Question in the nests of families absolutely no pollen The bees feed in early spring, to compensate them shortage of pollen? (VI Shvets, a Semipolki, Brovary district, Kyiv region.).
ANSWER. Bees metabolize protein and other substances are very few nutritious foods: yeast (baker’s, brewer), cow’s milk, soy flour is partially exposed to high temperatures during its degreasing.
Giving application is recommended in the following ways. To prepare the yeast feeding fresh baker’s yeast taken from the rate of 50 grams per 600 grams of sugar and 3 cups water. Sugar pour water "And boil for 2-3 minutes. Then, 50 grams of yeast is ground with two teaspoons of sugar, until they get a lot similar to sour cream; it is poured into a sugar syrup, stirred and heated to boiling. The chilled fertilizer added polstakana honey bees and allowed to stir at 150-200 grams at a time.
To prepare the dressing molochnosaharnoy 1 liter of whole or skim milk is heated to 60 degrees and, without boiling, stir it in 1 kg of sugar. When the food has cooled, it is given to bees 200-300 grams at a time.
Soy flour mixed with pollen, honey and other substances prepared different feed mixtures, but the mass production of them have not yet been established.
QUESTION. Are the feed bees produce royal larvae and adult cancer? (PI Podyapolsky, Ryazhsk, Ryazan region).
ANSWER. This question can not give an exact answer. It is presently believed that Royal Jelly is a product of not one but at least two glands. In the larval food contained two different parts (fractions) — a thick, white, who, apparently, is produced in the upper-jaw glands and transparent, more watery, which is probably produced in the pharyngeal glands and also contains an admixture of honey. Which feed the bees give the uterus — is not exactly traced. We can only say that this diet is rich in protein substances and is similar in composition to the milk, as the uterus gets it from the nurse bees.
QUESTION. After the exhibition of bee zimovnika (April 9), I found a family in the nest three printed liquor. How do bees have to bring eggs queens? (VF Bespalov, the farm «Forward» Krasnoarmeyskiy district, Chelyabinsk region).
ANSWER. Apparently, in the winter in the family was the uterus, which began in March to lay eggs. However, she soon died, and the larvae hatched from eggs laid bee queen cells. Sometimes bees lay the queen cells in the brood bees trutovok. But in such cases, they develop drones.
QUESTION. Why can not I evacuated crystallized honey? (N. Nesterovich, of Insar, Mordovian ASSR).
ANSWER. The speed and nature of crystallization honey depend on many factors: the maturity of honey, the plant species from which it is collected, chemical composition, since its evacuation from the comb, the storage method and the like. D. Crystallization honey due to the presence of fine (germ) crystals. To accelerate the crystallization, it is necessary to take a few kilograms last year candied honey, good rub in the same amount of fresh, then pour into a bowl with honey and stir thoroughly. Thereby in raw honey will be made to the seed crystal that will accelerate its sugarcraft.
Q I’ve noticed that in the years of abundant nectar flow families of bees swarming more than during the weak bribes. Is not that a manifestation of adaptation to the local bee breeding queens and change under especially favorable conditions bribe, when the quality of queens is particularly high? (IP Porotikov with. Kozlovka, Buturlinovsky District. Voronezh region.).
ANSWER. In years with good spring bribes bees are better nourished and grown over the brood, which contributes to swarm. However, you noticed by the phenomenon is observed not always. More often a good bribe eliminate all swarming in the apiary. However, it was during the preparation for swarming in the family to create the most favorable conditions for the cultivation of the queens of the highest quality.
QUESTION. The two families during a bribe to buckwheat died uterus. Families laid fistulous queen cells, but then chewed their side. By the fall in the nest was hunchbacked brood. In the spring of both families, I found queens laying eggs normally. How could it happen fix these families? (LN Ivanov, Minsk).
ANSWER. Apparently, the bees chewed side only extra queen cells; liquor from one in every family hatched queen. Bad weather delayed the mating of queens (in 1962 it was observed in many apiaries), and families were pchely- trutowka, brood and found that you fall. The uterus after mating, it is obvious, too postponed small number of eggs that are left unnoticed. The uterus and could not begin laying eggs
(such cases are often at a late withdrawal of queens). Spring steel uterus normally lay eggs, and the family were corrected.
QUESTION. In the spring, after the transport in the ETS apiary 5 km, bee hives were out of several other families. Whether it is expedient in this case to correct the strength of families by repositioning the hives? (NI Zaitsev, Storozhevsky farm, Lipetsk region.).
ANSWER. Yes, as appropriate. In such slёtah usually a few hives stuffed a lot of bees, while others lose them. In such families, sometimes even brood is not covered by bees. To quickly correct such family, a family with a strong nalёtnymi bees put in place weakened, and the latter in place effort. This equalizes the power of permutation families. However, we must strive to avoid slёtov and raids bees in the apiary. This is achieved by non-simultaneous release on the flyby of bees and improved guidelines to facilitate the bees find their hive letka: hives need to be painted in a different color from among distinguished bees, diverse set them, applying to existing plants.
QUESTION. How long can live family, if it is not cancer? (IP Dayneko, der. Prudok, Svetlogorsk district, Gomel region.).
ANSWER. It depends on the time of season. Families who have lost a uterus autumn, winter is usually bad, worried, especially in the spring, with the result that come out of hibernation weakened and die within 1-2 months. With the loss of the uterus spring family lives for a long time. The fact that, as shown by studies Maurizio summer bees live in relatively short time (35-45 days), mainly due to the fact that intensively cultivated brood. Bees are not fed brood live several times longer. In queenless family bee brood to grow up deprived of the opportunity, and it prolongs their lives. Strong family lost uterus spring, can survive until the autumn. It is clear that by the autumn it will be a little bee, and they will be old and unable to grow brood. Queenless family must be corrected as soon as possible. If you have to correct inveterate queenless family, she must first give some framework with mature brood printed to supplement the young bees. Sits in the uterus such a family should be with great caution, there is the old bad bee queens take.
QUESTION. How much honey is consumed in an average family for a year to brood rearing and feed the bees? (GM Yasnysky with. Lozyna, Ivano-Frankivsk region, Lviv region.).
ANSWER. It is estimated that during the season on the life of bees and brood rearing average family consumes 60-90 kg of honey. The strong family feed consumption can increase up to 120 kilograms.
QUESTION. Do lizard causes any harm to the bees? (NF Shkurat, Yellow Waters, the Dnepropetrovsk region.).
ANSWER: No, not cause. They can bask in the prilёtnoy board without causing any disturbance of bees.
QUESTION. What is the impact on bees different sounds or music? (AI Efremov, p. Bor-Eagar, Klyavlinsky District, Kuibyshev region.).
ANSWER. Undoubtedly, the bees have the ability to perceive sounds (noise), although they have not detected any special authority to their perception. Sounds made by bees in flight or on the trough attract other bees. Gul queenless’ families attracted queens. The roar of concern bees transferred to neighboring families. Uterine swarming make sounds perceived by the other queens. It is believed that the sound vibrations perceive many nerve cells and sensory hairs scattered over the surface of the body of the bee. Bees react only to the sound of concern to them any biological significance. In music, they do not respond.
Question in the hive-lounger for 20 frames in one department usually placed the main family, little family-assistant to the uterus — in the other. How many families in a hive, one or two? (SM Linkov, der. High, Znamensky District, Orel Region).
ANSWER. The name and the number of families in a hive-lounger determined by the fact that it actually exists. If the hive is divided in half and put it in a two-family, occupying 6-10 framework, it is clear that in the case of dennom hive two families. If the hive is the main family of 6-10 frames and the side of her, behind a partition, placed Nucleus 3- 4 frame, in this case, the hive-lounger is one family and Nucleus to spare the uterus. The rug, partitioned 5-6 branches can be 5-6 cores with extra queens. It must be borne in mind that under the existing rules is recommended to have spare cores with queens up to 10 percent of the total number of families in the apiary.
QUESTION. I am very interested in the article 3. Ereshi Pal «in the output of new queens», placed in the magazine number 11 in 1962. Because of the reduced transfer article is unclear to me the following questions: how to cut the plate with egg and how it is transferred to the cell? How old should the egg? (V. Pogodin, Kuibyshev, AV gills, Saransk, Mordovia ASSR).
Answer. In a bowl on royal jelly, remaining after graft larvae tolerated egg. Eggs with the bottoms cut out of the cells. This is a wax plate. For vaccination Ereshi Dr. Pal takes on freshly seeding cell layers without cocoons. The walls of the cells it breaks cold knife, then slice cell of eggs lay on a clean paper.
To cut a wax plate with egg author redid the mechanical pencil with four metal legs without lead. With this tool plate proper diameter (3-3.5 mm) is cut and discharged into the cell.
Age eggs should be at least 2 days. Determine the slope of its eggs in the cell is impossible, as the slope of eggs depends on the position in which the queen was at the time of the postponement. Eggs can be prepared the required age in prison.
QUESTION. The magazine number 11 of 1962 in the speeches of the delegates of Romania B. Alexander is mentioned on the original method of overwintering queens outside the club. How can you tell about this experience in more detail? (GY Chervonets with. Schurovka, Balakleyskiy district. Kharkov region).
ANSWER. This issue was devoted to a special article of the Romanian scientist N. Foti in our magazine number 11 of 1960 entitled «Experience the winter maintenance of the queens of bees outside the club.»
QUESTION. Should every family to be drones for normal family, and if so, how much? (IA Cooper, p. V. Ruble, Poltava region.).
ANSWER. The presence of drones is not necessary for the normal operation of the bee family. Drones do not participate in the work of the family, they only fly in good weather to mate with females. Drones have no effect on the work of bees. Therefore, the family is perfectly normal growing brood and honey gathering, without a single drone. On the contrary, the withdrawal of nutrition and adult drones require a considerable amount of food, and they reduce the uncontrolled withdrawal of the productivity of the bee colony. It should be on. possible not to allow the withdrawal of drones in the series (of utilitarian) families. To do this, put in the nest only to honeycomb, well built up on artificial honeycombs and discarded (or correct) all cells with drone cells. For insemination of queen bees is necessary to deduce drones 6-10 highly powerful families, which nests in the middle of the advance put on
1- 2 cell with drone cells.
QUESTION. Can swarm back into the mother’s family, in which cases it happens? (VV Kononenko, p. Copanca, Kirovohrad on the fin.).
ANSWER. Swarms always come back to the maternal family, if you do not find the uterus. Bees fly without it can not. Vaccination swarm on a tree branch can be explained by the need to accurately (contact sensing) to determine the presence of cancer. Older uterus is not always able to fly: they often have frayed or damaged wings. Jumping out of the hive with a swarm, they fall into the grass and lost. Bees in this case, fly in the air, making several attempts to get together (grafted), but did not find the uterus, fly again. Ultimately bees returned to the parent family. From it should again exit the swarm as tolko’vy- being the first young queen.
QUESTION. From the same family, which laid fistulous queen cells, a swarm flew five times and each time came back. This zobiki bees escaping from a swarm, were empty. Why did so many family attempts to release a swarm and yet Otro? (DS Zavgorodniy with. Timoshevo. Orenburg region.).
ANSWER. You have not seen the output of natural swarm of bees and fly after a young uterus, circled and flew to the pairing. Bee queen cells laid on 22 May consequently June 3-4, hatched young of the uterus. If the family swarmed, the swarm would come out in these days. You write that for the first time released a swarm of June 13 t. E. In 9-10 days after the queen of queens. At this time they usually emerge to mate. Such support the uterus in a swarm occurs frequently in cases when there is no brood nest, as in nature there is a substantial bribe. Departures bees in a swarm hinder pairing of the uterus, which causes multiple repeated departures, sometimes twice a day. Emitted queen returns to the hive, and behind her back and bees.
QUESTION. Where you need to write queens for family-hybrids in the Kurgan region? (SF bowlegged with. Baraba, the Kurgan region).
ANSWER. According to the Kazakh pilot Station beekeeping, good results in similar conditions of northern hybrids provide family-gray mountain Caucasian bees with the locals. To receive them, you should write out
2- 3 fetal uterus from one of the nurseries in the Caucasus. Purebred ewes sends Chhorotskusky matkovyvodnoy nursery of the Georgian SSR. Admission of orders for these queens You can request at the address: Tbilisi, 12 Bazaar, USDA bee management of the Georgian SSR. The addresses of other nurseries are given on the fourth page of the cover of number 5 of the magazine «Beekeeping» for 1962.
QUESTION. I want to be a family-hybrids. Is it better to write from pitomnika- «barren or fetal ewes? (GI Fedulov with. Radishcheva Penza region.).
ANSWER. It is more expedient to write from nurseries fetal ewes. Experience has shown that prescribe barren ewes are not rational. Firstly, queens weeks of age and older bees make really bad. Secondly, young queens first week of life when they have still continued development of the ovaries, carried in cells, where they do not have the conditions for the full development (temperature 34-35 degrees, the food of appropriate quality, a full withdrawal by the bees). As a result, some of these ewes dies, and other rare give good family. It is better to write down 2-3 fetal uterus, and then make the necessary time and under favorable conditions, to withdraw queens, daughters and immediately plant in the family and slips.
QUESTION. Oil derrick is 500 meters from the apiary. Drillers say the gas coming from the well, adversely affects bees, and they may die. Is this true? What to do in such a case? (M. Prokhorov, Aksubayevsky District, Tatar ASSR).
ANSWER. At high gas saturation can have a harmful effect on bees. However, it is believed that the remoteness of the apiary half a kilometer is sufficient to avoid its harmful effects on bees. Greater importance should be the fact that the impurity gas to the air affects the plants and their nectar. The editors do not have exact figures on this issue and asks beekeepers with apiaries near the oil wells, to share their observations about the impact of gas on the productivity of bees and bee colonies in such conditions.
QUESTION. What bodies make noise bees that are in the winter the club? Such noise can always be heard when hit your finger across the hive. (GV Sapronov PA and the rat with. Elm, Kursk region.).
ANSWER. The noise emitted by the bees, comes from the fast, shaky movements of their wings and legs. At the same time from the fast movements and working muscles produce heat. The biological significance of this noise is that the bees tend to raise the temperature inside the club and that increase their activity for a possible rebuff to the enemy, disrupt their winter dormancy. The noise is amplified in the hive and a significant decrease in temperature for heat generation inside the club bees make the same movements shaking the wings and legs. The uterus also make sounds other than the sound of bees: they arise via spiracles.
QUESTION. Please complement your answer comrade. Zavadsky placed in N ° 5 of the journal for 1962 on p. 45. It states that a swarm flew over a distance of 90 kilometers. We believe that the bees may not be enough to feed zobikah trip on such a long distance. Probably bee swarms replenish their stocks of food in the way? (PG Young and IM Smirnov, Irbit, the Sverdlovsk region.).
ANSWER. Depart swarms of bees had full zobiki containing 50 milligrams of honey. In a specific study of energy expenditure during flight bees it was found that bee consumes sugar 10.8 milligrams per flight hour. Airspeed swarm of 30-40 kilometers per hour. Consequently, the 90 kilometers of the bees will fly no more than 3 hours, spending in this time of 32.4 milligrams or 40 milligrams of sugar honey (assuming that 20 percent of honey water). It is clear that on the flight distance of 90 kilometers with an excess of the bees have enough honey taken. Bees in the way did stop, but quietly hanging swarm to consume a very small amount of food. Lee Roy replenished in the way of their honey stocks? We think not. If bees started lёtnuyu job, in the place where they sat down, they would have stayed and began to build a cell. Cases detuning honeycomb swarms of trees observed not so rare.
QUESTION. Are there any known cases where the bee family freely without mechanical separation, wintered two or more fetal ewes? (AM Bulaev, pos. Snowball, Bryansk region).
ANSWER. In summer you can relatively easy to artificially create a family in which to live and lay eggs several old fetal ewes. Especially prone to this cohabitation uterus families southern races of bees. However, as a rule, in the winter there is only one family of the uterus, and the rest gradually die. There were reports that some beekeepers have seen several cases of wintering queens in the same family. But in the spring in these families had only one uterus. Repeated screening experiments with hibernation few queens in one undivided family ended in failure in delivery. Therefore, now is neither a completely authentic experience of successful wintering of several queens in one undivided family.
QUESTION. Is it possible to advance, before leaving the swarm to find the uterus and put in a cell. Then, during the exit to remove a swarm cell and place it somewhere among bees on a tree branch to swarms of bees gathered themselves to the uterus. Will the swarm from the hive if the uterus is, camping in the box? (LN Konih, Tbilisi).
ANSWER. Conclusion ma-ki in the box will not prevent the exit of the swarm from the hive. Cells also hanging away from the bees, they can not find. You can put the cell into the thick of the bees that they have found the uterus. Then the rest of the bee swarm will be grafted into this place. However, it is more convenient to collect a swarm of little differently. Once released a swarm, hive maternal family relinquish away to the side, and in its place put a new, prepared for the landing of the swarm. In the middle of the hive between the frames of the new cell is inserted into the uterus. Fly for a while and not finding uterine gchely return to the old place and get into the new hive.
QUESTION. I pollinated vineyard sulfur, which fell on the leaves at the bottom of rosshey cucumbers. The bees began to collect the sulfur in the form of transferring pollen to the hive. Does Sulfur any significance for the bees? If they do not die if it will consume? (VD Furtat, Crimean region.).
ANSWER. In the absence of pollen in nature bees often collect material not having anything to do with the pollen. Bees collect and bring to the hive fine sawdust, dust from broken bricks, fungal spores, and others. All of these substances do not have any importance in the diet of the bee. Collecting them can be explained by a «mistake instinct.» Adding to the hive pollen large amounts of sulfur may cause harmful effects on bees. Cells in which bee pollen is folded such, should be removed from the hives.
QUESTION. Are there differences in the milk, which the bees feed bee larvae, and masterbatches for the first, second and third day of life? Is there a difference in the milk for a swarm of queens and output at a «safe change»? (AP Shevchenko Gulkevichsky District, Krasnodar Territory).
ANSWER. Differences in milk for different age larvae of bees and queens are available both in the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as in the content of other biologically active substances. In the early days of the larval food contains more protein, the next — carbohydrates. Spectral analysis revealed differences in the content of biologically active substances. Based on these differences, for the needs of medicine taken by the larvae royal jelly only a certain age, calculated from up to 12 hours. As for the differences between the milk in the swarm queen cells and queen cells that lay in a «safe change» that on the subject of any investigations are not available.
QUESTION Can the spring of the expansion slots stavig frame with pollen in the middle of the nest? (M. Votaman with. Dumya, Chernihiv region.).
ANSWER. It depends on how many cells in the pollen. If it is a little bit, and hundreds of other than pollen contains more immune cells, suitable for the brood, then a frame during the expansion slot strong family in the warm season can be put in the middle. If the cell is almost completely clogged pollen, it is better to put next to the frame at the brood. Bees in this case can easily use pergu if it need be, and at the same time does not divide the cell pergovy slot into two parts. Honeycomb expansion slots in a 12-frame hives must be put at between brood frame and neighboring medopergovym hundredth.
QUESTION. Wanting without too much trouble to change the old queens, some beekeepers have cut off the last segment of hind legs and wings clipped. Such perverse queens bee replaced by «peaceful change». It is this way of itself and whether it can recommend? (AN Vasilchuk, Volodarsky district, Donetsk region.).
ANSWER. Bees, in fact, replace these queens. If you do this operation before the main bribe, then simultaneously with the change of the uterus in the nest, and decrease the amount of brood, which would be beneficial for honey collection family. Uterine derived when «safe change», are usually very good. The change of queens by cutting four tarsal segments on the back and middle legs were tested in 1954 at Kemerovo Experimental Station beekeeping. So were replaced in the uterus 14 families out of 20 families with medosbor evil queens in one apiary was 40.2 kilograms (37.7 kilograms in kontrolnyh-). «Quiet Shift» queens for many years attracted the attention of beekeepers.
However, this issue has not been studied. If you are interested in it; proedite the «quiet smenuch queens first in vidё experience of 10-15 families. Each of these families pick up at one control equal strength. Consider the amount of honey collected experimental and control families. At the end of a bribe to determine the strength of families, the availability and quality of queens.
Question, I selected the old queen and 3-4 hours to let notches swarms barren that two hours later found murdered before. Then I made a second cell in the barren womb, but her bees are treated with hostility. Destroyed three liquor fistula, I again gave the barren womb, but also to no avail. Please explain whether you can still force the family to sit down barren womb? (AS mouth, pos. Neftvgorsk, Krasnodar Territory).
ANSWER. When replacing a ruptured uterus barren bees rarely take it. Family having outdoor brood in the nest of all ages, usually lays fistulous queen cells and kills sits barren womb. After the family will open fistulous queen cells, replanting new barren uterus becomes almost impossible. It is easier to manage replanting barren uterus family in the nest where there is no open brood and no queen. Undoubtedly, it is better not implanting the uterus and mature metochnik. Generally Kuban bad bee queens take other breeds. Maybe. You tucked another breed ewes and this explains your failure? To ensure reception of a new barren womb, taken the old, providing an opportunity to lay the bees fistulous queen cells. When the bees will seal fistulous queen cells (8 days), and they destroy the nest of the family con mature liquor. In Orel Experimental Station bee (1957) by replacing the old uterine barren bee queens took 41.1 percent, while replaced by mature queen cells — 77.3 percent. In that case, when the uterus is first clipped middle and back legs, but after some time, given the mature liquor — 94.4 percent successfully changed queens.
QUESTION. I applied twin-content of bee colonies and got good results. But at the end of a bribe in the lower housing was not a grandfather, or brood, and the whole family is focused in one upper body. Is it always so it should turn or I made some mistake? (IK Goncharov, Kalinin).
ANSWER. You should have one or two times to change the housing places: the bottom to put in place the top, and the top — at the bottom place. After setting the second housing bees readily pass into the upper body, where soon the uterus occupies most of the brood frames. After 20-25 days, a lower body almost completely exempt from the brood. If before the main bribe another 15-20 days, then you have to change body positions. This again will trigger a jump to the top of the uterus (now empty) building, where it will continue intensive laying eggs. In the early days of the bribe is necessary to change the second housing sites to the top of the body turned out to be empty cells for folding of honey and only partially printed brood. You do not moved buildings and thereby prevent the complete relocation of the uterus and the bees in the upper body, reducing the growth opportunities in front of family bribes and collecting honey during a bribe. Terms of bodies rearrangement should be determined based on the strength of families and the timing of the main bribe.
QUESTION. It is known that the queen mates during a flight with several drones. After mating in her reproductive tract is a part of the sexual organ drone — loop. I saw three, young queen, returns to the hive with a train. How could it happen pairing with the second and subsequent drones? Is plume previous drone will not prevent this? (Tob. Babenko, Donetsk).
ANSWER. VV shaking, first established in 1956 by the repeated pairing of the uterus during a flight, said that each successive release the uterus drone of the loop preceding drone. Evidence for this was found by her drones to mate with queens. To the base of the penis I have been glued trail, which belonged to the drone precursor previously paired with the same womb.
Polish researcher Woicke as a result of his work came to the conclusion that the pairing of the uterus with the first drones sexual organ drone field paths of the uterus is not delayed: Spraying takes place only when the seed eversion copulatory organ drone. Horns sexual organ drone thus remain outside. When the queen mates with the latest drone, horns included in her reproductive tract. At the same time there is a reduction of muscle camera sting, causing part of the sexual organ drone off and clog out of the genital tract cancer. A few hours after the return of the uterus is released from the loop. More about this you can read in the number 1 and number 8 of the magazine «Beekeeping» for 1956 and number 4 to number 12 in 1957.
QUESTION. How to determine if the bees have diarrhea? What to do to save the bees in such cases? (IA Efremov, Klyavlinsky District, Kuibyshev region.).
ANSWER. When diarrhea bee worried noise, popping out of the hive to the floor, where the die. Often on the wall near the top of the hive letka may notice a drop diarrhea. We just bloated abdomens of dead bees, and at break abdomen can detect a large number of very liquid excrement. If you notice diarrhea should find out the cause and fix it. Most often diarrhea occurs due to bad quality food of bees (honeydew) honey.
In this case it is necessary to warm the bees sugar syrup (preferably in the bank-trough), so they were fed with sugar and not honey. Zimovnika in temperature should be reduced to 0-2 degrees Celsius, as when a low temperature state bees facilitated. It also helps bees river watering or rain water that does not contain salt. At the first opportunity it is necessary to organize a very early circled.