Increasing productivity and profitability of agriculture is given importance. With this in all sectors there is great growth. It goes without saying that we, the workers of beekeeping, we can not stand aside from the solution of this important national objective.
In connection with the transfer of on-farm payment any industry collective or state farm must win their right to exist, giving the economy a good profit. In order for the industry was not unprofitable and profitable, it is necessary first of all to ensure a high level of productivity.
Perhaps in no other sector of agriculture there is such a large gap in terms of productivity, as we have. The analysis shows that, on average over three years of commercial production of honey on a collective farm beekeeper for the USSR was about 500 kilograms. In the individual areas even less. For example, in the Northwest, which includes Kalinin, Pskov, Novgorod, Leningrad and other areas on odnoyu employee apiary produced annually only 230 kilograms of honey. Even lower honey production in Belarus. In the central regions — Moscow, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Smolensk and others — one beekeeper rents for the year, on average 285 kilograms of honey.
If you combine the performance of all regions of the European part of the country, except in the Urals, the yield of marketable products per employee on average, equal to 364 kilograms and 16 kilograms of honey wax. The implementation of these products will give farm about 700 rubles, and the cost of the apiary of its production will be about 1,000 rubles. In other words, this low productivity sector suffer from bee losses.
In addition, in any area of the country and there are many advanced apiaries, giving farmers a good profit. The most important task of district and regional specialists beekeeping, employees of local scientific institutions and beekeeping schools is; to identify innovative, cost-effective apiary, study their experience and widely introduce it to the rest of the apiary area or region.
Economic analysis has shown that the profitability of bee attained only in the case when one worker produces at least 10 kilograms of commercial honey. Therefore, to make our country’s beekeeping is profitable, it is necessary in the coming years to double the production of marketable honey per employee. Where this does not happen apiary will languish and be under the threat of liquidation.
Somewhat higher levels of productivity in beekeeping areas of the East. Thus, long-term data, the production of honey per employee amounted to an apiary in the Urals — 647 kilograms, in Western Siberia — 672, Eastern Siberia — 814, and finally, in the Far East -1637 kilograms. However, in Eastern Siberia and the Far East medosbornye particularly favorable conditions, beekeepers and improving technique and organization of work on the apiaries, can further improve productivity. Therefore, you should consider it expedient to beekeepers in Eastern Siberia joined the struggle for obtaining not less than 15 quintals per worker honey apiary and beekeepers to the Far East, probably, will shoulder the task to achieve in the coming years, the production of 25 to 30 quintals of marketable honey per employee .
Before proceeding to the consideration of the main ways and means to be achieved by increasing productivity, it is necessary to mention one very important question.
The contents of unprofitable apiaries are often justified by the fact that the bees are needed to pollinate crops. Many believe that for the sake of pollination can tolerate any, even the lowest of honey collection.
Meanwhile, the study of economics pcheloopyleniya many farms of Krasnodar region, Kursk and Ryazan regions has shown that dealing with the economy bee pollination is far from being well. In areas of intensive agriculture, where large tracts of cultivated gardens, sunflowers, buckwheat, beekeeping has created a special position. It contains a number of bee colonies, which are necessary for complete pollination of existing standards, rather than what is required for effective use of honey collection.
Meanwhile, there are a number of data showing that, in the case where the per unit area of bees less than that required for complete pollination, the honey yield is higher, and vice versa, with the increasing number of families are reduced and honey collection. As an example, the following data from the Kursk region.
The table shows that an increase in the number of households per hectare of buckwheat honey harvest fell sharply, resulting in the production of honey no longer pay the cost of maintaining the apiaries, and they are from one year to cause damage. Since the areas of intensive agriculture excessive amounts of bee colonies contained the sake of pollination, it follows that the part of the apiary costs, which does not pay off produced bee products, essentially represents the costs of the economy generated by the need to pollinate crops in other words, the economy suffer losses apiaries for the sake of pollinating crops.
Pcheloopyleniya economy can be compared to the balance beam: the more the bees gather honey, the cheaper the cost pcheloopylenie crops; Conversely, the lower the productivity of the apiary, the greater the weight falls on the content of the so-called farm pollination shop. In advanced apiaries Krasnodar Territory and other parts of all bee honey production costs are recouped, and even turns a profit, but in most cases such a low productivity of the apiaries that pollination costs farms prohibitively expensive.
We analyzed data from a number of farms reporting the Krasnodar Territory, which have large arrays and large sunflower pollination apiary, and found that the cost pcheloopyleniya is about one quarter of the crop production costs for the cultivation of this crop.
Next, we compared the cost of pcheloopyleniya to the cost of various types of basic agricultural work for the cultivation of sunflowers and received the following. For example, the farm to them. Kirov Korenovsky district of Krasnodar region, 1277 hectares of sunflower are pollinated by 726 families. The cost of pollination, that is, the proportion of stranded honey apiary costs were equal to the cost of the entire machine technology in the cultivation of sunflower (on a single hectare pcheloopylenie a cost of 6 rubles 05 kopecks, and the cost of engineering works — 6 rubles 62 kopecks).
In the collective farm «Put Lenina» in the same district, there were 765 hectares of sunflower crops, pcheloferma consisted of 397 families. Here the cost pcheloopyleniya was two-thirds of the cost of equipment, 2.7 times higher than the cost of plowing and 8 times — the price of sunflower seeds. A similar situation we found on the farm «Lighthouse of communism», where 2,000 hectares of sunflower pcheloferma contained 900 households, and a number of other farms.
These data indicate that the huge backlog of labor productivity in beekeeping compared to other industries.
Needless to say, these high costs pcheloopylenie pay off the cost of obtaining additional yield but relatively low return on investment is obtained. Thus, sunflower honey stranded costs of the apiary absorbs one-third or even half the cost of the resulting gain from the harvest.
The study of this subject in the Kursk region has shown that under normal agricultural technology, with a total harvest of buckwheat about 8 tons per hectare and the content of the two families per hectare cost pcheloopyleniya (ie stranded honey of the apiary costs) in a 1962 fully absorbed, and even exceeded all income from pollination.
Why pcheloopyleniya cost falls on the economy in such a heavy burden This is primarily because of the apiary give very little direct marketable products. The total cost of it very small, and the high cost of the apiary as a beekeeper serves ma ‘on bee colonies.
All of this suggests that drastic measures are needed to improve the productivity and profitability of apiaries. For this purpose there are two main ways: first, it is necessary to increase the volume of production of honey and other products not only on honey commodity apiaries, but also on pollination; secondly, the need to achieve a sharp reduction in labor costs in the apiaries.
We reviewed in general terms, the organizational way, which should go to increase production beekeeping products. But we should be interested not only increase yield in general, and the increase in its production of unity of labor expended in order to get as much as possible, and in any case not less than 10 quintals of marketable honey per employee apiary. To solve this problem it is necessary not only to increase the yield of honey from each bee colony, but is also required to serve a large number of beekeeper bee colonies.
In this issue we have to apiaries is the case is clearly unfavorable. Even in areas of large beekeeping as Kazakhstan. Urals, Ukraine and others, one worker serves an average of 53-57 bee colonies. In the north-western regions of the Russian Federation and Belarus on a beekeeper for 25 families in the Estonian SSR — 22, and in the Latvian SSR, per employee account for only — at just 15-bee colonies.
In seeking to increase productivity, it is necessary to increase the workload for each beekeeper to 1 PO-120 bee colonies. This is the minimum standard. The next step should be higher program: to organize the work in the apiary so that for one beekeeper had several hundred bee colonies. It is used when it advances in science and experience of leading beekeepers Baranov Pozolotina and others.
In areas of the West, the North-West, Central, and other non-black dwarf with apiaries must first get their strengthening. Beekeeping organizations in these areas must eventually decide on a bold step: pick the economy, where there are conditions for holding large pchelofermy and collect several small into one large apiaries. Suppose that instead of 30 in the area of dwarf apiaries will be one or two real pchelofermy. Subsequently, when the proven profitability of farms, their number can be gradually increased.
It is necessary to make extensive use of the valuable experience wonderful beekeeper Smolensk comrade. Pushnenkova that in a poor food base created pchelofermu 200 bee colonies.
A low workload for beekeeping not only due dwarf apiary, but also due to the fact that even on large apiary are superfluous people. It is necessary to reduce them, let them go to other works in collective and state farms. It is essential that in the apiary in the 100-130 families worked one person. Many conscientious beekeepers have already done.
Some major pchelofermah Krasnodar Territory and other parts of the country has developed an interesting experience of service of apiaries, the essence of which is as follows. To reduce labor costs beekeepers work without assistants. and each serving and 10 or more families. All small bee work, observing bees and so on. D. In the apiary beekeeper performs alone. But such mass, labor-intensive work as audit households, expansion slots, setting buildings and so on. E., Two or three neighboring apiaries beekeepers together and do this work together, passing from one to another apiary. Before you invite the neighbors for help, the beekeeper must plan in which families what to do, so you do not spend time thinking, and a bistro.
This is not the team leader service system in the true sense, but simply its rudimentary farm and it should be called «group» service system apiaries, in contrast to the system of the link, which will be discussed later.
Group work beekeepers can be applied in any system of hives, and even with the existing primitive beekeeping equipment. Such a system of work should be fully extended to all large apiary, since it eliminates the need to keep assistants, and it dramatically increases the output per worker.
The next, higher stage in improving the performance of the pile — team leader service system apiaries. The essence of the link system is that of a beekeeper apiary secured not one, but several, for example three or four, with a total of 300-400 and a bee colonies. The beekeeper is a year-round employee and is responsible for all assigned to them apiary in both summer and winter, it is — team leader of beekeeping management. In the summer it stand helpers. Experience shows that it is more expedient to have a link of two temporary assistants. This follows from the data timing held employees of the institute.
All targets are established and accounted for as a whole to the entire group of apiaries served link. To perform the work, all the major skid unit is at full strength at each turn of the apiaries. Small as the current beekeeping operation and monitoring of the bee apiary are performed on each one of the members of the team as directed by the team leader. Peretopki land, equipment and hanging frames, repair of beehives and other similar works are carried out on one of the apiaries, which is central and I have relevant industrial buildings and equipment.
Described the organizational structure of care developed by the Institute of beekeeping and for the years 1962 -1963 is tested on a large farm, bee farm «Pronskiy», the Ryazan region, where a team leader A. Shustov, which are sung in the two assistants, secured 300 bee colonies. For journeys between apiaries link farm purchased a cargo three-wheeled scooter. For this purpose, it can be used as a motorcycle with a trailer adapted to it, and even ordinary feed. In the future, when the unit will be up to a dozen apiaries, he’ll need vehicle, for example the type of UAZ.
Of the link service system apiaries applicable under normal dvenadtsatiramochnyh hives, but the link is unlikely to be able to serve more than 100-400 families. Meanwhile, a brilliant experience comrade. Baranov on the use of multi-hives shows that two people freely serve 400 families; while Baranov does not stop success and will increase the workload of up to 1,000 families for two.
In 1962, the link in the farm «Pronskiy» worked with ordinary hives. Productivity in it turned out to be 54 percent higher than the productivity of individual beekeepers. In the current year, when the bees were transferred to multihull content, productivity has increased in the chain has more than doubled.
Thus, the content of multi-bees in conjunction with the service system of the link apiaries beekeeping opens unprecedented perspectives, and not far off the time on large pchelofermah one link beekeepers will be 1000 or more families.
But team leader apiaries service system, even in its embryonic form, requires the mechanization of labor-intensive work.
It should also be borne in mind that only mechanization provides high economical efficiency, when it is designed for high power at high performance. For example, you need a machine that pumps are not a ton of honey per day, and several tons. This unit can be loaded with work only when serving about 1,000 bee colonies. A significant step in this direction is established by the Institute of beekeeping mobile unit by pumping honey, which can handle relatively large bee farm. In future it will be necessary to move on to creating pchelofermah central database with comprehensive mechanization of labor-intensive work and automotive communication with apiaries. The use of such a system makes it possible to maintain one beekeeper to 1,000 bee colonies.
Based on the creative cooperation of science and production, our beekeeping, of course, to reach these milestones.