There is a technique for evaluating the overall yield varieties of wood does not fully meet the requirements for varietal plantings in major industrial gardens.
In describing the varieties present data on the average yield of the tree in kilograms, and on this basis to make comparisons and draw conclusions about yield varieties.
Quite often in the normal fruiting between the sizes of trees of one species (the height and width of the crown) and productivity, there is a direct correlation: the more the size of the tree, the more it fruit. If we compare to one another yields of different varieties, such dependence can not be. Sometimes, vigorous trees of one species can produce smaller harvests than slaboroslye trees of another variety. However, when assessing the grade of the procedure adopted does not take into account this fact.
Typically, the average yield compared to trees of different varieties of the same age, and such data are the main measure of advantages and disadvantages of them, although these species and the trees can dramatically differ in strength development.
How to obtain comparable data on the yield of trees, different force development? We consider it more correct to take into account for the evaluation and comparison of the yield of the tree, which is derived from some units of the crown, for example, one cubic meter of occupied it. However, in practical work to take into account the amount of CZK difficult. Instead, you take into account the space occupied by the tree (on the crown projection), that is the area from which the crop is obtained. Then, based on accounting methods yield varieties will be put is not an abstract notion of the average yield of the tree, and more specifically — on the yield from the area occupied by the crown.
The area of the crown (in the projection) can be determined by measuring its diameter in two directions and calculating the area of a circle by the formula — of the average diameter. But the projection of the crown is often irregular, and to simplify the calculations, conditional enough to consider it a square and is calculated by multiplying the diameter. The resulting area of the crown will be slightly higher than calculated by the formula range, but it does not really matter, because the roots of the tree actually go far beyond the crown.
In this way, taking into account the yield will change idea of the yield of individual species and varieties. So, on an experimental basis of the Stavropol Horticultural Experiment Station, we took into account in this way yield of apple and pear trees in the age of 45-50 years and persika- 5 years (see table).
If we analyze only the data on the yield of the trees regardless of their size, it can be concluded that most harvest of red apple Astrakhan (451 kilograms per tree), then green Crimean Reinette (404 kilograms). The most productive variety of pears — Bere Ligelya (610 kilograms), peach — seedling 30—159 (59 kilograms).
Quite a different conclusion can be made, if we consider the yield given the size of tree crowns, ie the yield in kilograms per square meter of the area occupied by the projection of the crown. This value we conventionally call the coefficient of fruiting tree.
Then the data from the same table shows that the total yield between wood and fruit bearing factor is no direct relationship. Variety of red and Astrakhan in this method of accounting is in first place in terms of yield. But the sort of noble yellow, having a low total yield (238 kilograms), at a rate of fruiting (9.6) is almost flush with the Astrakhan red and significantly higher grade Orleans Reinette, whose coefficient of only 4.7 fruiting, although the that the total harvest tree- 358 kilograms.
In pear varieties Bere Ligelya with a total yield of 610 kilograms of fruit bearing tree ratio is 5.3, and the variety Williams with a relatively small total yield (134 kilograms) of fruiting rate — 5.9.
It is known that within a variety, even under the same growing trees, there is a difference in the development and yield them. In determining the yield factor for fruiting will be able to identify the actual tree-rekordisty as the overall high yield from a large tree with a spreading crown, excluding the area occupied by them, it is not yet a record.
When accounting for the crop coefficient fruiting many varieties that until now were considered unproductive fodder due to small overall yields of the tree, they can advance in the number of productive and vice versa.
This method of accounting will make it possible to assess more accurately the variety in their zoning, will allow to have comparable data on the yield varieties, the trees grafted on different rootstocks (strong-and dwarf).
Accounting for the crop coefficient fruiting greatly facilitate the work of breeders in characterizing yield hybrid seedlings at planting thickened, often when the overall low yield seedlings in kilograms does not reflect the high yield it in reality (because of the small size of the crown).
In formulating agronomic experiments are usually selected trees of relatively equal strength, but it’s not always easy. The proposed method of accounting allows to dispense with such a selection. Thus productivity of trees for different variants of the experiment, installed at a rate of fruiting will be more accurate than the overall productivity of wood in kilograms, as even under exceptionally favorable conditions to experience fall trees with different sizes of crowns.
Accounting for harvest at a rate of fruiting does not exclude, but complements the conventional method of accounting crop of fruit trees.