Let me remind you, the heat exchanger — a flywheel engine, from which the bus can one promotion place a few dozen or even a hundred kilometers. Untwisted flywheel energy expended, in particular for braking the bus. Now it is not dissipated as heat, and returns to the useful work adds momentum «gyroscope».
Which will contribute to the realization of this idea? «Non-standard», so if assemble the heat exchanger of the serial components and assemblies! Let it will be a little worse than ours, experienced …
Such a heat exchanger, but not flywheel and gidrogazovy offered Muscovites VG and AG Melyantsevy and Kharkov BA Timskhin.
What can you do! Dear me flywheel, but the truth is more expensive.
The proposed heat exchanger allows to overclock the bus energy stored during braking and consists almost entirely of commercially available parts. Projects such batteries have already appeared abroad (in particular, the West German company MBN) however, sent by the scheme seemed promising foreign.
We will do and try gidrogazovy! Assign responsibilities, agreed on the financing of works with the Lviv Institute VKEI avtobusprom. With him we have a long-standing friendship and cooperation.
The main part of gidrogazovogo heat exchanger — reversible hydraulic piston 70 kW — is placed under the floor of the bus, just above the box transmissions. Hydraulic machine shaft propeller shaft connected to the PTO gear, two flexible high pressure pipeline connecting it with the valve box. The box contains two spool, we combined them with a handle braking and acceleration. Each of the two gidrogazovyh battery capacity of 40 liters — it is durable cylinder in one part of which (in this case upper) is a compressed gas, nitrogen, in the other — an oil. Gas and oil are separated by a piston or a flexible diaphragm. Nitrogen hollow selected that it is cheap, non-corrosive metal, does not oxidize the oil.
To slow down the bus, overclocked power of the engine, connect the suction pipe with hydraulic machine oil tank and the pressure — with gidrogazoakkumulyatorami (press the brake lever). Hydraulic machine operates in the pump, the oil is pumped into the cylinders of batteries, and the nitrogen is compressed, accumulating energy. The bus slows down, stops. Writing back up after a stop, he can not, even if the driver and the brake lever is not released: the suction side have inverse valve locking movement back oil, and hence the bus.
To re-overclock the bus, but accumulated in gidrogazoakkumulyayurah energy push handle acceleration, release lever brake (it is under the action of the spring returns to its original position), connect the line hydraulic machine with gidrogazoakkumulyatorami, and the pressure — from the oil tank, t. E. Translate hydromachines mode hydraulic works. Interestingly, by the way, that if the pressure in the gidrogazoakkumulyatorah were recruited before braking, for example, as a result of slowdown or minor descents, then if you want you can overclock the bus to a higher speed than the one that was lost.
Dispersed bus, let go of the handle acceleration and the oil starts to move in a closed loop idle, consuming almost no energy (in the future we will make steady motion in a mode completely disconnect the hydraulic machines from the transmission. Then this «almost» is not). At long descents translate machine in regenerative braking mode and once again gaining power in gidrogazoakkumulyatory, just in case. If the descent is delayed — do not worry. The pressure in the hydraulic system does not exceed that at which the safety valve is adjusted: it opens, and the oil will begin to flow under pressure back to the tank. By adjusting the valve can move on the descent with the desired speed. Oil tank has sufficient surface for cooling oil. This surface can also orebryat and blow, the heat is still intense.
The engine of the bus when the regenerative braking is better to drown. It is easy to be acquired when the bus picks up speed again by the heat exchanger.
Tests are completed, the results — good. The path traveled friend, godfather, with small deviations from it unprincipled character. I’ll tell you about it to encourage those to whom he is still only be.
In Gomel plant «Hydraulic» heat exchanger manufactured in two years. In Gomel for recuperator I went Associate Professor AG Black truck and returned mortally weary and all smeared in oil (truck had to be repaired on the way), but somewhere «on the road picked up» tanks with nitrogen and scarce high-pressure hoses.
By placing the equipment on duty at night near the bus, kicked out of him, not only cats and cats. Finally, it had to put a fence around the bus.
Having no experience with high pressures, we inadvertently consulted hydraulics-odessite Fedor Kirov is also the author of the IRA (7, 76). Fyodor remembered and gravely told us anecdotal case when a trickle of oil under a pressure of 100 atmospheres man allegedly struck a vein on his arm, and his entire circulatory system instantly filled with oil, displacing blood
— Man, it is true, rescued, — he hastened to have it washed uspokoit.- system, blood pumped new, but, you know, get into the loop should not …
Another view was a specialist from Gomel Volodya Pinchuk:
— This gown — he said — a trickle splashed under a pressure of 300 atmospheres and even moved her skirt.
Who would believe it? And though all the nodes have been tested under the hydraulic pressure bastard, we put the armor to the control panel where I was sitting. The most solid that was found in the laboratory, was a thick golden-blue sheet alloy with some special properties. Leaf, we acquired a few years ago and have forgotten what they were properties. It inserted a small window of bulletproof glass 30 mm thick. It was decided — in security. Put armor plates and the driver — no matter that he was sitting far enough from the nozzles and hoses.
Rights proved Volodya Pinchuk. Bryznuvshaya from the nozzle at a pressure of 200 atmospheres, a trickle of oil (if I may call a quick drops) was liquidated simple tightening the nut.
Finally brought to the test. Choose and quiet street, and the Lord’s day, was that fewer movements. Understood, and I because of armor called the driver: «Neutral!».
Braking was great — atmospheric pressure caught up 180. I pressed the handle of the rotor, and the bus began to be dispersed, but somehow strained, with a strange howling. And then I heard a familiar to our ears sharp sound exploding flywheel.
The bus stopped. While he hauled home all became clear. In the dispersal of heat recovery driver in a hurry instead of neutral included forward gear. Squeeze the clutch, for some time he tried to shift gears to neutral, but he somehow failed. Then, on reflection, the clutch is squeezed, therefore, the engine disconnected from the transmission, as in the neutral position, the driver has calmed down. And in vain. Compiling accurate testing program, we also ponder about something .. Recuperator dispersed bus to more than 30 kilometers per hour. Just as the flywheel to burst when exceeding the allowed speed.
When repairs had to dismantle, except for the gearbox, and even hydraulic machines. And we have no details, nor any other machines did not have. For lifting very heavy units called me, as a former weightlifter. Caused even exams. And when I saw the door of the audience smeared with oil Glory Kuleshov responsible for the heat exchanger, I knew that my time has come. Delighted students leaving the care of their «native» assistant. I put on a gown, gloves, and a professor at proobrazovyvalsya of the crane.
And here we are again brought to the test bus, the wide, usually deserted road near the bypass road. In God I do not believe, but on the eve of and during the night, waking up occasionally it pomalivalsya. Going to the test, picked out a thick wad of tram passes the happiest, and punched him. I bought a bottle of champagne to smash it against the side of the bus. In short, I prepared for the tests.
Perpetuate them was engineer projectionist Lyudmila Maslennikova: simultaneously take readings of devices — gauges, tachometer, timer and so on. E., To remove the bus accelerates the engine stopped. To stalled the engine was clearly visible, we opened the hatch cover, and engine parts painted «zebra».
If I did not write about our own work, I would say that everything was perfect! We secretly brakes and broke up the bus with the most up to a variety of speeds, but strictly within forty kilometers an hour — maximum permissible buses Kursk. The most common speed with which the brake, — 35 km / h, the most typical acceleration — up to 30 km / h. Thus the engine of the bus, cut at the beginning of braking, the plant at the end of acceleration automatically. All the characteristics of the motion fixed devices.
After finishing races, we returned home, and finally decided to show off near the convoy number 1307, which is based in Kursk city buses and where it was at this time the drivers drank yogurt at the gate. Dialing 150 atmospheres, we stopped in front of them — and get stuck. The pressure was not enough to evict the bus from the scene: whether brick hit him under the wheel, no bump.
Could not stand the shame Thank Kuleshov grabbed the crank, only managed to insert it into the ratchet, the bus suddenly moved and left quickly building up speed. Astonished drivers even put the bottle on the ground — the bus went out of the blue, not downhill, at the decayed engine!
We, of course, soon arrived to pick up the departed glory, and at the same time satisfy the curiosity of the public. To our surprise, it did not touch any fuel economy or decrease in the percentage of toxic gases in the environment surrounding the bus, and the like that overclocking is not necessary to shift gears and start up the engine itself, without a starter.
A bottle of champagne I did not allow the driver to break, said the impact of such a thing will fall apart the bus. We note here that the bottle can be used for its intended purpose, it has the benefit of, in addition to it a few available.
So, what can we get from the useful heat exchanger gidrogazovogo a city bus? 1. The fuel savings in urban traffic with frequent stops — from 30 to 50 percent. 2. reduce emissions of toxic combustion products — no less than 3 times 3. Save the main bus brake system for emergency cases — due to the fact that all non-emergency and partial braking produced heat exchanger. 4. will be able to overclock the bus smoothly and rapidly, which will significantly increase the average speed. 5. In the downhill, he will move from the heat exchanger. 6. It will be easy to get a move on and accelerate after any duration of parking; while the engine will start automatically. 7. In the future, can replace pneumatic or vacuum system management bus compact and reliable hydraulic — with continuous presence of oil under high pressure.
Recuperator facilitate transfer power transmission bus to a promising and cost-effective hydrostatic motor power can be reduced twice, since he would have to work only in the optimum mode. If you go even further in my dreams, if not it will be possible to remove the engine, applying for the movement energy of the compressed gas and a small amount of oil. To do this, you must install the device on the bus for multiple uses constant volume of the working fluid in our well. from. № 541049. On the energy of compressed gas bus can travel fifty kilometers.
Of course, all of this is not excluded as a source of energy supermahovik — paired with economical and readily variable hydrostatic transmission. In addition, our industry moves, already partially passed on the hydraulic unit with a rated pressure of 320 atmospheres. Substitution 160 z20 significantly, almost twice, reduce weight and dimensions of the device, either raise its output twice.
…Even approximate calculation of the economic effect of the introduction of the heat exchanger at the annual production of buses in the country gives tens of millions of rubles savings.
But only if the bus is possible to apply the heat exchanger? Boris Timehin, for example, has decided to do in Hadi its setting, much less power — for the car.
But in order to implement a heat exchanger, it is necessary to bring to the implementation of, and that’s the one department of theoretical mechanics can not. We need serious help Minavtoproma, Minavtotransa as a potential customer and Minstan-koproma — at least in the creation of an experimental batch of heat exchangers.