A method of combining bee colonies described tons. Kozlov 8 magazine «Beekeeping» № 8, 1962, is not bad, but it is necessary to have spare hives. I have the same purpose use tincture of mint. I take 16-20 grams of boiled water and add it 7-10 drops of tincture of mint (peppermint drops available in pharmacies). This solution was spray the bees over the combs and between lanes without turning over the framework. Immediately afterwards I join them with another family. Fighting bees, usually does not happen. The negative effect of the tincture of mint on bees and brood did not notice.
Antibiotics and Bees
In the years 1959-1961 more than 120 families of bees showed that penicillin, biomycin, terramitsii and certain other antibiotics have a stimulating effect on healthy bee colonies. It was noted that different conditions in the honey yield different strength level increase productivity of bee colonies in the feeding of antibiotics varies. To more widely and to elaborate this issue is of practical interest, the work would attract a large number of beekeepers experimenters that the spring of 1962 sent the guidelines to conduct experiments with antibiotics.
On an apiary farm named after Kalinin, the Moldavian SSR (PY beekeeper Chebotar) experienced 10 families podkormlennyh sugar syrup with the addition of every 150 000 units biomitsin collected 29.5 kilograms of honey, and control — at 20.6. * Average medosbor second test group of 5 families sprinkled aqueous solution biomitsin amounted to 30.4 kilograms vs. 21.7 kilograms gathered each family controls. Fertilizing and spraying the bees were carried out in the second half of April.
In apiary weaving plant named after Lenin, the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Art. Beekeeper TS Mango), 30 experimental and 30 control families were divided into three groups (20 families). Feeding was held from April 24 to May 5. 10 experienced families in the first group received a sugar syrup of 300 000 units of penicillin and 10 kontrolnyh- the same amount of sugar syrup with no penicillin.
As a result, experienced family collected 57.5 kilograms of honey, and control — 42 experienced by the family of the second group received penicillin 150 000 units. the seven-day interval between dressings, collected 47.2 kilograms of honey and kontrolnye- of 41.8. Ten families of the third group was given penicillin also 150 000 units, but a five-day interval between dressings. They collected 46.8 kilograms of honey, and control — at 38.5,
On an apiary farm Kirov, Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Head. Apiary NS Martynov) had 15 experienced and 15 control families. Experienced family for three times (12, 19 and May 26) received 150 000 units biomitsin in sugar, syrup and honey collected at 57.2 kilograms and 52.8 kilograms of kontrolnye-. In conducting the experiments spent
5 rubles 84 kopecks, and the additional income from the experience was 112 rubles. Similar results were obtained in the apiary farm «Pravda», Gomel region (the head. Apiary PI Romanenko), on the farm «Dawn» of Rostov Region (Head. Savoshchenko apiary GR), the farm «Baranowski» Gorky region ( Head. apiary IV Kirillov).
GA Osmolovsky from Lugansk to experience the Party has allocated 2 families: one of the 12, the second of 8. First, in turn, divided into 3 groups:
The control of four families, and two test 4 family. The second batch divided into 2 groups: control and experimental family of 4 each. Families of the first experimental group received the first batch of penicillin in sugar syrup with 300 000 units in 3 dressing, family, «the Torah — 300 000 units biomitsin also in syrup. The results of productivity were as follows: the first group of families gathered to 49 kilograms of honey, the second — at 50.5, while the control group — 30.
Experienced family second batch were pollinated forage biomitsin in a mixture of powdered sugar, 30 grams biomitsin family. Families of the bees in the control group net dusted with powdered sugar. The results were startling: the family of the experimental group collected 40 kilograms of honey, and the control group — 22.5.
On increasing the productivity of bee colonies, podkormlennyh antibiotics, according to beekeepers N. A. Popov, Kirovohrad region, AK Manuilov, Tashkent, NS Kush, Kursk region, SD Nikitin, Tula region, C. I. Baryshnikov, Tajik SSR, JF Poplawski, Lviv region, NI Sholomov, Saratov region, and many others.
One of the most common methods for the introduction of a healthy family of antibiotics stimulants — is feeding in sugar syrup. Sugar itself is a strong activator, therefore, to obtain reliable results, the reference families in the same period were fed the same amount of pure syrup as experienced with the addition of antibiotics. Application experiments aqueous solutions of antibiotics allows completely eliminate sugar. A similar reception when antibiotics are given to the families by spraying of aqueous solutions, we propose a method called forced stimulation.
It is only necessary to avoid falling into the open brood antibiotics and spray their bees, densely obsizhivayuschih cell. By virtue of the instinct of bees quickly cleaned after spraying each other, thus introducing antibiotics into the body. A similar forced stimulation in the case of pollination «Bees crystalline antibiotic powdered.
To feed antibiotics stimulants term forced stimulation, in our opinion, does not apply because the bees quite willingly eat like a mixture containing, in addition to antibiotics, proteins, fats, vitamins and certain other substances.
What is the stimulating effect of antibiotics on healthy bee colonies? It was found that antibiotics accelerate the development of bee colonies, allow them to increase more and more bees.
On an apiary farm them. Kalinin, the Moldavian SSR, 10 bee colonies, podkormlennyh biomitsin, the main bribe had an average of 11.7 frames brood, and 10 control — at 8.8 frames.
On an apiary farm «Pravda», Gomel region, 7 experienced families podkormlennyh biomitsin had to the main honey crop of 14.8 frames brood, and 7 control — at 10.1. Similar results were obtained in other experiments.
Accelerate the development of bee colonies has apparently crucial in improving their productivity. We also observed that the bees flew out of the experienced family for nectar even during drizzle. The same phenomenon is observed beekeeper f. A. Osmolovsky (Ukrainian SSR). An earlier flight test group of bees for nectar and later marked the end of the flight of the beekeeper P. Malle Kinoy (Bashkir ASSR). She says most of the bees loaded with experienced families, 50 percent of the bees returning to the hive with nectar, does not reach to the tap-hole and fell into the grass.
Beekeeper NS Kush (Kursk region) reports that in hives with experienced families of one minute returned 70 bees carrying pollen and nectar, and in hives to control — 50 experienced Bees families are beginning to work on V2-1 hour earlier bee control families, and finish later.
Higher activity podkormlennyh antibiotics bees in honeycombs offset mark beekeeper. GA Osmolovsky BM Biryukov (Volgograd Region), Kolosov (Sevastopol) and L. A. Kirillov (Kursk region). According to the latter, the family has received in the feeding of 300,000 units of penicillin, has built up 11 frames of comb-foundation, and control — 5.
These SD Nikitin (Tula region), IV Kirillova (Gorky, I region) and a number of other beekeepers indicate. that even though family and had experienced before the main bribe «equal force to control their productivity was much higher. More productive work bees receiving antibiotics due, in our opinion, the best condition. This is confirmed by research data bees placed in kleyuchki. Bees were fed with antibiotics, lived longer than the bees that were fed pure sugar syrup.
Given this, it is clearly advisable to sign, in addition to early feeding, giving families a one-time dressing with antibiotics and before the main bribe.
How, then by promoting the activity of antibiotics bees. The final answer to this question is impossible to give, but some way to resolve it outlines. Conducted in November-December 1962, laboratory studies have shown that bees receiving syrup biomitsin and penicillin, eat syrup higher than the control. Such an increase in appetite when fed antibiotics observed in other farm animals.
Based on preliminary data, we can assume that in the families of active antibiotics skormlennye forcing the bees to consume honey than usual. What does this information have to do with the observed activation of the bees?
Man keeps on apiaries and uses honey bees, precisely because they expressed the instinct of storing more food than is required for the existence of the family. In addition to the 80-100 kilograms of honey annually spent family during its activity, it stores some of the surplus, and that the person selected. The accumulation of too much inventory is biologically essential for it, especially in vivo surplus feed is accumulated over several years.
It has been established that the bees did not so selfless and tireless toiler, as it was considered before the invention of observation hive. In every family there is a certain amount of bees, vacationers and do not take part in the honey collection and implementation of various vnutriulevyh works. In seeking to increase marketable honey, the man in this case, enter into a conflict with the biological characteristics of the bees. Overcoming this contradiction in beekeeping as in any other industry, it is complicated by well-known difficulties of breeding and breeding new species of bees with a pronounced instinct of storing food Lichkov. Mobilize existing family of bees to perform backup vnutriulevyh works and honey collection — a problem the researchers designed to open and use the reserves, ATP is clear increase in productivity of bee colonies.
In all probability (for a categorical statement, further experiments), antibiotics, increasing the appetite of bees, methods / are thus "poisoning of a large number of food and feed intake in turn leads to increased activity of bees. Bees normally consumed would be less honey, and perhaps would have stayed somewhere in the cells, but eaten under the influence of an additional antibiotic feed pushes them to perform vnutriulevyh and field work. In connection with the findings of eating podkormlennymi antibiotic syrup a large number of bees, beekeepers are advised to refrain (at least until the additional data) from feeding antibiotics to bees going in winter, as this can cause premature overflow their intestines.
One reason for the stimulatory effect of antibiotics is that they are contrary to the view of some practitioners and individual researchers, are not substances that are alien to the body of the honey bee. All fauna of the earth is a kind of «boarder» vegetable as animal feed by ready-organic substances are characterized by the ability to create only plants. Any animal so for millions of years of evolutionary development of the species was closely related to plants. This applies particularly to the honey bee, countless generations that have existed and exist due to pollen and nectar of flowering plants.
It is now established that live in the soil and producing antibiotics microorganisms contribute significant accumulation in the soil of these specific compounds.
The data presented in the book of academician Krasil’nikova Mr. Antagonism germs and antibiotic substance), 1758, indicate that the antibiotics that accumulate in the soil, absorbed by plants and contribute to the development of their immunity against diseases.
For a long time, feeding on plant derivatives such as nectar and pollen, bee, of course, met with antibiotics. Continuous receive them with food might be their specific needs. Identifying these needs of the animal, the 1rbovany that makes the organism to the environment, and the satisfaction of their -path to increase productivity of the animal. Therefore, there is awareness assume that by feeding the bees are small (stimulating, doses of antibiotics, we do not make the family is something foreign and alien to her, but only satisfy one of the demands that the family makes to the environment and that in the absence of a bribe is not satisfied .
The data of experience that bees podkormlennye antibiotics become more peaceful, allowing you to work with them without smoker (beekeeper BS Pechora, Shepetivka, Ukrainian SSR).
Thus, when attempting to interpret the mechanism stimulatory effect of antibiotics on healthy bees, on the basis of certain data can make two assumptions. On the one hand, by thus satisfying one of the many needs bees we contribute to the improvement of their overall physiological status, increased longevity and greater activity within the hive and during field work. On the other hand, we force the bees receiving antibiotics, eat more syrup, which also contributes to an increase in their activity. In the family there is a mobilization of hidden reserves.
Thus, antibiotics, increasing the activity of bee families accelerate development and significantly increases their productivity.
As a further impact on family skormlennye during vigorous activity antibiotics? Some of the data obtained, in particular, PY Chebotarev (farm them. Kalinin), indicate safe wintering of such families and their higher productivity than the control in the subsequent season. Families podkormlennye spring of 1961, penicillin and Terramycin biomitsin and autumn showed higher productivity than the control, were under the close supervision of the winter. The results showed the absence of wintering oponoshennosti and dampness in the hive. Podmore number of «no more than 3/4 cup per family. In the season 19b2, these families without feeding antibiotics., In the spring showed a higher productivity than the control.
This is reported by beekeepers IV Kyrilov (Gorky region) and • Kumanog (Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). Last writes that cuttings with young queens, podkormlennye biomitsin spring, so effort to bribe with lime, which is not inferior to strong families.
On the other hand, against the background of a large number of letters about the positive results of experiments with antibiotics, we have few reports, which referred to the insufficient pronounced effect of antibiotics on healthy bees and beekeepers NP Poskryakova (Stavropol) and TA Gorobtsov (Kirovohrad region), write to us that experienced family have prepared even a little less honey than the control. Interestingly, five experienced families podkormlennyh NP Poskryakovoy biomitsin at a dose of 150 OOO units of family, in three bee queens made a quiet shift. In the experience of TA Gorobtsova a similar change took place in four of the seven families, podkormlennyh biomitsin. In both cases, stunted experienced family, of course, honey procured somewhat less control.
These facts allow us to suggest that the quality and age of the mares in the families, intended for feeding antibiotics important. It has been observed that after feeding families antibiotics activated bees in a certain way affect the uterus, causing it to postpone the large number of eggs. Young energetic uterus can significantly increase egg production, thereby contributing to a more rapid development of the family. Old well worn out, the uterus may not be able to fulfill the «demands» of activated bees and dramatically increase the number of eggs laid. This in some cases can lead to a lockup of the family, and in others — to change Tiga uterus both adversely affect the productivity of the family. We do not have precise data to affirm this position, but beekeepers working with antibiotics, it should be borne in mind.
The bee, like in any other livestock sector, there is, in our opinion, any rules that could be applied blindly, without taking into account the specific conditions. Template use of antibiotics in different areas and can not give the same results. Today can be considered proven that the use of antibiotics helps to accelerate the development of the beekeeper families, build them a large number of active bees.
However, this build-up of the bees should not be an end in itself. A further task of the beekeeper is to make good use of these bees to collect honey, honeycomb detuning and pollination of crops. Well researched his country, knowing the place and timing of flowering honey plants, to build up the bees beekeeper should not in general, but by a certain date, which are specific to each area.
Beekeepers in such apiaries are not interested in speeding up the early spring of families, because without timely expansion slots, and the use of bees to honey, it will cause the condition and swarm to increased feed intake. All this is somewhat limiting the use of antibiotics. If you are not going multihull hives with their large capacities and adaptation to antibiotics migrations will provide significant assistance to the beekeeper in the cultivation of strong families. We need to clearly plan migratory beekeeping, an increase of families possible seeding memo noses. Without all of this antibiotic may in some cases give negative results. Beekeeper, having increased by a large amount of antibiotics to the bees bezvzyatochnomu period will cause rapid destruction of their stockpiles of food and family come to swarm state.
The guidelines that are sent us beekeepers experimenter, stresses that efforts should be made to avoid getting fed antibiotics in honey trade, which is a food product. To this end, the main feeding antibiotics should be conducted at a time when the hives are not yet shops. Feeding of antibiotics should be avoided in large quantities, adhering to the recommended methodological guidelines in small doses (average of 150 OOO units per family). We encourage beekeepers to obtain additional data to refrain from feeding families ter feed ramitsinom. Antibiotics need to be fed in early spring and at the lack of a bribe so that they spent on food of bees, do not fall in to the feed stocks.
To summarize, we can conclude that the results of experiments conducted in the years 1959-1961, confirmed by the data of mass experiment, organized in 1962, is not the territory of more than 20 territories, regions and republics of the country, proved stimulating effect of certain antibiotics on healthy bees. The data obtained in the laboratory and directly on the apiaries, allow us to make some tentative conclusions about the mechanism of this action.
However, there is much uncertainty in this complex and multifaceted issue. Work on «The stimulating effect of certain antibiotics on honey bees» continues. The author expresses his gratitude to all beekeepers who received guidance, take part in this work and sent to the Department of Zoology at the Moscow Academy of Veterinary data to speed up the resolution of this problem.