Digest of articles. Translation from English, German, French and Danish. The introductory article and the compilation IA Khalifman, Selkhozgiz, 1958, pp. 444, 20 thousand copies., The price of 19 rubles.
In the introductory article «Apiary like pollination plant breeders’ made a brief review of studies pcheloopyleniya crops conducted by Soviet and foreign scientists. As a result of this work, a new unit of agro-biological science — botanical and zoological ecology, a special branch of biology which studies the existing relationships in nature and communication.
As a result of observations revealed that honeybees in pollinating flowers on average 80% of agricultural crops. This explains the value of bee-keeping in agriculture in general and particularly in horticulture.
According to estimates X. Armitage, in Northern California in 1950 for the lease of the bees it was paid 1 million. Dollars, and the cost of crop production, obtained through pcheloopyleniyu exceeded 100 million. Dollars. Consequently, the cost of pollination were less than 1% of the cost of production.
The collection consists of two sections: «Pollination by bees of agricultural crops» and «Problems of Biology flight pollination activities of honey bees.»
The first section includes articles that summarized research on pcheloopyleniyu sunflower, cotton, red clover, alfalfa, vetch, fruit trees, melons, tomatoes and other crops, and the use of bees in greenhouses.
The second section provides interesting information about the flight activity of bees, how bees find their desired plants, range of flight of bees, on the influence of natural and climatic factors on the activity of the bees, and others.
Many papers describe the methodology of experiments and devices used in the studies. Along with theoretical generalizations the authors share valuable insights that can be useful to gardeners and growers Soviet.
So, Roberto E. (New Zealand), studying the sugar plum nectar of flowers, found that depending on the temperature and relative humidity of the concentration of sugar in nectar varies from 1 to 32 ° / o. The degree of attraction of nectar for bees is determined by the sugar content. Bees prefer to collect nectar contains 40% sugar, even if the plants that produce it, are far from the apiary, than to take nectar from 20% of sugar from plants located nearby.
In the experiments D. Roberto hives with strong and healthy families established between flowering plum tree, but bee visited other more distant plants. Spraying plum flowers (2 times a day), a 38% sugar solution drastically increased popularity of bees, the use of less concentrated solutions (below 20%) was ineffective. However, in low humidity high concentration solution (30% or higher) can lead to premature browning and wilting of the petals and the reproductive organs.
GE Woodhead and A. TI Vetts (New Zealand) gives a detailed description of the many varieties of pome and stone cultures in terms of their suitability for pollination (as pollinators or pollinated). This makes it possible to choose the varieties in tandem to ensure cross-pollination.
The article KR Ribbendsa (Rotamstedskaya Experimental Station, England) examined the factors affecting the flight activity of bees. The number of departures of bees increases or decreases depending on the intensity, low temperature reduces the activity of the bees. The flight speed of bees around 22 kilometers per hour, but the strong headwind hinders their flight activity. When calculating the bees on apple it was found that the maximum number of departures from the hive going with the wind, the speed of which does not exceed 1.6 km per hour. Heavy rain also prevents flight of bees; when they fly light rain at some plants growing near the apiary (linden).
The author gives interesting data on the reaction of bees to smell and color of objects, about remembering landmarks, activities scouts bees, bee-pickers and others.
R. Voytler (Germany), by studying the range of bees, came to the conclusion that it is not the same in different years; in experiments conducted in 1941 -1948 years., maximum range was
2.6 km. For uniform pollination hives should be placed at a distance of 2.7 km from each other, which corresponds to the flight distance of 1.35 km.
Collection of «New in beekeeping» not only introduces the reader to foreign experience, but also raises a number of issues that should be studied in relation to the natural features of the Soviet Union.
The book will benefit the readers in solving many practical problems.