The head of the Kiev yusu Endowment Variety testing portion of fruit crops
To make decision XXI Congress of the CPSU to increase production of fruits and berries are not less than 2 times, and grapes are not less than 4 times much has been done. The supply of industrial centers of Ukraine fruits and berries significantly improved mainly due to products coming from nearby farms gardening. However, the needs of the population in cherries, especially in the northern half of the Ukrainian SSR, is not yet fully satisfied.
Cherry comes in here most of the industrial areas of its culture — Melitopolytsiny and Transcarpathia. Such further transport leads to a significant reduction in the quality of the fruit. To improve the supply of cherries, it is necessary as soon as possible to expand its planting in suburban areas of cities and industrial centers.
Expansion of planting cherry in the northern regions of Ukraine was hampered until recently, the lack of sufficiently hardy varieties to local conditions with a good taste and product quality of the fruit. Now this is the main obstacle can be considered eliminated.
In Kiev State variety testing area fruit crops in the 1950-1951 biennium. Cherry was planted 38 varieties, of which 6 old and 32 breeding new varieties of Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture and Mleevskoy Experimental Station of Horticulture. Control served the most winter-hardy in our environment grade — Drogan yellow.
Cherry spring planted saplings at a distance of 6X6 m typical for these areas of gray forest soils. No special protection but sadozaschitnyh bands on the site was not. Some varieties are planted in parallel on two rootstocks — Prunus mahaleb and wild cherries.
Trees began to bear fruit of most varieties in 1955 and 1957 came at a time of full fruiting. Has already received three full crop, and it is possible to make the first conclusions on the results of variety trials, all the more so in this period was the harsh winter 1955-56
It should be noted a different attitude to the varieties of rootstock. Trees grafted on Prunus mahaleb, were worse than developed, less winter-hardy and so some of them dropped out. Only two varieties — Kiev number 9 and 21-D Hybrid — developed about the same on both rootstocks. Yields on cherry Prunus mahaleb was significantly lower than in the wild cherries.
Many of the varieties tested were very cherry yields in the early years of fruiting (see table).
The table shows that there are new varieties, yields ranging from 60 to 114 quintals per 1 hectare. For the 8-9-year-old cherry plantations under 1959, when rainfall is less than half the long-term average rate (45%), this should be recognized yields very good.
The maximum yield per tree is often 2-3 times higher than the average for the class. For example, in Kiev number 9 it is 89 kg, from Kievan number 2 — 76 kg per tree.
Previously, all the fruits ripen in the hybrid 26-K, and then at the Jubilee Hybrid 23-D are respectively 14, 15 and 18 June. It’s just a few days later, you start to enter the market in Kiev early varieties of cherries from Melitopol and Transcarpathia. The taste and appearance of the local cherry varieties superior importations had undergone long transport. New varieties of mostly mature June 20-25, later on June 28-30, Drogan yellow (control) 10-16 July. Thus, the period of use by cherry isolated in variety testing of new varieties, can last on average from June 14 until July 16, t. E. More than a month.
Most of the test varieties of cherries, along with high productivity have good flavor quality of fruits.
Trees are the best varieties are now in good condition. Their height reaches 5-6 meters and the diameter of the crown — 5 m. The nature of the ramification of all the selected varieties of good and does not cause the need for special cutting for crown formation, liquidation and other wading.
Based on the results of the first tests of new varieties of cherry can be recommended for widespread introduction into production in the suburbs of Kiev, and in the southern region is described. As the stock is necessary to take a wild cherries or cherry. First of all should be encouraged to implement the following varieties of cherries.
Kiev number 5 selection of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture (breeder S. X. Duca). Fruits are black, large, beautiful, high taste, medium ripening.
Hybrid 25-K selection of Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture (breeder IM Kovtun). Fruits are pink, large, beautiful, delicious, medium-term maturity.
Hybrid 26-K selection of Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture (breeder IM Kovtun). The earliest date of maturity, high yielding variety. Fruits are black, beautiful, quite large, quite satisfactory taste.
Kiev number 2 selection of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture (breeder S. X. Duca). Fruits are black, very elegant, large and delicious, medium-term maturity. ^
Mr. Droga and yellow — a well-known variety of the most recent average yields.
Anniversary — selection Mleevskoy Experimental Station of Horticulture. Fruits are pink, very early ripening, beautiful and delicious. Yields on Prunus mahaleb low, but in the wild cherries should be much higher.
Due to our recommendations the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR organized a rapid multiplication of these varieties in nearby nurseries to Kiev. Kiev station released the variety testing nurseries in 1958 to 5.3 thousand. Cuttings in 1959 g.- 15.6 thousand. The same number of cuttings it will let annually.
Kiev, 45, Kitaevskaya, 13/7