Mentally, first briefly, briefly, and then leisurely and somewhat wistfully, looking back all the artists portrayed, the triumphant, the sad, the blooming and fading flora. There are pictures — a kind of hymn colors. On them you can not forget: the genre of «flowers — birds» Chinese masters of the Tang and Five Dynasties, «The Virgin in the Garden of Roses» Martin Schongauer, «Spring» of Sandro Botticelli, the Dutch still lifes of the XVII century, «time of day» Otto Runge, the scenery of the modern era. ..
Artists Sea and Xi Cui Bo embodied in circuit-free, sketchy manner «rustling» bamboo and cane, «smell» of camellias and lotus. Rose Garden of the German master Schongauer was a reminder of a lost Paradise; very luxurious flower — a rose — was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, a small meadow, where she sits, symbolic construction, it protects the outside of which — the world of evil and violence. Like a string Poliziano, the poet of the Medici court: «One spring their successes multiplied, walking, weaving a thousand flowers» — come to life in bottichellievskoy picture. Roses, violets, daisies, irises, orchids and hundreds and hundreds of plants make wonderful bouquet — frame for the main image. In addition to cups of wine, playing cards, bowls and musical instruments, the Dutch masters paid great attention to the image color as the characters «live nature»; they were symbols for them contemplation, a reminder of the «vanity of vanities» — Vanitas, an expression of hope for the immortality of the soul. Concentrated symbolism represented by the German romantic Runge in a cycle of four compositions: in «Morning» shows the white lily, indicating the light in the «Day» — knapweed, personifying celestial blueness in «Evening» — a rose whose red color reminiscent of sunset and shed blood Christ, in the «Night» — poppy, is an attribute of God Hypnosis and Sleep. Greenish rose school Glasgow, tinted carnations Oscar Wilde, women of color, algae and water lilies on the water — visible signs of age the XIX-XX centuries.
It seems to be a variety of colors and shapes! However, if we remember that the flowering plants from the department, there are four senior families, 1200 genera and 235 species LLC, it’s clear that the artists chosen few. And that’s why they were able to make certain, in the spirit of the times, symbolic value.
Every country, every era — their favorites flowers. There is a «flower of the Bible», is «a Gothic flora.» For example, we give a lotus of ancient Egypt and India, chrysanthemum — Japan, the Middle Ages in Europe — white lily, the Italian Baroque — a garland of roses, Holland — the tulip; blue rose, which appeared in the novel «The Count of Ofterdingen» Novalis — romantics; lilies — Art Nouveau style. Favorite flowers valued for certain morphological properties, carefully studied their colors and shapes, number of petals, stamens, pistils, leaves and fruit, stem and receptacle. Their structure allocated one or more properties, whether it is the smell, the size, the combination of colors and so on. N. Roses, lilies, lotuses seen a combination of many qualities, and why they became widespread. What mattered the number of plants, combinations thereof.
Floralnye motives, in fact, can be seen everywhere: in the outlets, in ornaments, friezes, columns in Egyptian temple, the stained glass windows of Gothic cathedrals, Persian carpets, wallpaper and contemporary jewelry. Symbolic destination colors are extremely varied. They can be attributes to easily find out the name of the person depicted. They are widely used in heraldry, decorating books. In alchemy, the white color indicates silver, blue — space. Flower with six petals may indicate macrocosm. Flowers were related to gaming culture of mankind. Was known in the ancient world, «Dance of Colors» on Lesvos in the House of the Muses of the poet Sappho. From the Western Middle Ages is a game where participants sit in a circle with some flowers in their hands, and the flower whose name was pronounced, he wrote poetic improvisation. Flowers could «serve» everywhere from jewelry calendar tables (ie. N. ‘Almanacs’) to the erotic code flirts XVIII century. We can say that the entire spiritual fabric of artistic culture is permeated by images of Flora.
Red Carnation — the symbol of the wedding, forest bell — the Holy Spirit, cyclamen — the nuns, daisy — baby Jesus, «bitter herb» dandelion — passion, lily of the valley — the coming of Christ, pansies — memories, violet — humility, hyacinth — grandson of Zeus, the favorite of Apollo , poppy — Ceres and brother Tonatosa. With flowers we plunge into the world of legends, legends and superstitions. Inhaling the aroma, walking through the woods or field, contemplating exotic collection in the greenhouse, we consciously or unconsciously partake of distant rituals. Images of art imperiously forced not to forget about them.
Many flowers have not one but several meanings assigned to them in accordance with the relationships with the other characters. However, significantly, in the global culture stood out single flowers; especially characteristic such as lotus, rose and lily.
Lotus in ancient Egypt was a symbol of strength zhiznetvoryaschey similar energy of the sun, the sign of the Nile and fertility. The image of a baby, seated on a lotus, has reached the art of Greece and Rome. Homer tells the story of Hercules, traveling in lotus canoe. The symbolism of roses maturing in Greek and Roman mythology. Rose — a flower of Venus, triumphant love. Red rose, according to legend, came from the drop of wine spilled Cupid, or a drop of blood, rays of the wounded leg of Aphrodite. Besides, if you take into account comments Pindar, Propertius and Tibullus, the flower could be a sign of mourning, a sign of death. Rose bushes growing on the Champs Elysees in the city of the dead. As the queen of flowers, the rose is the most important attribute of the Virgin Mary. Rose and Queen of Heaven for the medieval mind was one essence. Mary called the «rose without thorns», as its fate was not associated with sin. The wreaths of roses dressed children involved in heavenly bliss, whether angels or saints. Since the early centuries of the Christian legend was elaborated that initially rose growing in the garden without thorns, it was white. The rest of her beauty — a reminder of paradise. Thorns also rose after the fall. Medieval man could know the legend that Mary conceived by the smell of roses that were blooming in her garden. Golden Rose — the attribute of the Pope. Interest in the East rose reflected in the Iranian tale of love for this flower nightingale. Silver Rose — housing Brahma.
According to Greek mythology, Persephone was kidnapped by Hades, when to gather lilies. Milky Way generated drops of breast of Hera, could be not only the stars but also the lilies. Finally, the lily denoting virginity. This flower amidst the thorns could be reminded of Mary Immaculate, which with its purity protected from sinful temptations. Lily — a flower of the Annunciation. Archangel Gabriel gave the Virgin the lily as a sign of divine attention. Lily was the attribute of some saints Dominic, Francis, Anthony of Padua. In the film «Sinners» from the Prado museum Hieronymus Bosch lily emerges from the mouth of the divine judge, as a symbol of mercy, grace and mercy. Lily as a sign of divine grace entered the coat of arms of the Bourbon dynasty. According to tradition, a special kind of lily called Iris, King Clovis likened scepter. It was the emblem of the cleansing through baptism, and Lily was the heraldic sign.
Positivism XIX century would destroy the poetic relationship with nature, declaring it is not a temple but a workshop. Thus, there was a threat to interrupt millennial cultural traditions, a place of myth give way to science Bazarov, and in the future — Lysenko’s agricultural utopia and a huge bouquet, symbolizing the power of the state. So forget himself to Homer’s language, the language of the Bible, the language of parables. The explanation in terms of being able to complete botany. Nevertheless, the sort happened, and could not happen. Tradition alive. Pots with flowers — a reminder of the «gardens of Adonis» of the spring festivals — Adoni on reviving and dying gods, ancient heroes. Since the days of World arhetipalnogo tree generated by the mythological imagination, there was an idea of the equality of human and plant began in nature. According to ancient beliefs of a person could easily enter the vegetable kingdom, and come out of it. Therefore, the flowers, as part of his, humanized, animated. Daphne, Cypress and Myrrh turned into trees; Narcissus, Hyacinth, Clete — in color.
Colors indicate the essence, to the divine. It is equally important that they talk about feelings. For example, with the first centuries of the Christian era drying colors indicate the illness and death. Fading wallflowers, standing in a glass on the window, in the «Portrait of ES Avdulinoy» work Orest Kiprensky, hint at the wasted years. Flowers continuously show the power of love. On the graves of Tristan and Isolde themselves rose flowers, intertwined stems. Forget-Me, the very name of this flower in many European languages means «do not forget me.» Homer, then the Bible compares people’s lives, their fortunes with the plants, which then die, then come to life.
Stylized plant species depicted at all times, from the Neolithic to the XX century. Modernism was, perhaps, the last style that so much attention to the realm of Flora. To a certain extent we can say that this style was born of botany. The artist and writer of Victorian England in the 1860s suggested that the plants are beautiful curves, the transition from line to line, which is visible in the bends of energy. Then, the «lessons of botany» spoke many poets and artists. Buds reminded of the future, rose — love, orchids — the death. Exotic flowers conjures up notions of unsolved mysteries.
Once a new era of symbolization colors. It seems that we are at the end of the XX century have lost faith in everything, but still pluck the petals of a daisy, believe «even» and «odd» stems in a bouquet, do not incur a visit yellow flowers. In the days of destructive positivism when raised above all scientific result, the Pre-Raphaelites painted roses, sunflowers — Vincent Van Gogh wrote «Flowers of Evil» Charles Baudelaire, flowers sang Maurice Maeterlinck, Alexander Blok, Osip Mandelstam. Under the shadow of yet unseen plants created by new generations of culture, believe, will grow young souls … Will the plants of other planets or a product of our imagination — not so important. But in the herbarium of the soul of mankind has ever made roses, lilies, lotus flowers, forget-me, iris, lily of the valley …