STAFF Dagestan Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, led by Professor AM Negrul developed a system of mechanical harvesting grapes. For this grape-constructed machine (Fig. 1), and created a special trellis.
Agrotechnical bases of mechanical harvesting grapes — fruit formation and placement of links vines on horizontal and inclined trellis (Fig. 2). On a trellis fertile shoots can be placed only at the appropriate cutting dry and green garter. In this cluster under the influence of its weight hanging down below the trellis wires, and the bulk of the device due to leafy positive heliotropism (rotate, move, rise to the sun) is above them. This arrangement enables the grapes to mechanize the harvest is relatively simple machines with a segment or a rotary cutting machine.
The process of mechanized harvesting is that the cutting unit, sliding on the bottom side of the tapestry, cut legs bunches. Bunches fall onto the conveyor and are then fed into the hopper.
Horizontal and inclined trellis installed on conventional poles (wooden or concrete). For each post, in addition to the terminal, is held horizontally or inclined strips 0.7-1 m long, which stretched wire trellis special.
The horizontal trellis for viticulture area neukryvnyh installed at a height of 150 centimeters from the ground; on an inclined trellis for viticulture area sheltered lower wire stretched at a height of 80 centimeters from the ground (Fig. 3). In each row of the vineyard pulled six wires, two of them vertically (to give the vertical position of the sleeve or the trunk) and four — on a horizontal or inclined part of the tapestry.
On the bushes bunch of different weights. The horizontal and inclined trellis hung them differently, so their feet were not on the same level. But as the cutting deck, sliding on the bottom side of the tapestry, props wire, the legs bunches are automatically aligned to the cutting unit, which allows to cut without damaging the fruit bunches.
On the trellis of a large number of varieties studied the sugar content of the berries, the degree of injury and disease and pest damage productivity.
These studies show that sugar accumulated more intensely in berries varieties Agadai, Rkatsiteli, narma bushes which were located on the horizontal and inclined harvest of these varieties of sugar was slightly more berries on the bushes, adapted to mechanical harvesting.
Berries affected by disease and pest damage, was much smaller.
With the gradual transfer (2-3 years) vertical trellis on horizontal or inclined not yield decreased.
Intense accumulation of sugars in special trellis explained clearly longer lighting direct sunlight leafy bushes apparatus, and less affected by the disease and damage by pests — better ventilated shrubs and a good warming up their base.
Grape-machine consists of a cutting device, conveyor, hopper, transfer mechanisms movement levers. and hydraulic mechanisms for regulating the working of the machine.
For a covering area viticulture sweeper with an inclined cutting unit is hung on a self-propelled chassis of the T-16 (Fig. 4); Zone neukryvnyh viticulture horizontal cutting machine — tractors DT-20, DT-20B, T-50B.
The first departmental and government laboratory and field tests of mechanical harvesting grapes held in
The trial was attended by representatives of departmental Head Specialized Design Bureau and the Economic Council of the Moldavian-Ukrainian machine-South station. State tests conducted Kuban Research Institute for testing of tractors and agricultural machinery.
On trial were presented four wine growing and winemaking machines (two made in the workshop of Derbent Experimental Station of Viticulture and Horticulture, and two at an engineering plant named in Makhachkala Hajiyev).
Machines tested in a farm named after Karl Marx, Aliyev named «Kizlyar» and Derbent Experimental Station of Viticulture and Horticulture. In these farms horizontal and inclined trellis installed on the old fruit-bearing vineyard area of 3.5 hectares. In the first year of 16-47% of the crop was transferred to the horizontal and inclined trellis that cleaned mechanized.
Experienced mechanical harvesting grapes technical and table grapes: Husayn white, Rkatsiteli, Agadai, white oval Sultana, Sultana black narma, Tavkveri and others.
The test data are given in Table 1.
Table 1 shows that the machine was tested in vineyards with a high overall yield. The horizontal and inclined part of the tapestry of 11-61 was located to 93-160 quintals per hectare.
The vines are damaged slightly (6-16%), which is not significant, since cutting nearly 50% annual growth is removed. Further work to improve the mechanical harvesting of grapes is necessary to eliminate these injuries.
Uncut grapes was 7-14%. fallen to the ground, 1.5-3% (in one case 9.9%). Completeness harvest was on the horizontal trellis 83- 93.7% (in one case, 46.7%), on the inclined — 88% of the harvest, derived to a special part of the tapestry.
These test results indicate the possibility of five full mechanization of harvesting of many technical and table grapes.
For comparison, the data on the effectiveness of mechanical harvesting grapes, held in 1961, the University of California in the United States (Table. 2).
The best variant of the experiment UCLA fullness of the harvest was 87%, with 38 bunches cleaned. Uncut grapes was 13-30%.
When driving in grape unit with a speed of one kilometer per hour productivity compared to manual harvesting of grapes increased by 50 times.
However, tests have shown that grapes, especially technical grades, can be removed at a speed of grape-machine 3-4 kilometers per hour; at a rate of labor productivity in the harvest will rise by about 150-200 times. Taking into account the additional costs of wire, wooden slats and amortization machines introduction of mechanical harvesting grapes will provide greater cost savings.
The State Commission decided to continue work on improving the system of mechanical harvesting grapes. Scientific and Technical Council of the All-Union «Soyuzselhoztehnika» agreed system mechanical harvesting grapes experience in Georgia, Moldova and southern Ukraine.