Proceedings of Stalin on linguistics opened a wide scope for productive, creative work in all areas of the science of language. Soviet linguistics, derived from the impasse of the «new doctrine», has been able not only to proceed with the development of the scientific themes that have been superseded by unproven speculation Marr and his followers do non creative work on new problems arising from natural genius and labor . Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics.» Of particular interest is the problem of Soviet linguists: language and literature, and — another aspect of the same problem — the language and the oral folk poetry.
Noting the great importance of general linguistic works Stalin on linguistics, Acad. Vinogradov writes: «Even more aware of the importance of a comprehensive study of the national language, the works of oral literature, folklore, which contain precious means of verbal expression, great linguistic wealth; more acutely aware of the need and necessity of using these verbal art treasures in the language of literary works in print, «however, was mainly learning the language of folklore is still outside the scientific interests of the majority of Russian researchers.
We can not say that the data language of folklore was not involved in the study with the scientific development of those or other questions of the Russian language, related both to its present condition and its history, but in most cases the language of folklore is not the direct object of study, and draws only as dialectological material.
Russian folk dialects have long been the subject of serious study, which is especially widely developed in the Soviet era. According to popular dialects collected a wealth of factual material, however, and the recording and special monograph is meant mainly household dialect speech, not the language of oral poetry, which hardly attracted any special attention of linguists or folklorists.
A rare exception was the work of AA Potebni, but its interesting and deep thoughts not been sufficiently developed in the later works of folklore.
For the fruitful study of dialect in his figurative and expressive function, t. E. To learn the language of oral poetry, is necessary to have not only the full recordings of folklore of any areas (such recordings, published and unpublished, are many), but also quite full of recordings of everyday speech from the same area. Only under this condition, researchers were required for the successful operation of the material, because the specific features of artistic language oral poetry defined as such only by comparison with the spoken language. In this regard the study of language is almost folklore was not conducted: the problem of the specificity of the language of folklore in its relation to the language spoken was not sufficiently well understood and articulated. It affected the practice of collecting as a folklore and dialectology, the consequence of which is the relative poverty of the materials of the type mentioned above.
Even those researchers who based their work mainly on folk material and seemingly had to take into account its specific character, folklore, language is not isolated as a special expressive and emotional shape described by their dialect. For example, from an article by PN Rybnikov «On peculiarities of Olonets podnarechiya» attached to its famous collections, we know that as the material he used predominantly spoken language, not only in the language of domestic and bylevoy songs, but the data of the language songs not isolated from the common material. Only in one place, speaking of unusual stress, appeared in some words under the influence of the Karelian language, PN Rybnikov observes: «The songs words are correct.»
A similar lack of distinction between the facts of the language of folklore and the language spoken is characterized by the facts and notes EV Autograph laments about the language. In these articles the author wanted to show the specificity of the language laments like a certain genre of oral poetry: «Not only features local dialects are reflected into lamentation; Here we meet with a variety of names such verbs, which attract the attention of the peculiarities of their education: folk art not only free to enjoy a ready supply of turns and expressions of everyday speech, but, under the influence of the well-known image for accurate, edinobytnogo its outline easily create new words or According obderzhnym gives a new shape. «
However, correctly pointing out the specificity of the language laments, EV Leopards could not separate fact virtually the language they studied the facts of the genre of spoken language; he greatly exaggerated laments archaic language, archaic considering all that is such a point of view of the literary language, and would not go dialect lamentations sung.
Of the later works of the same type, we note the study of the language of the White Sea Vasilyeva epics and VI Chernyshev about language Pechora epics. For both of these works were the records of folklore material; but no LL Vasiliev, nor VI Chernyshev showed that typical for language epics, not dialects in general. Therefore, their work would be more correct to call description says on materials epics. In this regard, the work of Vassiliev greater interest than the work of VI Chernyshev; the latter to a certain extent has the character of a linguistic index for the collection of tales N. Onchukova.
Vasilyev belongs to another article, based on folklore material. Very valuable in respect of dialects, this article also does nothing to clarify the features of the language of the song.
This tradition continues in part to the present day. During the years of Soviet power was widely developed as a traditional gathering of folklore and Soviet collected materials published in various collections of folklore. Almost all of these collections are equipped with the local dictionary words, and to some, a description of the «language of fairy tales» or «the language of songs», which are part catalog accidentally snatched dialectal features.
History of the study of oral folk poetry shows that research in this area, too, almost did not touch the language of folklore as a special form of popular language. Characteristically, based on linguistic material theory of Bulgarian origin Russian epic, launched in due time Shakhmatov still not received a critical assessment of the deployed.
The study of folklore in Russian science proceeded in ways that excluded the possibility of studying their language as a separate subject. Some scientists have considered folklore ethnographic point of view, these folk were treated by them as ethnographic sign on an equal footing with others: clothing, shelter, ceremonies and so on. D. Others saw in folklore comfortable area where it was possible on a large scale deal with comparing different «I go «themes and motifs. If you dissect him living tissue artwork «on motives», these «scientists» diligently looked for them all sorts of parallels in world folklore, forgetting that the work of art is not a mechanical sum of themes and motifs. In these works the works of oral poetry lost all national flavor, all its originality and fell into a number of pieces mechanically connected.
Naturally, this method of research has undergone a severe condemnation of the Soviet public as a manifestation of the ideology of cosmopolitanism. However, until recently, made itself felt relapses cosmopolitan comparativism in literary criticism, applied in particular to the material of folklore of the Turkic peoples of the Soviet Union. It goes without saying that the question of the language of a work of folklore in this vicious method not only raised but could not be delivered because it is in the language most powerfully embodied the individual, unit and at the same nationality as the It is the main feature of every work of art, including folklore.
Some scientists, on the contrary, to seek the source of folklore in Russian historical reality, but doing it too straightforward, naively realistic, without considering the fact that they are not dealing with historical documents and art works, in which the historical reality is reflected not just and in art transfigured.
Marr and his followers were trying in their own way to put the question of the study of folklore. In rejecting all that was done to him, and strongly declaring his «new quality» approach to folk material, Marr has created a «concept» in folklore, that strange and ironic way of building combines fantastic mythology with cosmopolitanism «Drawing School» . In the article «Ishtar» Marr wrote: «First, the public poorly organized people — brilliant creators in the images, the great poet, but it does not matter erudite scholars. With the fruits of their work does not leave humanity in his new works: they are, as the hidden base, erect or of them as of the finished material, molds new forms. «
For Marr’s important, not the story itself, not its design by means of language, and reflected in the formation of the fictional story he stages of thinking. He was interested in «paleontology» story, suggested by «paleontology» speech.
Followers Marr attempted to develop these provisions in the collective research the story of Tristan and Isolde. Exploring the plot by the «paleontological analysis,» the authors set out to «trace the entire path of transformation scene, reflecting the thinking of the individual stages of development, depending on the changing socio-economic lifestyles»; they are not interested in a specific product itself, but the process of «recessional» transformation story. One of the articles of the collection is dedicated to finding «recessional equivalents» story of Tristan and Isolde in the Russian fairy tale, and «diastadialnoe» the study if the author has given material for the notorious «semantic series» «Water — the hand — a woman.» Naturally, with a research focus on the pathos Retrieving «stadial equivalents» of the plot and the complete disregard for the individualization of the plot in a concrete historical linguistic environment there could be no question of learning the language of folklore. The role of the national poet was reduced to only mechanical transmission prehistoric poetic heritage with all the dregs of the «space» of thought. Language folklore interested Marr only as a file «yafetidizmov» which investigated by fantastic fantastic four elements. Followers of the «new doctrine» of the language, and that is what is credited Marr, giving his fantasy of the latest achievements of science, Stalin teaches that «the language and the laws of its development can be understood only if it is studied inseparably linked with the history of the society, the history of the people who belong to the target language, and who is the creator and bearer of the language. » From this position naturally follows the conclusion about the impossibility of studying the history of the people without studying the history of his tongue. But the full story of the language can not be built without the coverage of specific forms of the national language and, in particular, without learning the language of artistic works on dialects, relatively speaking — «literary» forms of folk dialects.
On the issue of the relationship of language and popular language of literature, academician. Vinogradov writes: «The functions of the language in literature expanded and become more complex. On the basis of common language, through its expressive possibilities, are forms of artistic image, the principles of construction of the speech images and characters, typing techniques and individualization of speech characters, complicated methods of dialogue, rich in art, I phraseology, an arsenal of visual resources. Methods and principles of artistic excellence, imaginative generalizations are transmitted by tradition, some of them are included in the national language. The national treasury stylistics and poetics are those methods and techniques of reflection and reproduction of reality in words that have historically enriched in the development of national literature. The laws of development of verbal means of artistic imagery and expression of national identity is expressed in literature. » These provisions may be referred to the language of folklore as a special area of figurative aesthetic transformation of popular language.
The problem of studying the language of oral poetry can be satisfactorily resolved only if it is taken into account the diversity of folklore. It is known that this term together the most varied and dissimilar works of folk art, which, in fact, only one thing in common — a verbal existence. Therefore, questions about the specifics of learning the language of folklore can be formulated only in general terms, as specific studies must go through a separate genre.
All genres of folklore divided into poetry and prose, within each of these groups has its own, more fractional division: for example, the epic, lyrical songs, folk songs and so. D. On the one hand, and fairy tales, true stories, oral histories, and so on. d. on the other. Every genre is also not homogeneous and is composed of several species with its system of artistic images, and in his own peculiar means of expression using popular language. For example, the heroic epics differ significantly from the novelistic epic, lyrical songs — songs from the ritual and so. On. The same is true in prose genres. For example, the term «fairy tale» combine a variety of stories, ranging from the complex fantastic tales and ending domestic short humorous anecdote.
Within nearly every genre can be identified Soviet folklore, which is a qualitatively new phenomenon of oral folk poetry; This qualitative features of Soviet folklore due to its ideological content, which is reflected in the language of the product. «Epic, created in our time, as well as other contemporary folk poetry — wrote AM Astakhov — poetry represents a new quality and ideologically and artistically, however, uses a rich poetic heritage worked out by centuries of creative activity the masses. «
It follows that the concept of «language of folklore» rather heterogeneous and multifaceted; it includes far apart the facts. While some genres, such as the epic, are great poetic works with a comprehensive system of images and extraordinary wealth of pictorial means, others, such as proverbs and sayings, are on the verge of works of folklore and sustainable idiomatic expressions. However, all genres of folklore are united by the fact that they are figurative and artistic aspect of popular language in its oral existence. This makes it possible to talk about the general laws of development of the language of folklore.
This article is based mainly on the material of folklore poetic (epic and lyrical songs), because the specifics of the language of folklore manifests itself in these genres is very clear, which is not true of other genres. For example, a proverb, and especially the saying may be regarded as idioms peculiar to language in general, and not only the language of art. And under the terms of their existence in language and proverbs are not similar to folklore, they never «executed» and exist in the language and operate it in the same way as the other turns of phrase. I think that the study of proverbs and sayings should form part of the study of vocabulary and phraseology of the language as a whole.
The language is closely related to folklore, literary language, because they both have their base national language and provide each other the strongest influence. The nature of this mutual influence in different historical epochs was uneven. In our time, the sphere of influence of the literary language to folklore are increasingly expanding. A complete study of the history of literary language is impossible without learning the language of folklore. Such a study should cover all its structural elements. It is necessary to study the patterns of mutual influence and enrich the language of folklore and language fiction in concrete historical terms. Method purely external comparisons, written search folklore «quotes» in the text of a work of art written literature can not be effective. «The traditional way of comparative study of literature written and oral — comparison plots, motifs, artistic» tricks «phraseological combinations and even individual words — says VP Hadrian-Peretts.- This comparison is often done mechanically divorced from historical reality, created the monument, outside the context of the general plan, the composition is a function of each of the studies compared the elements, and the question of the essence of kinship literature and oral poetry is not even. «
The ratio of folklore and written literature was different in different historical epochs. If many of the works of Old Russian literature is almost entirely built on folklore, in the later periods of a decrease in the influence of folklore on fiction (and, according to this, the difference of language folklore of the language written literature), although it should be noted that this influence has never ceased.
Language written literature and folklore — a figurative and emotional language, both in written and oral literature means popular language used not only as a function of communication, but also in the emotional and expressive, forming the unique style that is characteristic of this writer or unnamed works of oral poetry. However, the similarity of function, the realization of popular language in written literature and folklore is different. The language of the writer is a synthesis of selected language means common language and personality traits rechetvorchestva, which is carried out under the current language model the whole people; Individually rechetvorchestve writer realizes the potential of language. The ratio of these two parties in the language of the writer is different, and necessarily the presence of the first and the second may be missing. In the language of folklore is dominated by expressive means of popular language that already exist in the language, but not as a fact of everyday speech, as well as the facts of emotional language. The share of individual rechetvorchestva folklore is insignificant, though, because that artistic creation in folklore is composed primarily of the collective, and then from the individual. But the predominance of the collective over the individual incalculable, the lack of authorship fixed in folklore — it is rather an external difference from written literature, what is the difference in substance. More relevant is the fact that the author of a work of oral poetry in the language of realizing their creative vision, especially extensive use of rich fund of expressive means of the language of oral poetry, choosing what best suits the moment of his creative mood. Individual selection of expressive means of the language almost entirely subordinated to tradition and depends on the genre. This results in creation of a new establishment of a case where the similarity to other embodiments more than differences. In folklore, a much greater extent than in fiction, individualization is through genre artistic styles of different genres dramatically different, but within the genre by matching versions of the same safety and the same artistic value, difficult to see what the expressive means of language one variant differs from the another. Individual rechetvorchsstvu and individual selection emotionally expressive means of language in folklore assigned a subordinate role, although it is possible that such a categorical statement is relative, since individual styles storytellers and singers almost unknown. Anyway, in folklore, especially poetic, there are facts that are striking in their singularity (eg suffix Education names), but to decide whether they are the result of individual rechetvorchestva or belong to the linguistic features of the genre as a whole, is not yet possible. The difference in the creative choice of means of popular language for modeling artistic image for the entire fabric of art in literature written and oral literature in general, is rooted in a completely different ratio of the whole people and the individual, personal and traditional in these two kinds of creativity.
Language folklore is largely traditional, and because of this tradition retains a lot of things that have fallen into disuse in the language spoken, it was archaic, but continuing to live as part of a work of oral poetry, goes into the category of specific expressive means of the language: access to the language spoken to this archaism is already closed. Remnant facts popular language are held and continue to live in folklore, but their function is not only communicative, but also communicative and expressive.
However, one or the other a writer, too, can turn to the history of the language and choose from its archive fund he needed linguistic resources (mainly lexical and syntactic) to recreate the historical color. But unlike the use of such archaisms in the broad sense it is that in fiction is a single phenomenon, prompted by the individual’s creative intent. The writer is the use of archaisms is not a direct continuation of the linguistic tradition: he seemed to leave his day language practice and refers to its history; the extent to which the historical past of the language depends equally on the talent of a writer and from his knowledge of the historical past of the language of his people. Therefore, there are cases when an old speech, reproduced in the artwork, not correspond to the actual language, recorded in the written records of the same historical period.
In the folklore of such a provision can not be. Archaisms, obsolete colloquial, goes into the category of artistic means, begins to live a different life, and as an artistic tool is not an archaism, and the current norm. Its use is controlled by the entire artistic language practice folklore. Writer, realizing their artistic vision, can go (and often beyond) beyond language. People’s Poet (media folk) does not go beyond linguistic norms of folklore, but it is widely enjoyed all the wealth of the traditional means of poetics. This poetics of high style for the most part, so every piece of folklore «higher» language than the normal spoken language.
What forms the high style of many works of oral folk poetry, what is material, linguistic basis of this high-style? What specific language means of popular language formed the style of heroic epic, fantastic tales, lyrical songs pricheti and so on. D.? This issue, which is of great importance for understanding the specifics of the language of folklore, not only delivered, but not isolated from the broader issue of the relationship of language to the language of folklore colloquially-domestic.
Of course, all kinds of artistic language has as its basis the same national language, but the ratio of different elements of popular language in these species differently. It is this difference in the selection of expressive means of language and creates a personalized look of every genre and individual work within zhanra.Vysoky style folklore wider in scope than the colloquial dialect household speech lexicon of this style is richer, more complex syntax. The question is, where do the performers of folklore take «building material» for the high-style, if only their own dialect, which has neither a written nor the scientific literature, and so on. D.? In addressing this issue it is necessary to proceed not from the current conditions of existence of traditional folklore, and refer to the era of the emergence and formation of a genre and to determine the conditions of its existence. The most complete material here gives language epics.
The heroic epic was formed at a time when the national language interpretation, which folk singer used as a material for his work, had a much wider sphere of existence than any of the modern dialects. It was the language of high culture, the reality of which is beyond doubt the facts show the history of Russian literature. Here he writes about this Likhachev: «Extraordinarily rapid growth of Russian literature XI-XII centuries. It is primarily due to the high level of Russian spoken language, which finds its emergence and widespread Russian literature. The Russian language was able to express all the subtlety of abstract theological thought, embody sophisticated oratory church preachers convey complex historical content of world and Russian history, to accept transfers in the best works of pan-European medieval literature. And it happened because the creation of written literary language preceded oral literary language, the language of «oral literature"The contents of which are not covered by only one folklore.
At the heart of most of the best works of Russian literature centuries XI- XII. are oral literary high culture … The following speech was clearly noticeable in the «Lay» … Almost every news chronicles before being recorded by the chronicler, he was heard, deposited in speech before in writing » . Here is a highly developed oral language older pores and is the basis of high-style of many genres of folklore, especially-heroic epic. This language was much richer than any dialect, it was nationwide. Features of the language epics, distinguishing it from the colloquial dialect speech and having the character of archaisms, were established in the era of their creation. But they were not well characterized, and the spoken language. These were the facts of a nationwide oral language of art, its expressive means.
The oral epic tradition is largely preserved and handed down to the present day, this highly verbal national language. However, these language epics can not be equated to that language written monuments. After all, the vast majority of tales (and songs, fairy tales and other genres of folklore) recorded no earlier than the second half of XXcen. from the mouths of storytellers, singers and storytellers who owned only their dialect.
Therefore, traditional folklore, along with archaisms, represented by (and to a much greater extent) and talk artist, not test the effects of regulatory norms of the literary language. If the Old Russian language and presented as something in folklore, especially in the epics, it is only fragmentary, on a broad background of a modern language, and to provide these fragments must be very ostorozhno.Mozhno say that in terms of content in respect of artistic images, even more epic archaic than language. Avg. more archaic contents fairy tales in the transfer of modern storytellers.
None folklore genre is not something frozen in respect of artistic images, and in terms of language. However, due to trace the historical evolution of folklore in respect of the language is very difficult, primarily due to lack of sufficient material. For example, the widespread existence of folklore in ancient Russia can be judged only by the inclusion of folklore in ancient literature, which are determined by literary analysis. Entries also folklore as such — a relatively recent origin. For example, the earliest records date back to the XVII century epics., The number of recorded texts is small (only five), so that the material for comparison with later entries to determine the problem of the evolution of this genre are very few. Nevertheless, even such a small material allows you to make some conclusions about the peculiarities of language epics namely XVII., Otherwise the ratio of the language of folklore and language of Soviet monuments than at a later time.
In the course of history, many facts of a nationwide oral language ceased to be used in speaking of the peasant-Tale-telya and become unique to epics, for their high style. Much has been forgotten, but what is preserved in memory, transmitted by tradition and subsequently became an archaism with a pronounced stylistic coloring. This primarily refers to the vocabulary of epics, which goes far beyond the vocabulary of the local dialect. These include geographical names, the details of everyday life, landscape and so on.. In epics there are such words, the values of which the narrator does not understand, but continues to use, because «as sung.»
After the appearance of a book written literature also began to exert influence on the language of folklore. Apparently, this effect epics are required by a number of language features is undoubtedly the origin of the book, for example, nepolnoglasnoy vocabulary, which occupies a significant place in the epics; the study of this language as part of the language of folklore can give a lot to solve the more general problem of the Church Slavonic loanwords in the Russian language in general.
It should not, however, think high style formed and determined only by means of language, which is received from the distant past inherited and make up, so to speak, a traditional fund of funds artistic folklore. Such artistic means — just one of the features of the language of folklore. Centuries of existence of works of folk poetry in the oral transmission contributed to the continuous creation of new creative means of expression language, which for centuries has been subjected to selection, cut and brought to the high degree of perfection. But these tumors do not fall into the spoken language, keeping the flavor of high style. Apparently, so was created the language of art genres such as lyrical song, prichet and others.
Here are some illustrations to the expressed provisions of the specificity of the folk language as the language of art.
One of the features of the syntax of folk songs — the so-called paratactic structure of speech, in which relations, communications between words are not pronounced management, case forms, and only slightly scheduled word order. Parataxis known in colloquial style in dialects and the literary language, but hardly found in «high» style of the latter. In the language of the tales and songs, is a «high» style dialect parataxis — a common phenomenon.
As in sadichke, sadichke,
In the green vinogradnichke,
On Rakitova on kustichke
On the crimson on prutichke
Not Nightingale sings songs,
Single guy whistling.
Scattering, cereals pearls
On the oak table,
On a silver platter.
Yong sat down on shyroky yard …
On rastvorchita akoshachka,
On sirebrinu prichalinku.
The same device is found in the epics. For example:
Send to a wide courtyard Vaske
Besides Green wine vat.
Grammatical of equal words in the paratactic Stroe entails their «trim» and against emotionalism. Hence, a large number of suffixes of subjective evaluation, are equally emotive in the United paratactic of the sentence.
In these examples, the typical language of epic and lyrical songs, paratactical design dominated, whereas in home dialect speech, their share is insignificant.
The folk song is often found associated with the formation of paratactic welcome speech expression of the general concept by transferring private in his inbox. Under these generalized partial concept is used as a symbol of the total. Therefore, the lexical meaning of the word for a private, no longer plays a primary role, it has a subordinate character. If the total is used to refer to two or more private, then their lexical «relief» contributes to the fact that either their symptoms can go from one to the other, or the repetition is replaced by another one indifferent. This implies they seem, from the point of view of the spoken language, the contradictions in the definitions and the incompatibility of the particulars that are so common in the language of folk songs. In these cases, there is also the same shape of words denoting the concept of private: if words called a general concept, painted a certain emotion, the corresponding suffixes appear in all the words denoting the concept of private:
Oh, you’re my spruce, elushka,
Nightingale, my soloveyutko,
Nightingale, my young,
Ptashechka into fly-away, speckled kukugiechka.
On Tay on sasёnushki
Sdkal gnyazdb syvival low dёtkami Bellamy galubyatkami.
As va elnichku have saselnichku,
Yes gustinkim bireznichku wa …
Yes nyamnoshka mine nya wolf ate,
Yes vyadmedyugika nya rozarval.
A similar phenomenon is observed in the epithets:
Oh, you are the curls, you my hair,
Golden curls serebryanyya,
Through hair gilded me!
On the bridge the bridge, in potash,
As potash mostochku at Malin.
Only pallor lexical meaning of the word as part of paratactic structure can be explained by the fact that at the same time called the spruce pine Nightingale — cuckoo, and so on. D.
One of the main compositional techniques of construction of lyrical songs is a welcome step narrowing the manner described BM Sokolov. In all probability, this is not genetically artistic technique, but simply a description of the scene, but the description is where the sentence interconnected paratactic:
On Donica on Danochku,
On krutinkyam biryazhochku,
On zholtinkyam on pyasochku,
On rakytavam on kustochku
Salavas gnyazdo syvivaya.
Syntactic phenomenon underlying the narrowing of the stepped images was initially devoid of all aesthetic function, but with the passage of time, is firmly associated with the song, the phenomenon turned into a bit of artistic means of language.
In the folk songs there and syntactic archaisms, preserved language in the song only because of the poetic tradition and perceived as the traditional components of the style of the song, as one of its artistic means. Sometimes the syntactic archaisms come in turns of phrase, and act as a certain verbal formulas with bright stylistic coloring. As an example we can point to a kind of predicative function gerunds language epics, composed of revolutions, usually consumed when describing the rapid departure hero:
Just saw Churilushku sidyuchi,
Not seen burly Going,
Like arrows katyuchi …
They saw a good fellow on good horses sezhayuchis,
And seen ihnoy trip bogatyrskoy poezzhayuchis …
Just saw a good fellow sryamsayuchis …
Local dialects do not exist in isolation, they are in contact with each other. Interdialect links lead to what is produced in the folklore of such language education, which go beyond the existence of dialects are works whose language can not be confined within the narrow bounds of one dialect. Such, for example, the language of many lyrical songs, her best «classic» models, the area of existence of which coincides with the territory of the Russian language. You can not assume interdialect «migration» of many lyrical songs. Wide range of their existence, the specificity of their art form indicate that the language of these songs — the phenomenon of the whole people, not just the dialect. It is interesting to note here that the «way out» beyond the dialect is not affected in phonetics, in which each option is strictly complies with the local dialect, but mainly in the lexicon. As for the syntax, it is almost the same in raznodialektnyh options folklore; This is partly due to the close connection syntax poetic genres of folklore and their composition.
It is impossible, however, to think that the language of some of the genres, with general distribution, completely devoid of dialect features or that these features are peculiar to him only marginally. It should be borne in mind that each piece of folklore is executed on the dialect, which is owned by a performer, but with a large «outputs» beyond this dialect. There are other factors that should be borne in mind when studying the language of folk poetry. In the language of works of folklore, in particular, epics, may affect not only the personal tastes of the narrator, but it belongs to a specific school or a particular regional epic tradition. This influence is possible to speak only tentatively, and in general terms, but still the question is timely, because the study of regional epic tradition has paid off. However creative individuality folk artist (even the most talented) plays a much smaller role in the formation of the language of the traditional folklore than the creative personality of the writer in shaping the language of art.
Above we have made some remarks about the vocabulary and syntax of the language of the song. Its features are also phonology and morphology of the songs, although to a much lesser extent.
In one of his notes on the history of Russian Acad. AI Sobolewski indicates occurrences «inorganic iota» in the language of the songs (on yulitsy for yubranym steel razvaditya yagon et al.). His materials were replenished Durnovo, who noted the «parasitic» almost exclusively in the language of songs and explained his desire to avoid the appearance of hiatus that the singing felt stronger. This phenomenon is well known and language epics.
The idea that the phonetics of speaking is different from the language phonetics song is the basis of modern requirements to study the dialects of spoken voice recording, but not the song, and strictly distinguish between the facts and the facts of the language spoken language songs. This idea is increasingly emphasizes contemporary dialectologists.
Here I sat so beautiful maiden Light Maria da su su V.,
Pripadayuchi it to the table,
By the father she so prichitayuchi
Such syntactic construction of the song gives it a special compositional clarity and simplicity. The syntactic parallelism is not an archaism, creates a special flavor, a special organization of the language, not peculiar to ordinary speech and is perceived as an artistic device, typical language folk songs.
In some cases, the singing can detect such phonetic features which have already disappeared in ordinary speech. Thus, in one tells me to observe how the singing of folk songs of the singer rarely clatter, while saying it clatter the village has not been observed. In another village in the songwriting of the new formation, caught in the repertoire, apparently because songwriters, were able to establish the absence of certain phonetic features characteristic «conversational style» of the same singer.
However, the phonetic differences between the spoken language and the language of the songs is still little. Phonetics any works of folklore, with the exception of the above features, and probably some others have not yet mentioned by observers, usually coincides with the phonetic system of Treaty. The phonetic differences between the language of folklore are not painted stylistically, these features will not form the language of folklore as such. Phonetics as a whole is beyond stylistic categories of language folklore. Features’ song «phonetics, referred to above do not represent the realization of the artistic task, do not carry a specific stylistic load, but simply are the facts of pronunciation, implemented with few changes in physiological conditions caused by singing: it is a more» complete » a distinctive style of pronunciation. This «full» style pronunciation possible in ordinary conversation, devoid of all imagery.
This conclusion does not contradict the existence of the folklore of alliteration, assonance, and other types of tone-painting. In these cases, the stylistic function is performed is not the sound of their own, and their identity or repeatability.
A different function is performed by the facts of morphology. All the specific features of grammar folklore bear stylistic load, they, along with the vocabulary and phraseology, style and form songs, epics, tales and so on. D. As distinct from spoken language. In the study of particular forms of language folklore researcher meets with difficulties arising, however, and the study of other aspects of the language of folklore (see. Above). .
One and the same form in one dialect may be common in everyday speech, in other — only in the language of the song. Therefore, to talk about the specific folk morphological phenomena in most cases can only be specifically applied to the present speak. A good example is the complex forms of adjectives such as the rich, siniim. PN Rybnikov, describing adjectives Olonets dialect, did not mention these forms and in the text they recorded epics they occur constantly. RI Avanesov indicates that these forms are described in their dialect are found only in the language of the song under certain stylistic terms — at the end of a musical phrase or verse. How about the phenomenon of language, especially the song says about these forms of P. Kuznetsov. On the other hand, these same forms in other dialects are used in everyday speech. Therefore, this type of adjectives to qualify as a characteristic only of language can not be folklore; This question is solved for each dialect (or group of dialects) alone.
At the same time, some features of the language songs can be qualified as archaisms, peculiar only to the language of folklore. Such, for example, the use of adjectives in the function definition.
Of great interest is the question of the language used in folklore verb tenses and forms. In the language of tales to depict past events occurs in the form of a combination of the predicate verb present or future with a simple verb-predicate in the past tense; such a turn of speech gives greater expressiveness:
Hay-on like an old Cossack Ilya Muromets yes «
She takes in the wide silk whip hand
And he beat his horse and along steep edges.
Poshol Dobrynia Proshol to matins, he would go to the Church catholic Marina broad yard Vysokova towers listen.
Regarding these revolutions AA Potebnya wrote: «The designation in certain cases objectively the past events of the future perfect, generally speaking, more typical of the Slavic dialects, but in varying degrees and with different shades. That love for such a turn of speech, which is evident in the language of Russian epics, all invisibly in the Russian literary language. «
Common in the epics of Use kinds of freedom, as the track of the status of language as a grammatical meaning of the form has not yet taken shape with sufficient clarity. Often, instead of the perfect form of the verb used verb imperfect form, perfect form of which, apparently, is enough to indicate the action ended:
That Vladymir prince of stolnё-Kiev,
He skoreshenko Stavan so on swift feet,
Kunyu shubonku threw one Plechko …
Basil jumped on the wide courtyard,
Missing something Vasily cherleny Elm …
In the realm of the undifferentiated use of species it is also the use of a number of single-rooted verb forms multiservice with a total value of long-term action plan in the past.
Under glorious great New Town
According to the glorious lake on Ilmenyu
Swim swim gray drake
How would ardent goldeneye ponyrivaet
A swim floats chervlen ship
How would young Vasili Buslavevicha.
In accordance with the general nature of the language of folklore, it forms long held that in the literary language and dialects are declining. Such, for example, form pluperfect time, which in the Russian literary language are beginning to die out at the end of XIX — early XX century., Preserved only in a narrow range of verbs. Descending pluperfect form of time noted also in some dialects.
In the folklore of these forms are widespread. However, the recording of folklore, which can make this observation, relate mainly to the XIX century. When the form pluperfect time were used more widely; however, no doubt that the folklore concerning the use of these forms is closer to the ancient language than the literary language or dialect.
The exceptional richness of these forms is fixed in spiritual verses about the sinful soul:
Sinful soul repents:
From korovushek I vyklikivala milt,
At the root of raw I milked …
Smaleshenku proklinyvala his child,
In white on his chest aasypyvala,
In the womb, the baby vaparchivala …
Husband and wife, I porazvazhivala,
Gold crowns poravluchivala …
The streets used to go a lot of soul,
In many panes soul slushivala …
Sereda Friday and not paschivalas Great govlenya not gavlivalas,
Matins, Vespers prosypyvala I
On Sunday Mass stroll,
In many hazhivali Polyushko soul,
Not in the righteous land rozdelivala:
I Mezhuyev through Mezhuyev shifts,
With a foreign land ukradyvala fields …
Not in righteousness rozdelivala meadows,
Poles for poles pozatarkivala,
Someone else’s band pozakashivala …
The straw I creases wringing,
With all the food of the dispute otnimyvala …
I’m in the field, the soul, used to go a lot,
Agile in the fields of laying out,
Ponapuschivala cattle in the field,
And good people ogolazhivala …
At many weddings soul hazhivali,
Weddings beast turns into …
As the soul revels used to go a lot,
Under all sorts of games a lot plyasyvala,
Himself Soton vspoteshival.
This is far from a full review of the facts of morphology, mainly peculiar language of folklore.
We have already noted that the language of lyrical songs has at its disposal a large pool of suffixes of subjective evaluation, which he uses is much wider than the spoken language. To this we can add a few remarks on the function name a prefix different, the use of which in the language of lyrical songs has some specific, «song» features.
The primary value of this set-top box has no relation to the expression, it only enhances the expressive value which is either the root or the suffix is introduced. This use is associated with the value of the expression, and a secondary set-top box receives a different emotional nuance, however, quite uncertain.
Education with a different prefix can replace a superlative adjectives, but it is the replacement of a special kind: console-time shows only the strengthening of emotional evaluation. In cases where the determination of their emotional value (eg, sweet, kind, hateful and so on. D.), Increased quality measure is at the same emotions and strengthening measures, so in these cases, the importance of education with the prefix and the value of different forms superlatives are the same: education prefix synonymous quite different forms of superlatives: Razzhelanny you my brother Vanya; Since you Masha raskrasiva … You Sleep, Sleep, razlyubezny, Sleep a night at the mine. The same is true for negative emotions: Rasproklyataya our married life, our life Razlyubeznaya maiden.
The value of an adjective, join different prefix may not be pronounced emotional tone. This is an adjective often represents a quality (green, red, blue-gray), but these qualities in folk songs are emotionally charged, often positive. Such, for example, the majority of regular epithets. Here we have to take into account the arbitrariness of poetic language songs are selected as positive signs of these, and not others. But once a selection is made, in these adjectives gain a measure of their quality becomes at the same time increasing emotion: Oh, you’re a pear, my raskudryavayap; You Dubrava you Dubrava razzelenaya; Like all good … Raskasatye Utushka Prigogine.
Such coincidence amplifier with gain values consoles emotionality leads to the fact that different consoles itself receives secondary emotional value. Therefore, in the language of folk songs are acceptable Type rasshelkovy education, rassaharny and under., T. E. By relative adjectives. Prefix developed in such cases, the measure enhances the emotional color values: yes Razdonskoy Cossack horse watering; Vanya rasshelkovuyu finely mowed grass, broken Vanya razbulatnuyu peeled plait; What thy mouth rassaharny ….
Review relevance consoles developed especially evident in cases of acts of its connection with a noun; this use, as it seems peculiar to the language of oral poetry, in particular, language songs.
Nouns «superlatives» commonly found in the general sense of the positive qualities: Another girl was sadochke, raskrasavitsa greenbacks.
Like adjectives, different consoles value as an indicator of emotional action essentially is particularly noticeable in those cases where the meaning of the noun itself devoid of any emotional tint. But there is a sharp line between those and other conduct can not, because in such an emotional context, as a lyrical folk song nouns get a lot of variety and often subtle shades. In case of a positive emotional evaluation consoles supported suffix with the appropriate value: Sing, brine-tabs in the grove in the spring; As prividilos raskazachenke Yes joyless sleep.
Education nouns with the prefix are not connected with different great quality of nouns in the ancient language, with the proximity of ancient nouns and adjectives; therefore can not be considered as surviving evidence of the former state language, how, for example, is a noun attribute (tour of the Golden Horn, podvorotina fish tooth and under.) or a noun predicate (it boiling Vare, bread Pec, on the water hozhayka). Prefix difference reinforces emotional, consisting in the root or introduced by the suffix. This gain in some cases, gives the impression of excessive emotionality goes into sentimentality, not typical of a traditional folk song. It seems that the formation of a different prefix not found in the wedding songs and other more archaic genres.
Education prefixed times, a vivid example of the language of Folklore has its own specific features, it is limited by genre; some of the facts portrayed in a nationwide language is almost exclusively in the language of folklore.
All of the above only loosely depicts the uniqueness of the language of folklore. In a typical analysis is first necessary to distinguish between the genres of poetry and prose. The specifics of the language of folklore emerges most clearly in the genres of poetry, which is much more decorated according to the rules of traditional poetics. But the language of prose genres (eg, fiction tales) is characterized by the same basic features as the genres of poetic language; however, much more prosaic genres freely use spoken language.
Individualized use popular language, subject to certain artistic design creates what is called the writer’s style. In folklore, we talk about the author’s style is impossible. The main difference — not in the absence of the author, and that differences in folklore style located entirely in another dimension; they go through the genre, and the genre differentiation of fully absorbing the author, which applied to the folklore is necessary to understand peculiar: every artist has at one and the same time, the transmitter and the author, but the author, who does within the tradition.
This is particularly true in the Soviet folklore, in which new content is often largely made out by traditional means of folklore poetics.
But it would be wrong to think that the Soviet folklore differs from traditional content only, preserving the commonality of language features and poetics. Soviet folklore — a new stage in the development of folk poetry generated by the socialist era, a qualitatively new phenomenon of the poetic culture of the people.
The emergence of the Soviet folklore and the rapid development of some of its genre poses the problem of existence of him in the new Soviet conditions, l also the problem of the relationship it with fiction feature of all genres of Soviet folklore is the widespread use of written literature as line plots, and through mastering the literary language and poetics. This entails the movement of the language of folklore in his side closer to the language written literature, similar to the trend towards the development of dialects merging with literary language. It is clear that the oral and artistic works, the newly created local dialects, are experiencing enormous influence of the literary language. This trend of enrichment has always been inherent in the works of oral poetry; it contributed significantly to the creation of high-style folklore. In our time, this trend has become crucial in the development of the language of folklore.
The impact of the literary language to different genres of folklore differently. Extremely wide use of such language obscheliteraturnogo mobile genre, like ditty. A huge number of «literature» rhymes, penetrated into the collective farm village wide variety of ways, so organically merged with the local repertoire, it is virtually impossible to separate one from the other.
Great influence on the language of folk song repertoire has changing collective farms, which is now characterized by a wide spread of songs of the Soviet composers to the words of Soviet poets. These songs are part of the local repertoire, along with traditional and often occupy a leading place. The repertoire of the older collective farmers, Soviet mass song is also featured prominently, although, of course, is not as significant as in the repertoire of the young. This repertoire, of course, the language of advancing Soviet folklore with obscheliteraturnogo.
Similar phenomena are observed in the existence of other genres such as epic, with the difference that the rapprochement with the language epic literary language takes place at a slower pace. This convergence is largely determined by the book.
Soviet folklore with its new Soviet-themed, of course, very close to the language of fiction: it is the origin of most of the time associated with this literature. Existence of Soviet folklore next to the traditional folklore has a huge impact on the latter, which is also evident in the language: the language of not only the Soviet folklore and traditional developed and enriched largely been at the expense of the literary language.