Research and practice of horticulture have shown that high yields of perennial plants can not be achieved without the extensive use of fertilizers, including mineral.
First of all, we should note the important role of organic fertilizers in horticulture the Non-where soils often have poor physical properties. Regular tillage, improving water and nutrient regimes plantings, at the same time (due to the aerobic decomposition of organic matter in the soil) leads to a gradual decrease in the content of humus in the soil and the deterioration of its physical properties. The soil at the content of fallow on average loses annually 0.08-0.10% humus. Adding organic fertilizer (manure, compost, green manure green manure) eliminates the negative effect of tillage.
Therefore, an indication of Comrade Khrushchev that every state and collective farms must create at a kind of organic fertilizer factory, fully applies to horticultural farms.
For gardens and berry harvest should be the Non-organic fertilizer (manure and compost) per hectare garden fruiting 15-20 tons (20-40 tonnes a year, 45 to 50 tons every 3 years), and for the young — 6 -10 tons.
Due to lack of farms of manure and compost is great interest in the summer crop of green manure (lupine, phacelia, vetch and oats mixture, pelyushki, buckwheat, mustard, etc.) With their autumn plowing for green manure.
Under conditions of sufficient moisture green manure can be sown in every aisle, and with a lack of moisture — by one, leaving a neighboring fallow. It should also be noted that the wings of lupine contribute to the accumulation of snow in gardens and high soil moisture of 3-5%.
In addition to manure, compost and green manure of great importance in enhancing the yield of orchards and berry fields have mineral fertilizers. Complete fertilizer at the RK BO 90 kilograms of active ingredient per 1 hectare increases the yield of fruit and berries by 20-50 centners.
The combination of organic fertilizers with mineral and a high level of agricultural technology in orchards and berry fields increase the effectiveness of fertilizers. It is advisable to bring together organic mineral (manure, compost 20 tons and a complete fertilizer at 60 kg active ingredient per 1 hectare) organic or apply every 2-3 years (40-50 m), and in the intervening years — a complete fertilizer (90 kg of active substance per 1 ha) with a small quantity (2-3 tons per 1 ha) in the form of manure organo-mineral mixture. A small addition of organic matter to mineral fertilizers significantly increases their positive effect.
Normal water regime of garden soil or plants facilitates efficiency of fertilizers. It is therefore necessary to take care of improving it by proper tillage, mulching in young orchards, irrigation in dry conditions. Only under this condition, the effect of fertilizers manifest most fully.
Considerable importance and forms of fertilizers. Fruit trees and raspberries, red and black currants, strawberries do not tolerate low-interest chlorinated potassium salt (sylvinite). Under these crops should be used high-grade potassium chloride and potassium sulfate is even better, magnesium potassium sulphate (shenit) and ash herbaceous and woody plants. Sparingly soluble phosphates poorly absorbed roots of strawberries, annual seedlings apple and cherry.
It should be noted that the effectiveness of different forms of fertilizers in horticulture poorly understood, experiments have to be expanded.
Effect of fertilizer depends on the way they are made. Research has experienced many institutions found that the effect of fertilizers increased at a relatively deep focal entering into a zone of distribution of the active roots of trees. In this case, less fertilizer absorbed by the soil and more readily available for absorption by plants.
Studies using radioactive phosphorus showed that the most abundant phosphorus supplied at a relatively deep pockets in the introduction of water (as compared with conventional surface sealing of 10-15 cm). However, to implement this progressive method gardens need special machines.
Of great importance are the terms of fertilizer application. Manure, compost, phosphate and potash to make better in the fall under the autumn plowing. Nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in the spring — 2-3 weeks before flowering, and at a high yield and as a fertilizer in the phase of physiological falling off the ovary.
As for foliar feeding on fruit and berry plants by spraying them with solutions of nutrient salts (urea, ammonium nitrate, chloride and potassium sulfate, the extract of superphosphate) together with pesticides or separately, this method should be regarded as an auxiliary. For example, spraying urea useful after the winter damage trees. Since the effectiveness of foliar feeding poorly understood and contradictory experimental data, we can not yet recommend this method for widespread use, but only as a productive experience.
On the effectiveness of fertilizers in orchards and berry fields can be judged, in addition to the data of research institutions, «also based on a broad industrial experience of advanced horticultural farms.
For example, the Lenin State Farm, Moscow region, fertile garden area of 100 hectares of extensive use of organic and mineral fertilizers. On each hectare of garden making 4 hundredweight of superphosphate, 2 — potassium salt and 3.5 quintals of ammonium nitrate. Harvest fruit in the economy was (n 1 hectare) in 1959 — 75, in 1960 — 118, 1961 — 98, 1962 — 106 and in 1963 — 107.
Pilot production facilities of the Research Institute of Horticulture zone the Non-applied together with organic and mineral fertilizers at the rate of 60-90 kg of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide per hectare annually collects high yields: in 1960 — 80 quintals, 1961 — 109, 1962 — 81 and 1963 — 110 quintals on an area of 65 hectares. In some areas the crop reaches 150-200 quintals of fruit per 1 ha.
State Farm «Nepetsino», Moscow region, annually brings in orchards and berry fields up to 12 quintals of complete fertilizer per hectare and receives every year more than 100 quintals of apples per hectare on an area of 94 hectares. In 1962, the farm has grown an average of 170 quintals and in 1963 — 120.
Every year in agriculture will come more and more fertilizers. Proper use them based on the experience of advanced research institutions and enterprises — large reserve increase yield and berry orchards.