Vinnytsia region — the largest area of Horticulture of the Ukrainian SSR. There is only collective and state farms, there are more than 52 thousand perennial plants, from which the state buys more and more fruits, berries, grapes and products. A significant role in this important matter plays farm «Bilkey» Gaysinsky production management.
Our gardens occupy 999 hectares of which 360 hectares of fruit-bearing. Over the past ten years the collective of the farm grows an average per hectare of pome fruit crops 89.4 quintals, 58.4 stone, berries 22.2 quintals. Gross harvest of fruit pome crops increased from 2979 tonnes in 1954 to 6539 in 1963. Net income from gardening for the same period rose from 140 thousand rubles to 1,376,000 rubles; the cost of pome fruit crops quintal does not exceed 6 rubles 99 kopecks.
The most fruitful gardening appeared in 1963. State Farm raised a bumper crop — 187.8 quintals of pome fruit crops per hectare on an area of 348 hectares, and apple varieties Parmen winter gold 188 quintals, rennet langebergsky 183 Calville snow 291 Lithuanian Pepinka 166 quintals per hectare fruit-bearing plants.
Even better results were achieved foremost. So, the team, led by I. 3. Tkachenko received apples 227 tons per hectare on an area of 67 hectares, the brigade AP Miller of 216 quintals per hectare, 72.9, department «Bilkey» (Managing VP Trap) of 221 centners from 140 hectares.
The State sold pome fruit crops 5866.2 tons, accounting for 366.6% of the plan, 34.8 tons of stone fruits, dried fruits 39,5 tons. Cost of pome fruit crops quintal was 5 rubles 77 kopecks.
Our fruit orchards each year because of the farm staff promptly carries out a complex technical measures. It is impossible to attribute to a single crop of any events, such as fertilizers or soil treatment, although each
Apiary in the garden, of which plays an important role. It should be borne in mind that the increase in gross yield of fruits in many respects depends on the selection of varieties. In our conditions, annually gives high yields of apple varieties Calville snow and smartly. The fruits of their beautiful, delicious, maturation. Therefore, these two varieties in our fruit-bearing orchards occupy 146.5 hectares.
When autumn tillage in Aisle fruiting garden fertilizers are applied using spreaders per hectare to 20 tons of humus, 3.5 quintal of superphosphate, potassium salt of 1,5, 1 quintal of nitrogen.
Early in the spring, in order to save water, boronuem soil between rows and immediately hold cultivation. Before flowering and after flowering trees Feeding the ammonium nitrate or urea. The third feeding give only trees with a strong harvest. During the first half of the summer the soil between the rows contained in the loose state. In the first decade of July, sow green manure crops.
Pruning conduct differentiated, taking into account the nature of growth and fruiting in the previous year. In young orchards it boils down to the thinning of thickened and intertwined branches and shortening greatly developed shoots.
In the fruit-bearing orchards decimation crown kolchatki and shorten the branches of 2-3-year-old wood. Trees stop the growth and fruiting, cut the 4-5, and in some cases for 6-8-year-old wood. Such pruning is held every 5 years. Strongly prune trees give extra feeding.
Efforts to protect the garden from pests and diseases begin in the fall with a survey of the trees on the degree of infestation by pests.
The treatment of plants with pesticides is preferably carried out during the emergence of pests. Before bud garden sprinkle with 8% carbolineum or 1.5% solution of DNOC. This treatment is carried out as required every 2-3 years. On the green cones fertile garden to spray the aircraft 5% Bordeaux fluid with the addition of 1,5% mineral oil emulsions DDT or ground equipment 1.5% strength Bordeaux fluid with the addition of 1% of the mineral-oil emulsion of DDT.
Under isolation buds garden dusted with 5.5% sodium DDT dust. Sprinkle before flowering 1% Bordeaux fluid with the addition of 0.7% of a 30% wettable powder DDT, 0.1% and 0.1% efirsulfonata thiophos. The same composition process the trees immediately after flowering. After that, spray the ovaries physiological shedding 1% Bordeaux fluid with the addition of 0.7% of a 30% wettable powder DDT 0.3% efirsulfonata. In addition, the pear trees are further processed before and after flowering or nikotinsulfatom anabazinsulfatom.
Timely implementation of complex management of pests and diseases has allowed to minimize the harmful effects of such pests as codling. However, due to careless handling of the crop and the lack of container in 1963, the state sold the farm fruits first and second grade only 65.2%.
In order to more rational use of agricultural land staff of our economy competes with the Lenin state farm near Moscow Leninsky production management. In January of this year, experts of the farm «Bilkey» visited the farm and shared their experience.
Our farm in 1963 grew significantly more fruit than the Lenin State Farm, but we are behind him for the production of animal products. On 1381 hectares of farmland have only 139 head of cattle in 1963, the state sold only 805 quintals of milk and 450 centners of meat.
Now that the February Plenum set for agricultural workers the problem of the widespread transition to intensive methods of production, we have revised their capabilities and we will try to produce more agricultural products.
First of all, we will buy breeding heifers and we will in the coming years to create a herd of dairy cows. Increase area and gardens. By the end of the seven-year period we will have 1 200 hectares of perennial plants. Production of fruits and berries will increase to 10-12 million tons, of which about 800 tonnes will be processed in its economy.
In the next two or three years is planned to build two vosmikvartirnyh house, the House of Culture with 500 seats, storage facilities for fertilizers 1,300 tons, loft-room with a refrigeration unit to 1,000 tonnes, a school, medical center, fruit kiln, 11 kilometers of paved road.
The staff of the farm enterprise fights for the title of communist labor. In 1964, State Farm has committed pome fruit crops grow 90 quintals per hectare, stone by 70 centners from every fruit-bearing plants, reduce the cost of quintals of production by 3%, to lay the garden on an area of 60 hectares.