Fruit growers, working in Moscow and in the adjacent areas, making sure that irrigation of gardens — a very necessary measure. But it has not yet received proper distribution.
The Moscow region is a zone of an unreliable moistening. In the study it was found that wet years as much and dry. For example, in 27 years (1936-1963) was a very dry year 4, dry — 8, medium moist — 7, wet — very wet 4 — 4 years. Maximum rainfall — 682 mm — fell in 1947, the minimum — 371 — 1938.
But even more unevenly distributed rainfall by month and ten-day growing season: in the two periods was 6 decades in a row without rain, no 5 in five, in seven of the thirteen 4 and 3 decades. Rainfall usually does not happen in June and early July, when the highest temperature, increasing dryness, not only the upper but also the lower layers of the soil.
Lack of soil moisture in the gardens of the zone is compounded by the placement of plants on the slopes more than 3-5 °. Sometimes, they assign the square, rugged ravines, in which ground water flows, soil podsushivaya on adjoining sites. The gardens are located on light soils and subsoils, more likely to suffer from lack of moisture and above in need of irrigation. Such soils quickly dry out and moistened. They often need to make basic and additional dose of fertilizer in the form of fertilizing and watering more often, but small norms.
Berry crops suffer from lack of moisture, particularly strawberries and raspberries. Black currants and gooseberries although more resistant to drought time, but every year high yields to give permanent and well moisturized soil.
Of course, if farming practices are focused on the accumulation of soil moisture and control its losses, in the dry years the plants will suffer less from its lack.
Sprinkling flowering trees can be saved from damaging frosts — 6 -7e. Best rainfall intensity — up to 3 millimeters per hour, droplet diameter, 3 mm, and the total turnover of sprinkler — about 2 minutes. Start irrigation is best at 0 ° and stop not until the beginning of the melting ice.
Soil moisture should not be considered in isolation from the nutrients. The fertile soil and the better it is filled with organic and mineral fertilizers, the need to moisturize it regularly. On marginal soils with shallow topsoil horizon and shallow fertilizer by drying the top layer of the plants get enough nutrients even though they take a small amount of water from the deeper layers of damp. Irrigation in this case it is necessary, and with less frequent watering and irrigation rates.
Consistently high yields of fruit and berry crops, as experience has shown, can only be obtained with simultaneous complete provision plants with nutrients and moisture in the root zone mainly.
Subsistence farming «Nepetsino», located near Kolomna, to water the garden and uses korotkostruynye srednestruynye sprinklers. Capital expenditures for irrigation hectares of plantations — 551 rubles, the annual performance — an average of no more than 26 rubles. The farm believe that all of these costs in the first 2 years have paid off yield increase.
At the farm holiday house «The Seagull» by using sprinkler systems and special dalnestruynyh gidropodkormschika, embedded into the network at the pump station, making fertilizer. The main dose of phosphate and potash gives from the autumn, usually after water loading irrigation, nitrogen — in the spring. In summer, the trees fed with chemical fertilizers in doses, depending on the needs of the plant, which is determined by the device OP-2 (for row crops). After the application of sprinkler irrigation with simultaneous application of fertilizers yields apple orchard and has become an annual increase of 1.5 times (
1957 -49 quintals per 1 hectare in 1958-67, in 1959 — 40, in 1960 73, in 1961 — 112, in 1962 — 65, in 1963 — 120 p).
Watering and irrigation making organo-mineral fertilizers activate proliferation of microorganisms in the rhizosphere and roots of plants. E Maximum number of beneficial bacteria found in the soil moisture content of about 70% of the full field water capacity. Watering to a certain extent you can change the temperature of the soil, improving the livelihoods of soil microorganisms.
Experiments of Horticulture Department of Agricultural Academy Timiryazev for 3 years found that the growth of apple varieties Antonovka ordinary without irrigation is 15 centimeters, without irrigation, but mulching — 25, with irrigation — 50. The period of active growth of the shoots in fruit nedlitelen rocks in Moscow (15-25 days), and at this time the nutrient and water regimes should be the most favorable.
In podzolic heavy loam Moscow region lower limit of humidity for fruit crops — 70- 75% of the field capacity limit, the upper — 80-85%.
Watering should be in a period of growth of the crop. At the farm «Nepetsino» in 1960 to three watering collection received 20 quintals of strawberries, and after only one charge is almost 17 (from the same square).
At the same time the wrong watering can sometimes be harmful. Strawberries should not be watered large irrigation rates, especially during the ripening and harvesting berries. Before the expected inclement weather, and hence the cooling of irrigation should be avoided, as excessive moisture in this case promotes botrytis.
Fruit plantations on less aligned terrain and on the slopes have to be watered irrigation using machines VNIIGiM-70 and DTT-45. For irrigation berries can recommend the installation: CDS-10, SAM-55 and on level ground, and in the areas of 80-100 hectares — more productive machine DDA-100 m.
The table shows the approximate irrigation, irrigation rates and time of watering fruit and berry crops in relation to the Moscow region. They are designed on the basis of experimental data and production supervision.