Russia has always been considered a country of developed beekeeping. Even during the perestroika reforms that caused severe damage to agriculture, our industry has suffered relatively less as compared to other. The property is 88.6% of the population turned out to bee colonies, and in all categories of farms (including private and cooperative) — 11.4% of households from the total. In 2004, there were 3.3 million bee colonies at a fairly steady production of marketable honey in the last 10 years at around 50 thousand. Tonnes per year.
It should be noted that the state has an enormous resources to increase the above figures, at least 3 times, it remains consistently low production and, consequently, consumption and marketable honey per capita (= 300 g per year), not enough 2, 3 million bee colonies for pollination entomophilous full of crops.
Impasse in dealing with management industry as a whole and those of its vital units as zootechnical and veterinary care, the system of breeding and protection of valuable gene pool of domestic breeds of bees, logistics and marketing of products. Solve them is possible only at the state level. In light of the above, and bearing in mind the concept of development of the industry put forward a number of important requirements for its scientific and technical support.
National treasure of Russia — the richest gene pool of domestic breeds and populations of bees, it requires a careful attitude to himself, careful study, management, continuous improvement. This will require considerable joint efforts of scientists and experts. Breeding work should be directed at the development of new high-lines, rock types with pre-programmed characteristics, including specialized pollination trudnoopylyaemyh crops and crops protected the soil and increase the production of certain types of products, and genetically resistant to diseases. In addressing these issues we can not do without cryobanks drones sperm cryopreservation using technologies. There is a need to develop immunogenetic and biotechnological methods for use in selektsionnoplemennoy work, as well as exploring the possibilities of application in beekeeping techniques of genetic engineering and genetic fingerprinting.
Despite the difficulties known to all, a tiny budget funding, the Research Institute of apiculture scientists designed and produced a series of guidelines and regulations that allow you to perform tasks for the protection and improvement of the national gene pool. Recall, in the work of the Institute of breeding farms for breeding and reproduction of ewes all zoned in Russian rock. In the nearest future it is planned transition to a system of large-scale breeding farms with feedback-loudspeakers with marketable surpluses.
Enormous damage the bees cause diseases and pests, do not back such diseases as Varroa, askosferoz Bruises, often occurring in associative form. Implicitly on apiaries begin to appear akarapidoz and other diseases. In this connection, experts of veterinary medicine is required to develop integrated technology systems and animal health and zootechnical ensure beekeeping from a regional perspective. We need new, more effective ways and means of disinfection. To improve methods of assessing safety and animal health status derived from bee food; veterinary supervision pollution of environmental objects dangerous to human health and the bees with toxic substances; Develop a set of non-drug methods of zootechnical and low-cost methods of prevention and treatment of diseases and poisonings of bees.
Currently, scientists Research Institute of apiculture performed a series of studies on the improvement of beekeeping, developed appropriate practical recommendations, it is planned to continue work in this direction. However, to better address the problems of veterinary medicine an important part of a wider range of scientists and specialists of this profile from other research institutions and good coordination of joint work.
Not all issues are resolved in the content, breeding of bees and production of bee products. Given the vast territory and the diversity of climatic, medosbornyh, environmental conditions such development should be carried out at the local level to meet the basic methodological requirements to obtain reliable results. That’s just a short list of relevant studies to date: the improvement of technological methods of preparation of bee colonies for the winter, the optimization process of the winter (the development of technologies outside the club wintering bees queens); balanced feeding at different periods of life of bees; spring power capacity of families, their effective use to honey and pollination of crops; improvement and development of new technologies for the production of honey, wax, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, drone brood homogenate, etc., as well as their processing in the apiary, and industrial environments. It is important to develop and incorporate into production available to beekeepers technical means for improving conditions and increasing productivity, the additional yield in the processing of wax raw materials, propolis, pollen, organizing the apiary briquetting propolis, conservation of pollen, royal jelly and others. All this must be confirmed appropriate regulatory and technical documentation on the products of beekeeping that meets modern requirements, required the creation of recipes and develop technical documentation for new food products (dietary supplements) on the basis of biologically active bee products for use in dietary and apitherapy. The urgency of this problem is exacerbated by the forthcoming entry of Russia into the WTO.
Given the vast territory of Russia of considerable importance is the development of economic and organizational measures aimed at creating a stable development of beekeeping as an industry which is in absolute dependence on climatic, medosbornyh and environmental factors in relation to the security of honey and polliniferous resources and taking into account the needs of agriculture bees in the pollination of entomophilous crops in relation to the existing organizational structure of the industry’s management and ownership.
Research Institute of beekeeping generates its themes of research works for 2006-2010. taking into account the set of proposals that fit into the federal program of basic and applied research priorities for the scientific support of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation for the period. To implement them can join performers from other research institutes and universities in accordance with its capabilities in the zonal applied or fundamental and theoretical aspects. Will be improved coordination of research in the field of beekeeping.
The Institute plans to increase the scope of work with customers on the basis of economic contracts on the expertise of pure breed bees and the organization of breeding work, diagnosis and measures to improve the apiaries of disease, determining the risk for bees of new pesticides, development of normative and technical documentation for new products, product certification beekeeping, determine their identity and security for consumers, the introduction of scientific achievements in production.