We analyze the scenario classes
To start to define the tasks. As mentioned above, four of them:
1) the acquisition of knowledge about the variety of colors that can be seen in the sky during the different states of nature: sunset, sunrise, aurora borealis, sunny and cloudy days;
2) development of skills and abilities to work with watercolor technique «on wet»;
3) the assimilation of experience of creative activity in the process of creating a child of their own version of the «celestial transfers»;
4) the formation of the aesthetic relation to different states of the sky: sad, happy, sad, anxious, etc.
Highlighted four challenges, we understand that the key to a creative-oriented employment is the fourth problem: the formation of the aesthetic relation to different states of the sky: sad, happy, sad, anxious, funny, whimsical, dissatisfied, loud, clamorous, thoughtful, etc. Because all the design of the upcoming sessions aimed at achieving it.
To the first part of the class, tie, went impressively, it is necessary to conduct preliminary work. Taking a walk with the kids on the street, we pay attention to the colors of the sky. Enticing the children to examine the heavens play, play a game of «Who will see the shades of color in the sky?». Mentor first he calls the shade, for example, blue, using the words «light», «soft», «dark», «dirty», «marvelous», «red», «green», «white», «black», etc. .P.
And then ask the children to find in the sky this shade (such as gray-blue). Then the children invent a new shade, while others are looking for him in the sky (eg, light-green-blue).
If weather conditions do not allow you to admire the colors of the sky on the street, it can be done by looking at the sky from a window or viewing photographic or video footage. If available, you can visit the exhibition with children landscape painters in the art museum or gallery, to organize an exhibition of one or more paintings in kindergarten. But it is important to remember that any, even the best reproduction is no substitute for «live» contemplation.
After the children received a primary representation of the diversity of heavenly iridescence in nature, it is possible to start practical training.
Recall that the exposition of the alleged planning of the event, which is accompanied by the appearance of a conflict or a problem situation to enhance the children’s attention. These items may be two watercolors «Heavenly transfers» (such as «Sunset» and «storm clouds»), which carried out the teacher in the art «on wet». Beautiful frame affiliation of teachers inspire preschoolers genuine interest. Children will seek to touch watercolor painting and frame. Let them do it.
«What a beauty! How to present the sky! I saw the same! As the ink flow! How messed up! How is it made? This watercolor, whether or gouache? «- These are the questions and exclamations, which will cause your work. And it will be an expression of the aesthetic relation to the young spectator paintings (position «I — the viewer»). To get meaningful first reaction, create a small problem situation. For example, tell the children that there was a misunderstanding during transport plates on which were written the names of lost. And invite the children to come up with the name of the landscape. «Sunset paint», «yellow-red sunset», «The sun goes to bed», «blatantly clouds», «orange-red sunset», «Soon the rain will», «sky heavy,» etc. — These are the statements that will characterize the attitude of different children to the works, and will allow each child to express his vision of (the position of «I — the viewer»). Emotional experiences personally painted find a way out in the judgments and prepare fertile ground for practical work.
But what if, if the teacher is not able to show their own art (original)? In this case, we can consider the work of art made by famous artists — watercolors, or reproduction.
Modern computer technologies allow the use of a rich and varied visuals. The dark space of the room while watching the video presentation will create a special mysterious atmosphere and cause children’s emotions. It is important to choose such visual ranks that they were of different character (for example, works S.Andriyaki «Morning», «Rain», etc.). Featuring pieces of scenery with expressive skies, bringing the image to the viewer, you can see the «kitchen» of the artist and feature works in watercolor «on wet». Expressive images of children will not leave indifferent, they cause emotional reactions in children.
So pedagogically organized complication in the structure of employment decided his task — motivated children to practical work. Now the children are themselves unwilling to get an answer to the basic question of lessons: how to get a piece of paper so beautiful play? Guys are ready to perceive the ways of working in watercolor, that will show them a teacher.
Showing how to work in watercolor technique «on wet» is performed as a dedication to «the secret of the artist» who works in a special painting workshop, where there is an easel, paints and special brushes. It will not take long. You have already pre-attached to the board (or easel) white sheet of watercolor paper. Do you offer children to imagine themselves in the artist’s studio and watch how it is working. You take on the role of the artist, moisten a piece of paper with a wet sponge or large brush and, until the leaves dry, apply a few brush strokes of color that gradually spread out on a sheet. Children react to mixing paints very emotional, «Wow! Great! It’s like a fairytale! Miracles!». Such statements show the children their expression of the aesthetic relation to the creative process (the position of «I — the viewer»).
The decision of the third educational objectives — acquisition of experience of creative activity, accommodation position of «I — the artist» — suggests not simply repeated play action, which showed the teacher, the child and the creation of his original paintings. A teacher by example only creates a favorable situation for the young artists of his discoveries and research activities with paint. Therefore, it does show a variational example, first shows a mixture of red and yellow colors, and then — red and blue. The work does not perform up to the end, limited only by showing the characteristic movements and techniques with a brush and paints.
An important factor of success in teaching creatively oriented learning — this is installed on the child’s achievement of its purpose. Before the practical work of the teacher asks the children to think of the name of his future paintings. «I draw a sunset», «I will have stormy sky», «I will make a joyful sky», «I — sad» — these are the statements of children who will contribute to the selection of the necessary means of expression. After all, «sad», «alarm» or «joyful» the sky is necessary to use a specific color palette.
Preschooler still difficult to hold the plan. That kid has decided to portray the «Joyful sky», but it was a lot of brush on the blue, and the sky turned more «sad» than «fun», but expressive and character. In this case, you need to help your child become aware of their results and together they come up with the name of the picture adequately.
The success of the children’s experimentation with artistic material depends on its quality. An important rule for any creative activity is the following thesis: the smaller the child, the better, perfect and diverse it should have artistic material. This means that we are considering at the session on «Heaven’s play» watercolor paints should not be old and dry, and brush — «three bristles» (glue). If we want to get a «good» children’s drawing, you must provide the child with the same high-quality artistic material as a real artist. A preschooler should get pleasure from viewing material (beautiful box), from admiring the colorful rows of watercolor paint (warm and cold), as well as the joy of mixing different colors.
Can there be a problem here? Of course. Creative experiment implies failure. As experience with the material each child his own, and it will be different creative outlets. The child does not always manage to overcome the «resistance» of the material sometimes paint spill, sometimes the unexpected will bruise and an adult artist in the process is not always everything goes wrong. It is important that the baby does not get upset. Educators need to keep it creative initiatives and to celebrate the work of any expressive moments, praise the process of creating the work and its results. Practices indicates that the positive assessment of the activities, friendly background promote active learning creative growth of children.
At the same time we can not allow that the work turned into self-indulgence. A child should patiently explain that the work of the artist — a demanding job, which is aimed at obtaining expressive results. Expressive — this means intuitive to other people (spectators), not only to the author. Written work is always responsible for the result, its compliance with the original plan (the position of «I — the author, the artist»).
In the normal course of business and during the analysis of a child may express certain emotions: «Wow! What beauty has turned out! Dark cloud, like a dragon! Color krasivenky, naryadnenky left «, etc. These judgments show caring for a child in the creative process, the manifestation of his aesthetic attitude. Emotional reactions need to hear, if they correct the inadequacy of its judgments and estimates.
Decoupling in the script — this is the final part of the class, a kind of aftereffect, which also need to survive. In this part of the activity the educator need to sum up the results of cooperation with the children, «co-existence», «co-creation». Here fit to recall all four tasks that were set in the beginning class, and try to analyze them together with preschool children, considering the children’s drawings.
The provider may ask questions such as: «Whose name drawing the fun?», «What are the shades we see in your picture?», «Why do we guessed that these celestial play sad?», «The use of any colors helped the author to perform joyful sky ?» etc. It is important to isolate such issues, which reflect the specificity of the artistic-shaped graphic activity, in which the content of the figure is put at the heart of all creative work, and skills are a means to achieve design (content). In the unity of form and content is born artistic image (the meaning of the work). Those figures, which the child can achieve this unity, we call «expressive.» That is, in these young artist found an adequate means of expression to express their feelings and thoughts, such as «Merry sky» young artist used the bright yellow-orange range, for drawing «The sky is crying» — a dark blue-purple, and for «beautiful sky »- iris, etc.
From the foregoing it follows that the script class is aimed at creating an optimal artistic and developing environment, a special informal atmosphere of creativity, communication environment friendly adult and children. The structure of the class, organized in an artistic and pedagogical drama, will help you to design creatively oriented activities preschoolers: create the conditions for residence of situations, «I — the author — artist», «I — the viewer — a connoisseur of art» that is the foundation of the modern personality-oriented education. Lesson conducted by the laws of the perception of art in its forms and using its resources to help the child to create a unique «good», expressive drawing.
On the disc, you will find a selection of reproductions of paintings by famous artists, on the theme «Colors of the sky.»
Tatiana Koptseva — PhD, associate professor, senior researcher at the «Institute for Arts Education» RAO.