MIGA J. Dean, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Architecture
Multi-storey industrial buildings are being built in many cities and regions of the country. But in today’s construction industry prevailing common are single-storey production, support for ancillary buildings, which occupy large portions of the area, with overstretched communications networks and engineering equipment. Often companies do not even have a health hazard, are placed outside the city, where there are no access roads, sewerage, water, gas and electricity. As a result, the cost increases and prolongs the construction of industrial buildings and facilities, increasing the costs of their operation, development and improvement of the industrial site. Various small businesses of local and cooperative industry are usually scattered among urban areas or occupy premises in residential and public buildings.
The struggle for the industrialization of the economy and industrial construction, as well as the interests of urban areas necessitate strong and broad introduction to the construction of multi-storey industrial buildings.
The practice of domestic and foreign construction industry has shown significant building, economic and urban benefits of multi-storey buildings for many industries and types of machine-building, instrument-making, light industry, food, local and cooperative industry.
In connection with the ongoing massive construction of new enterprises of light, food and other industries, the question of the standard multi-storey industrial buildings acquired special urgency.
This fact is reflected in the master plan approved by the Government on the design of a typical 1954 Plan includes the development of a number of ministries and the Academy of Architecture of the USSR the project of multi-storey industrial building task for the industry of food products and consumer goods, light engineering and electrical engineering.
Jilin and Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Architecture Antonov). At the same time the Institute of architecture of public and industrial buildings developed a project proposal on the types of multi-storey industrial buildings (the author — Dr. Sc. W. Burgman Sciences, co-author — the candidate of architecture V. Zhilin, with the participation of the architect E. Gavrikova).
In developing the proposals the authors sought to achieve compact space-planning solutions of buildings, as well as to improve their performance.
Based on the implementation of tasks in the construction of industrial and high-speed techniques and reduce the cost, it was necessary to unify the various parts of buildings and to enlarge the elements of their designs. The authors also aimed to achieve simplicity in the external and internal decoration of buildings while increasing their architectural expression.
A characteristic feature of multi-storey industrial buildings is in the same building that housed all the main and auxiliary production workshops and warehouses, household, office, and other service premises.
General plan industrial site and its various communication extremely easy.
On the site are located one rectangular multi-storey industrial building and one small building service applications. The whole area is extremely limited in size, but planted and landscaped.
All this makes it possible, in the harmless nature of the production, including the portion of the enterprise in urban development, if it will, of course, created a good approach, properly constructed way for urban transport, observed sufficient gaps between the neighboring industrial and urban development.
According to project proposals, multi-storey industrial buildings are composed of only one type section width of 36 m and a length of 42 m. Depending on the number of sections and inserts between them can be constructed a building length of 84 m (2 sections), 102 m (2 sections and Paste between three-six-meter span), 126 m (3 sections), and so on. d. The height can be taken from three to six stories (without basements), and the total production area is 12 000 to 38 000 m2.
In the planning section of the sample provided that the average little natural light spans the building used to house the vertical communications (stairs, elevators, mines), various intermediate warehouses and storerooms, toilets, washrooms and the like serving premises. In extreme enough lit aisles are the main production areas. Intermediate storage together with other service facilities may be located at the ends of the building.
The first floor consists of entrance hall, checkpoint, the commandant’s office, pass office, a group of administrative, economic and warehouse space, as well as manufacturing facilities, with heavy equipment or requiring direct communication with the site.
In the basement are located wardrobes for clothes, shower and some of the technical facilities (pumps, boiler, air-conditioning chamber). Production facilities are located on the second floor and above. The heights of all the floors are unified.
The building of this type may accommodate such diverse musical in its production technology as clothing, instrument processing. In this regard, such a building can be built on the principles of cooperation, by the few local companies and cooperative industry.
The construction scheme of a multistory building types based on a single column grid size 6,0X6.0 m. The skeleton of the building and possible overlap in these interchangeable options: 1) collecting, taking into account the carrying capacity of the mounting crane 3 tons; 2) sbornomonolitny (column monolithic with bearing fittings, prefabricated ceilings), with the capacity of the crane is 1.5 tonnes.
Exterior and interior bearing walls are available in three variants: large-block and brick large-panel. The size of the blocks and panels are determined based on the capacity of the crane 3 tons.
Exterior finish of buildings made ofakturennymi large blocks or panels and simple in the form of architectural details (cornices, rods, panels, etc.) Of industrial production.
Protruding part in all the interior walls there. The walls inside are faced with dry finishing materials (plaster, gypsum slag); Reinforced concrete slabs and columns are designed for whitewashing.
A typical building provides the following technical equipment: lifts, radio-telephone, supply and exhaust ventilation with air conditioning, central heating, water supply, sewerage and gas supply; Fluorescent lighting is expected.
This characteristic is typical of multi-storey industrial buildings once again confirms their advantages over the one-story.
It should be noted, however, that in these project proposals, some questions have not received comprehensive development. This primarily refers to the placement of the stairs in the middle of the building. Although the main fire department is not particularly objects to the location of stairs (under certain conditions), all PVCs of the device will make known complication in the planning scheme of a typical section.
Some industries may require the organization to process the entire width of the building, such as meat processing. Therefore, projects should provide for the possibility of transferring the intermediate warehouses, storerooms, shower and other service premises, and with them the stairwells and elevator shafts, from the middle of the longitudinal span of the building in the face.
At present, on the basis of these proposals, many design institutes finish preparation of project tasks multistory industrial buildings in relation to certain types of production. It also inevitably reveal a number of issues that require further development and refinement of both the proposals and the main provisions of the design.
In particular, the Ministry of Construction of metallurgical and chemical industries instructed to develop in the 1954 — 1955 biennium. model projects the two-part four-storey and three-section five-story industrial building with ‘precast concrete, with a grid of columns 6X6 m. width of 36 m, with standardized heights and loads for the enterprises of the industry of food products, consumer goods, electronic and electrical industry, the industry of consumer services and other companies, with accommodation in the same building of industrial and auxiliary plants, as well as warehouses and office space.
The Institute will be able to take direct participation in the development of model projects, in order to actively contribute to the implementation of the ruling party and the government on the development of precast concrete structures and components.