SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS AND ARCHITECTURE school buildings

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS AND ARCHITECTURE school buildings

Currently, the development of types of schools and the formation of functional and architectural and planning structures are at a critical stage. Earlier types of buildings due to the traditional organization of the educational process, less correspond to the new teaching requirements, brought to life by social and technological progress. Therefore there is a need to review existing concepts and development of new principles of designing school buildings, taking into account the prospects of development of pedagogy.

The need to improve the efficiency of education at all levels is caused by a number of progressive factors that characterize the development of modern society. One of the most important factors is the rapid scientific and technological progress, which marked the second half of the XX century.

The amount of scientific knowledge accumulated by mankind doubles every 10-12 years. According to some scientists, the end of the century it will increase almost eight times.

At a time when an ever-increasing influence of enhanced flow of information, opportunities and methods of learning our young generation can not remain the same. There is a contradiction between the outdated educational system, the transfer of knowledge, with its corresponding types of schools — on the one hand, and increased demands for education, new technical means of transmission and assimilation of information — on the other. This contradiction is expressed in s low productivity of the learning process, which according to scientists is about 15%.

The traditional system of teaching is based on the fact that the only source of information is the teacher. The quality of information transfer, direct communication «teacher — student» depend on the personal qualities of the teacher, from his initiative and ability. Particularly time consuming is the process of monitoring of students’ knowledge, t. E. Feedback «student — teacher».

In order to improve the effectiveness of training pedagogical science solves the problem of the utmost intensification of educational process, the active transfer of knowledge with timely controlling of learning. The issues of education now attracted the attention of scientists from different disciplines in our country and in many others / coun- tries. To improve the quality of teaching, widely used different types of technical training (TCO) — television, cinema, radio, recording, teaching device.

At present, the learning process is a «class-lesson» teaching system. If you use different types of TCO, it becomes quite effective, ie. A. Provides greater flow of information strengthens control over the acquisition of knowledge. However, this system does not exhaust all the possibilities of pedagogy, which are incorporated, for example, programmed instruction, and electronic engineering.

The perspective is a system of programmed instruction; the teacher has a complex cybernetic devices, allowing it to constantly monitor the learning process. The training program adapts itself to the abilities of each student.

Application TCO frees up time teacher to improve their pedagogical skills, allows him to pay more attention not only to education, but the education of the younger generation. By giving teachers opportunities flexible organization of educational process, the use of TCO in the long run leads to a reduction in the training group, the number of students per one teacher allows it all to pay more attention to each student.

Technical training, according to their place in the educational process can be divided into four categories: information, monitoring, information and control (or proper training) and devices for the study of the educational process. In addition, each category includes both individual and group TCO.

Pedagogical practice in the experimental schools in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Novosibirsk and other cities have accumulated considerable experience in partial use of TPR in the learning process. The effectiveness of the new methods, no one doubts; However, the widespread use of their hampered by the lack of school buildings, specially built for training with TCO.

Recently, CNIIEP educational buildings developed a number of projects that take into account the possibility of using in the educational process of certain types of TCO. Among them — the project of reconstruction of school № 1. Lenin in Ulyanovsk, a pilot project schools 1280 students with knitting recreation for the same city, a pilot project of a comprehensive school with a means of training for 1,200 students, and others.

The emergence of TCO largely changing the traditional forms of teaching. For the purposes of «automated» training reconstructed old buildings, or are attached to them, «automated» blocks, create new projects and buildings built thereon, calculated on changing pedagogical principles. The so-called «automated» training stimulates the search for new composite solutions and new forms of such a well-established traditional building as a school.

Foreign architects in their first, most «daring» ideas about school with TCO tended to variations in the form of high-rise buildings tower blocks. However, in practice, the construction of most of them used one-and two-story buildings.

Saturation of the school by means of technology has led to the maximum concentration of classrooms for the shortest links and utilities. Much attention is paid to the possibility of organizing a variety of groups and regrouping of students for the purposes of «group learning». This is achieved by providing planning flexibility classrooms through their transformation of a solution composition of the classrooms of various sizes (from small rooms for seminars on 02/06/12 pupils — to lecture rooms with 200 or more seats).

In France, Marly-le-Roi near Paris, from the beginning of the 1966 academic year opened an experimental high school designed for learning through television, movies, slides, language laboratories and audio-visual other equipment. Teachers of this school received special pedagogical and technical training for the conduct of activities under the program, divided into three phases: information, learning, practice.

In composition it is building — pavilion type. Five teaching units are connected by covered walkways to the school-wide block of buildings in which the studio for a closed television network. From the studio conducted television programs in all educational areas, designed in the form of triangular transforming in terms of class, the shape of which is selected from the conditions optimal visibility during television and kinourokov. Triangular classes for up to 18 students can be integrated into the room, «while 36 and 72 students — to conduct sessions with TCO. So far, this institution is the first in Western Europe, the most pronounced example of a school for «sight-hearing» training.

In the United States to cover the ever increasing shortage of teachers in secondary schools, improve education and meet the need for qualified personnel professionals, education authorities were forced earlier than in other countries, have recourse to technical training. As a result, beginning with the 1962-1963 biennium. in American practice began to appear experimental school buildings for the «group learning», in varying degrees, equipped TCO.

An example of the maximum concentration of classrooms around the center of the sight-hearing can serve as a primary school in Belair (Texas). The school is in the shape of a polyhedron consisting of eight transforming classrooms for 30 students each.

{School in Wayland, MA) consists of individual functional units, grouped on the basis of related disciplines. Each block has a lecture hall for audio-visual training and allocated special rooms for individual lessons.

An example of the most «automation» of the educational process can serve as housing Grende Valley College (Michigan). Each building has lecture rooms and special cabins for individual lessons. In the cockpit training (in each case of 256 cabins), you can access 17 visual and 80 audio channels. Half of the study time, students are engaged in such self-cabins and a half — in a team.

What are the new principles of functional organization and space-pla-nirovochnoy composition of schools that best meet the new requirements of pedagogy?

In the published pilot project for 1200 school pupils we have attempted to optimally solve the basic problems associated with the use of TCO in the learning process. The building is designed for learning through television, movies, sound recordings and training devices. When designing the scheme was chosen centralized maintenance of educational process TCO — from a single technical center, which becomes the center in the long term «automated» management process.

The functional structure of the building provides a differentiated system of education: self-study with the help of technical and print media, class-lesson classes in specialized classrooms and laboratories, as well as lectures in the classroom, calculated on a set of parallel classes.

The entire building is divided into six distinct functional blocks, which provide students with the age differentiation cabinet education system, starting with the Class V.

The composition of the building is based on a clear allocation and communication function blocks: Group of elementary grades; Group subject classrooms for older students; Technical Center; nasal block; dining room; boarding.

Group of elementary grades is four age cells, each of which consists of four classrooms -classes. By transforming (with sliding partition), they can be sequentially combined into one large room for the extended-day groups and other forms of activities, including the types of portable audio-behold-enforcement training facilities.

Subject cabin, grouped on the basis of related disciplines, are placed around the lecture rooms equipped with stationary sets TCO (television, cinema, radio, diaproektsii etc.). At the same offices of foreign and Russian language as the language labs equipped.

Specialized laboratories equipped with mobile equipment, as well as technical means of transmitting information and knowledge control.

Block technical center for centralized maintenance means of training the educational process within the entire school building. The structure of this unit includes the management and maintenance facilities (TV studio, radio unit, a recording studio, storage room and repair of technical equipment and the manufacture of audio-visual materials) to the premises of the library reading room. For self-study high school students with the help of printed material and individual technical training in the reading room equipped with individual seats.

To provide a compact layout, free orientation and flexible use of space in the building applied top natural light in combination with a side (in recreation). It also allows you to achieve a good communication with the internal space of the surrounding areas of the school.

The proposed schematic layout — only one of the possible variants of the functional organization of schools with teaching aids. Work on the issue raised in the article is just beginning, but it became clear the need for increased research in the field of experimental school construction of a new type.

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