Each farm managers must constantly take into account the cost of labor per unit of cultivated products and organize the work so that labor is used more efficiently.
However, many state and collective farms do not pay enough attention and avoiding the high cost of labor per unit of output, wasteful spending tens of thousands of man-days. So, in 1963, growing 200 tons of strawberries, * Lenin State Farm, Moscow region spent 12,635 man-days, and all the other specialized farms in the area have collected all 346 tons and the cost of production of 40,624 person-days.
Such facts mismanagement consumption workforce berry plantations marked in other areas of non-chernozem zone.
Lenin pointed out that labor productivity in our socialist economy is the most important, the most important victory of the new social order. Therefore we can not accept the fact that human labor in the horticultural state farms used so unproductively.
An important condition for improving productivity in the berry fields — reducing the labor costs for the individual works for the care of plantations and harvesting.
Consider what constitutes the cost of labor on the plantations of fruit-bearing strawberries at the farm named after Lenin, the Moscow Region, in good years — 1960 and 1961 — with yields of respectively 59.2 and 71.8 quintals per hectare.
For ‘vegetation are held two with weeding and loosening soil cultivation 6-7 between rows. In 1960 he made 18 tons of organic fertilizer per hectare, mineral — 12 quintals in
1961, respectively 30 tons and 12.6 quintals. On a bed of straw spent 3 tons per hectare. All work on the fight against pests and diseases were mechanized. The average rate of collection in 1960 — 43, in 1961 — 44 kgs; per hectare of seedlings procured by years respectively 188,000 and 203,000 units.
The most time-consuming work on strawberries — harvesting; it accounts for about 50% of all costs. This process is very complicated for mechanization and soon even can not count on harvesting machines of berries. However, labor productivity in the collection of berries can be significantly improved by increasing the yield and berry size. The farm named after Lenin in the strawberry harvest 70-80 centners per hectare average daily output per worker is a constant 40-50 kilograms, and on some days increase to 80-90 kilos. With a yield of strawberries 30 quintals per hectare average output per worker is reduced to 18-20 kilograms.
Calculations show that for the collection of strawberries per hectare with a yield of 90 quintals necessary to spend 225 man-days, and for cleaning the same number of berries with low yields will require 500-600 person-days.
To raise labor productivity in harvesting strawberries can also be through proper organization of labor. Berries should be carried out both hands in a comfortable container, which must be promptly delivered to the workers and take them with berries. A very important condition — permanent staff workers.
Another most time-consuming work for growing strawberries — tillage. It costs can be significantly reduced through the use of mechanization, improving the quality of treatment, subject to certain plant density, the use of herbicides.
For timely processing of crops is required to have for every 10 hectares: fruiting berry —
12-15 working young plantations zemlyaniki- 8, young berry bushes — 3-4 workers. The composition of the team — 40-50.
Performance machine for soil cultivation is the tractor DT-20 with mounted cultivator or a self-propelled chassis DVST-16. These machines compared with horse-drawn implements increase productivity by soil treatment 5-6 times, which saves labor costs for each hectare of 4-5 man-days. In addition, a more complete treatment of the soil between rows reduces the need for manual processing of the soil in rows (10-15 man-days per hectare).
When a systematic treatment of the soil in rows of strawberries labor costs per hectare does not exceed 10 days, and if the delay in implementation of these works labor costs increased to 40 person-days or more (if single treatment).
Reduces labor costs and a certain density of planting strawberries, as under the canopy of foliage powerful weeds are killed and no neo (5hodimosti fight them.
State Farm named after Lenin, fulfilling these conditions, significantly reduced labor costs for processing plants of strawberry compared to other farms.