necessary to provide him with the opportunity to select from a prepared data bank on-demand today enterprises that need to ensure a more rational needs of traders, and hence the market for high-quality hardware.
This decision will allow the first phase to create the most efficient enterprises. The problem of competition with large Metal hardware manufacturers. How can we cooperate? Russian hardware industry is represented mainly by large manufacturers. The share of small business in the hardware production in Russia is no more than 3.5%. Although the dramatic increase in this share — in the long run, many hardware plants perceive small businesses as competitors.
Even today, the import of high-quality fasteners deprived some businesses significant amounts of production, and in fact this process is only gaining momentum.
Competing with the major hardware plant have small production does not take place, because of the small production — for its specific niche will not be able to take a major producer.
The concept of small production is based on import substitution, that is, on the field of commodity production, which is absent in Russia. Of course, perhaps a conflict of interests with the interests of small businesses large plants, but it is increasingly a major wine producer, which today is no corporate strategy development, completely lost coordination centers, which could determine the generic goals and objectives.
A small company in its essence is not to get involved in the competition, it just takes a different niche production, where the interests of big producer will be absent.
This strategy in the framework of the Association «RosMetiz» will implement Management group of companies, based on the creation of services demanded by the market.
So, when asked about the competition between the project participants and members of metalware market in Russia, we can say that the concept of development of hardware production, proposed by the Association «RosMetiz», aimed at reducing direct competition. Cooperation between large and small producers may have as large hardware plants can solve the problem of raw material supply for small businesses through regional centers metalware Association.
In turn, the Association «RosMetiz» is ready to cooperate with large companies in the field of production of high quality raw materials and preparations for the fixing of production for the domestic market and export company.
What challenges face a small business in the organization of production and how to solve them?
There are three main problems in the functioning of enterprises that need to solve the optimal way to get the maximum effect.
This supply, production and marketing. Other problems also require solutions, but — still these problems — fundamental.
The first problem — security. This includes the problem of providing raw materials, materials, technological tools, spare parts and others. The solution to ensure the project involves centralization. Questions about the quality of raw materials can be solved with the manufacturer, if your order is its interest in its volume, and this is necessary to unite the needs of several small businesses in a single order. A good program for commercial decisions within metalware center. Providing technological tools in the first stage, especially for the production of fasteners, should be addressed through imports. This solution to the problem with paying taxes on products protected by patents, and software quality. Again, this is a good program to a commercial enterprise that will take up this task, interesting not only for small businesses, but for large manufacturers. Supply of spare parts and maintenance of equipment — is also a commercial program of the project.
The second problem — production. This problem is solved by the enterprise itself and is difficult to give advice. The only thing that provides project — a training and retraining, centralized system of certification, support for quality control systems. With these services, the company is entitled to use in its sole discretion.
The problem tretya— marketing. Initially, the creation of enterprises in the framework of the project is planned for a stable market demand. Russian production of metal products in the first phase of the project as an alternative to imports. Although the potential of the well can provide and export. From experience with small businesses Metizno Southeast Asia, it is quite possible.
So, when asked about the functioning of small enterprises within the framework of the Association «RosMetiz», we note that the company does not stand alone, and can voluntarily enter into the structure of the project. Participation in the project of the company is ensured by its demand for the services offered by the management group of companies.
What is the management group of companies? What functions will take on the management team?
At present, the structure of the control group did not have a complete solution. By the design set forth in the first stage and principles it is not so important. The main thing — to develop a concept of construction of the control group and the principles of interaction between the project participants. The concept of building a management team can be compared to shell Windows. There are basic principles that can be developed without disturbing the other programs. In addition, each program is developed independently of the shell, with the only caveat that there are some general rules for all. And if you want to get the maximum commercial success, we must remember that your project should take advantage of others.
The management team helps to create the necessary functions as the need arises in them from other project participants. As an example, consider the task of centralized supply of technological tools.
The need for centralized supply of tools for the production of metal products arise when the commercial interest will solve it for a number of small businesses. Up to a point, the company will purchase their own tools, obtain the necessary information to create the production. Functions of the management group will arise when the supplier wants the tool to predict future supply based on generalized production plans based on future needs in the production of metalware centers.
Centralized supply, as one of the functions of the management group of companies, can be popular service, but may not be needed for some time to ensure the process will be decided by each company individually. Another thing, when the function of the project originally designed for group use, for example, the maintenance of technical security projects, maintenance of certified quality system for small businesses. In this case, the function occurs in the presence of a group needs and usually initiated control group.
As a result, we can say that the management group provides corporate services that are demanded by the project participants.
What issues need to be addressed in the field of state regulation of development of small and medium business in Russia?
The answer to this question in the framework of the Association «RosMetiz» more academic than practical. For my part I only identify these problems.
Joining the Association «RosMetiz» may provide a mechanism for their solutions.
And yet, what problems in the field of state regulation of development of small businesses need to be addressed?
In the area of legislative support of small business in the sphere of production:
— requires systematization of the whole legislative framework in the field of small business;
— need to develop a new draft federal law «On State Support of Small Business in the Russian Federation» to clarify the criteria for classifying economic entities to small businesses; to introduce the concept of subjects of medium-sized businesses;
— We need to continue to develop the most appropriate regulations the federal laws «On mutual insurance», «On self-regulatory organizations», «On venture capital» and «On credit cooperation», «On basics of technical regulation, standardization, conformity assessment,» «On the Fund for Small Business» .
In the area of small business infrastructure necessary to coordinate its activities on the basis of the state. At the same time, such coordination should be ensured at all levels, but priority will be the municipal level.
Regions should have a mandatory set of infrastructure, whose composition should include funds to support small business leasing companies, but textbook and business centers, the agency for small and medium-sized businesses. This will provide support for developing small and medium enterprises in the steel industry.
In the area of antitrust policy and the suppression of unfair competition against small businesses need to establish a system of regular inspections of draft legal acts of the Russian Federation in terms of their compliance with antitrust laws.
In the area of financial and credit support of small business:
— should be the appointment of special banks (local municipalities) to provide loans to small enterprises of ferrous metallurgy in the long term and at a relatively low interest rate;
— need to develop a common State tiered federal, regional and municipal level to provide guarantees (guarantees) of financial and credit institutions for loans issued to small businesses.
In the area of taxation of small businesses:
— is necessary to adjust the RF Tax Code in the chapter 26.2 «Simplified tax system» to change the value of limiting the application of the system for greater access to companies involved in the production.
Most real value of the gross income from sales — a 60—80 mln. Rubles per year.
— change the system of VAT due to the fact that small and medium-sized enterprises, have transferred to the special tax treatment, without being subject to VAT, losing cooperative ties with larger enterprises.
The most rational solution of the problem — to calculate the special part of the single tax at the rate of VAT (18%) of the gross proceeds from the allocation amount received on the selling price of products.
At the same time reduce the amount of the single tax, payable to the budget in the amount of VAT paid to suppliers.
By the concept of development of hardware production in Russia, proposed the Association «RosMetiz» and the Russian financial and banking union can not tnositsya as a program built on hard terms and conditions. The program is free, in its implementation, and is designed to offer a systematization of the problems of the Russian market of metal products, for the production of its members better their own or joint solutions.
Once the program with the real mechanism of its implementation may be interested foreign investor, then there is hope that Russia will become the world leader in hardware production.