A new rise of beekeeping
The new labor victories of the Soviet people met thirty-fourth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. Millions of workers in town and country, by participating in socialist competition, have made and achieve significant growth in industrial and agricultural production and improve its quality. Our people are proud of the great builders labor successes of hydraulic structures of the Stalinist era of the Volga, the Dnieper, the Amu Darya and Don, proud of the success in transforming the nature and achievements of the Stakhanovite industry, transport and agriculture.
The Soviet people are not spared his strength and gives all his labor, energy and knowledge to the further prosperity of the beloved Motherland, to strengthen its power, to the cause of world peace and friendship between peoples.
In a recent interview with «Truth» Comrade Stalin said: «The Soviet Union stands for the prohibition of nuclear weapons and for an end to nuclear weapons production. The Soviet Union is building for the establishment of international control so that a decision on the prohibition of nuclear weapons, to cease production of nuclear weapons and the use of atomic bombs already made exclusively for civilian purposes — was performed with all the precision and integrity. The Soviet Union is precisely because of this international control. «
These words of the leader and the teachers are unanimous response in the hearts of all Soviet people, all progressive mankind.
Workers mills and factories, collective and state farms unanimously put their signatures under the appeal of the World Peace Council, than again show their will to all mankind to the world, its indestructible unity and cohesion around the great iron-bearer of the world, Comrade Stalin.
Workers in industry, transport and agriculture in the letters to Comrade Stalin, reporting on their labor victories, take on an even more increased socialist obligations.
A clear expression of the great successes in agriculture are reports Comrade Stalin about the new rise of the rural socialist economy, the implementation of early provinces, territories and republics plan blanks bread, meat, chlorine, sugar beets, wool and other agricultural products, the struggle of the collective farm peasants, workers of state farms and machine and tractor stations for the implementation of one of the main tasks of agriculture — increase the number of animal husbandry and increase its productivity.
Outstanding achievements in the implementation of the post-war five-year plan have been made possible only as a result of socialist competition as the result of the work of ordinary people in the Soviet Union has become a matter of honor, a matter of glory, a matter of valor and heroism
People work — that’s what the owners of the country. Their hands won in October, their own hands to build communism.
We hate war.
We are engaged in peaceful work — are building a hydroelectric, irrigation canals, planting vast areas of forest strips, transforming lifeless desert into blossoming gardens, lovely building new towns and villages, well-appointed homes, universities, hospitals, libraries, raising culture and facilitate the work of ordinary people.
We need peace.
But the Anglo-American aggressive bloc hatching crazy plans aimed at disrupting the building of communism in the USSR, to disrupt the peace of the people’s democracies, the animosity between the nations. Therefore, the Soviet people will continue to be vigilant, to expose the warmongers, to strengthen the military power of the great beloved homeland.
Comrade Stalin, replying to a correspondent of «idle», pointed out:
«Of course the aggressors want the Soviet Union was unarmed in the event of an attack on him. But the Soviet Union disagrees, and thinks that the aggressor should be fully prepared to meet. «
Peace to the world!
This call sounds now with the new force in the hearts of the peoples of the Soviet Union. This call was repeated in all languages of the nations of the world «The world will be saved and strengthened if the people take the cause of peace into their own hands and defend it to the end.» These words of the great genius of mankind Comrade Stalin picked up as a banner, they reached the hearts of the common people of the world, they have become a rallying cry for all the fighters for peace.
The Soviet people, in whatever area — big or small — it worked, must always remember these instructions of Comrade Stalin and.
Soviet beekeepers, together with all the people making a modest contribution to the benefit of the beloved Motherland, for its further prosperity and strengthening.
The enlarged, diversifying farm beekeeping is of great importance to increase the value of the workday and cash income.
This year was marked by a significant increase in the number of bee colonies in the collective farms of the Ukrainian SSR, the Moldavian SSR, and a number of provinces, territories and the Autonomous Republic of the Russian Federation and other Soviet republics.
For example, the collective Kabardian ASSR for beekeeping. 1951 increased by 33%, the Grozny region, 31% of the Ivanovo area- 20% of the Kursk region, 15%, 14%, Voronezh, Gorky, Orel, Penza region, the Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and others. 10-12 %.
Increase in the number of collective-farm apiaries. V / 1951 organized only in the Russian Federation over 1500 new collective-farm apiaries. There was further improvement and strengthening of apiary — increase in the number of bee colonies, equipping, hives, implements, dramatic improvement in the quality of families. In the winter are strong bee colonies are well secured forages, winter quarters, and so on. D.
This year a lot of work for the implementation of advances in the production of advanced beekeepers. It is increasingly used in the apiaries method of beekeeping in hives-loungers and double-hulled hives, giving a sharp rise in commodity apiaries. Use of bees on pollination of agricultural crops has been an integral part of agrotechnical methods in advanced farms.
The remarkable success achieved in the current year collective and state apiary many regions, territories and republics to improve the productivity of bee colonies.
Beekeeping farm is now available in most farms. This year, for example, apiaries Lazovsky District, Primorsky Krai, collected more than 200 tons of honey. Beekeeping is only one collective farm Lazo gave 50 tons of marketable honey and farm «Budennovets» — 35 tons. The farm Lazo, Chuguev district of the same province, collected 4,500 pounds of honey.
No less success have beekeepers Krasnoyarsk Territory. The kolkhoz Voroshilov Tyukhtetsky District, received 100 kg of marketable honey on average from each of the 699 families of bees. The farm named Molotov beekeeper MI Kalyada made produce 120 kg of methane, and on the farm Kalinin beekeeper Podovalny II-160 kg of honey on average one bee family.
From year to year it provides a great income apiary kolkhoz Voroshilov, Kimovsk district, Moscow region. Noble beekeeper in the area, the deputy of the regional Council, Vladimir Makeev this year, increasing the apiary with 105 150 bee colonies, collected 70 kg of honey on average each family of bees.
Such examples of high productivity and Beekeeping can lead to other republics, territories and regions.
But it should be noted the poor state of some apiaries in areas where beekeeping has not yet become highly productive, apiaries are in a state of neglect and beekeepers can not cope with their tasks.
This primarily refers to the collective apiary beekeepers and agricultural authorities of the Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Yaroslavl regions.
There is still no proper care of the development of social bee and increasing its productivity.
To achieve further success for the further development of beekeeping in 1952, we must now take care of preparing the apiary for the upcoming season. Particular attention should be focused on the organization of a good wintering bees, manufacture and repair of hives and other equipment, to ensure the apiary honeycombs. Agricultural authorities have to spend a lot of work to strengthen the apiaries experienced beekeepers to organize their professional development, more broadly expand socialist competition among beekeepers.
Achievements advanced beekeepers make available to all apiaries!
The peoples of the Soviet Union celebrate the glorious anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, in an atmosphere of great political and labor enthusiasm. As never rallied around the Bolshevik Party, the Soviet government and his beloved and wise leader, Comrade Stalin, the Soviet people is steadily moving forward to the complete triumph of communism in our country.
Note the 34th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the new labor victories!
THREE YEARS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF NATURE
Adopted at the initiative of the great Stalin and published October 20, 1948 a historic resolution of the Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) «About the plan of shelterbelts, the introduction of grass crop rotation, construction of ponds and reservoirs to ensure high and stable yields in the steppe and forest steppe regions of the European part of the USSR «was seen by the Soviet people as a grand plan to transform the nature of the vast territory of our great country.
History does not know such bold in conception and grandiose plans of work to combat the drought, this terrible scourge of humanity, the struggle for the transformation of nature on an area equal in size a number of European countries combined.
In the formulation of this problem during its second performance clearly affects superiority of the socialist system over the capitalist social order.
In the stagnation and decline of agriculture is doomed bourgeois countries. The steady decline in soil fertility until the transformation of formerly fertile land into barren deserts — the immutable law of pre-socialist socio-economic formatsiy- especially rapidly is the destruction of soil fertility under the capitalist system, «… all progress in capitalist agriculture — Karl Marx wrote — there not only the progress in the art of robbing the laborer, but of robbing the soil, all progress in increasing the fertility at this period is at the same time, progress in the destruction of permanent sources of fertility «(Marx, Capital, Vol. 1949, vol. I, str- 509). «The bottom line is that the culture, if it develops spontaneously, not consciously directed … leaves a desert: Persia, Mesopotamia, and so on. D. (K. Marx and F. Engels. Soch., Vol XXIV, p. 35 ).
Decline and Fall of the soil fertility could not avoid and agriculture of pre-revolutionary Russia, especially in the steppe and forest areas from time immemorial served as the base of agricultural production in our country.
In the south of Russia had no significant forests. It also featured a vast space adjacent to the Black and Azov Seas, the foothills of the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea from land adjacent to them. The forests are mainly grew on watersheds and ravines. But these forests were ruthlessly exterminated.
In the forest-steppe regions, in large arrays, forests were izrezheny and sometimes completely destroyed. Agricultural crops and natural forage grass land, devoid of forests — this protection in the form of green barriers on the sultry southeast winds, have been increasingly exposed to the damaging effects of dry winds and drought. Drastically reduced soil fertility, for the lands devoid of forests, plowed for sowing crops, trampled by cattle, quickly destroyed soil cover; amplified stormwater and meltwater; It washed away the fertile soil particles. Ravines, gullies and moving under the influence of wind-blown sand covered vast areas of previously fertile land, making them unsuitable for agriculture land.
Recurrent droughts becoming more threatening for agriculture. Only in the last 65 years, drought hit more than 20 times Volga Region, areas of the central area- more than 15 times, areas of the Tatar, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and Mongolia — more than 10 rad. Subjected to frequent droughts and areas of Ukraine and the North Caucasus.
Lenin repeatedly pointed to the impotence of the small farms Russia, ..e their helplessness in the fight against natural "disasters and against the brutal exploitation in the landlord-bourgeois system. «Robbery landowners, crushed arbitrariness of officials, entangled network of police bans, chicanery and violence related to the latest security guards, priests, rural chiefs, farmers also defenseless against disasters and against capital, as the savages of Africa» (Lenin. Cit., Vol. 17, p. 473, ed. 4th).
From generation to generation our country peasants dreamed about getting rid of droughts and crop failures. It was only after the Great October Socialist Revolution, the dream began to materialize into reality.
Stalin still in 1924 r wrote, «We decided to use the heightened readiness of the peasantry to do everything possible to insure themselves against accidents in the future, drought, and we will try to take full advantage of this willingness to undertake (with the peasants) resolute measures for land reclamation, the improvement of farming and so on. We think to start a business with the formation of the minimum required reclamation of the wedge zone Samara-Saratov, Tsaritsyn — Astrakhan — Stavropol … Next year’s move to the southern provinces. This will be the beginning of a revolution in our agriculture … «(Stalin. Cit., Vol. 6, p. 275).
Drought began to take an organized, systematic character.
The victory of the collective farm system, the creation of a vast network of machine and tractor stations and state farms were given the opportunity to expand the fight against drought on an unprecedented scale, up to the transformation of the nature of the vast territory of steppe and forest steppe regions of the European part of the USSR.
Ambitious work program outlined by the decree of October 20, 1948, represents a system of agronomic measures for recovery of agriculture, based on the teachings of the most prominent Russian agronomists Dokuchaev, Kostychev and VR Williams and dubbed grassland farming systems. It is based on the practice of advanced collective and state farms, machine and tractor stations and a number of research institutions have proven that using grass-field system of agriculture can be obtained in the steppe and forest-steppe areas from year to year high and stable yields of crops and create a solid feed basis for the development of animal husbandry.
This program, called the people of Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature, provides for the establishment in the short term, from 1949 to 1965, the powerful shelterbelts — to protect from the harmful influence of dry winds and dust storms of crops and natural forage grasses, to protect against runoff and blowing soil of the Volga, the North Caucasus, the Central Black Earth Region and Ukraine, to improve the water regime and climatic conditions.
Over the past three years, thanks to the daily help of the Bolshevik Party and the Soviet government set up large state protective forest strips in an area of 45 thousand hectares. With an overall plan designed for 15 years, 110.1 thous. Ha.
Work on the creation of state shelterbelts in the direction of Stalingrad Kamyshin-length of 170 km on both sides of the river north of the city of Belgorod Donets river to Doi length of 500 kilometers of coming to an end.
Planting of shelter belts on the lands of collective and state farms for three years produced an area of 2055.8 thous. Ha, which is 103.3% of the plan, and this plan is much higher than originally adopted for the period 1948
Widely used in laying shelterbelts developed Acad. Lysenko way to breeding planting oak.
This method is more reliable and requires several times less equipment and labor than conventional. Furthermore, when nested fit is possible in the first years coverslips sown crops and forest plantations and receive bands of crops with these crops.
During the period from October 20, 1948 repaired and re-built 14,200 ponds, which made it possible to expand much irrigation of crops and to obtain high yields of crops on irrigated land.
By Order dated October 20, 1948 is provided in the planting shelterbelts many species of trees and shrubs is an excellent honey plant as elm, maple, linden, acacia, willow, honeysuckle and other woody forest species, as well as fruit trees and shrubs. This should create a new, vast arrays of perennial honey plants, on the basis of which the bee-keeping in the steppe and forest-steppe regions many times will be extended. However, so far the case has not received sufficient attention. In forest protection zones a little honey planted trees and shrubs and in nurseries still very insufficient planting material grown honey rocks.
The problem of local agriculture and forestry — to ensure landing in shelterbelts in that in the decision of the party and the government assortment of tree and shrub plantings species honey and especially fruit trees and shrubs. Yields of fruit and berries and abundant nectar flow in forest protection zones will increase the economic efficiency of forest plantations will accelerate the reimbursement of costs for the establishment of shelterbelts.
In the collective and state farms and forest-steppe regions of the steppe-conducted extensive work on the introduction of grass crop rotation, increased crop tillage, introduced a system of correct application of organic and mineral fertilizers and successfully made the transition to selective sowing seeds of locally adapted high-yielding varieties.
The results of a three-year struggle for the transformation of nature show that Stalin’s grand plan mapped out in the decision of 20 October 1948 will be made in time for an earlier than specified, in this ruling.
«Implementation of this ambitious plan for the state, which declared war on the adoption of drought and crop failure in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of the European part of our country — as told Molotov — will bring our agriculture in the direct path of high and stable yields, farmers will make the work of high-performance and greatly raise the economic might of the Soviet Union «(Molotov. 31 th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. Gospolitizdat, 1948, p. 13).
(Experience of the beekeeper JF Zadorozhnogo)
Ivan Zadorozhnyy working head apiary farm named after Stalin, the rural area of Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Krai. This farm is located 40 km from the city of Khabarovsk, surrounded by huge forests. From honey plants growing in the forest zone, the main ones being the Amur linden, Norway maple, Amur velvet, wild raspberries, and in the spring many willow thickets along the banks of the Black River.
Apiary is located on the southwestern slope of the hill, «Beautiful», a distance of 2.5 km from the collective farm in the hilly terrain.
Kolkhoz apiary consisting of 350 bee colonies. After the exhibition, it is divided into two point. Bee hives are contained in the following systems: 27% double-hulled, 46% of the beds in the 16-20 frames and the remaining 27% in single-hull hives, which are gradually replaced by hive-beds and double-hulled.
Apiary from year to year.
In normal wintering bee apiary Head t. Zadorozhnyy in no hurry to show them tochok as early exhibition, according to his observations, sometimes leading to a rapid loss of flight of bees, especially in windy conditions.
The exhibition, he produces between 10-18 of April. Before an exhibition between the pegs, which will stand the hives, he fills a layer of hay or straw, protected from cold winds place exposes the trough, and so on. D.
Warming bottom holds steady until the warm weather, about May 10-15.
When all the apiary bees prepared for the exhibition and set the heat hives are placed tap holes to the southeast.
The exhibition is produced bees from the evening. If in the morning the weather will be warm and windless, with the temperature in the shade of 10-12 °, notch open the full width and also monitored the progress of the flyby. To avoid wandering bee hives in the apiary are painted in different colors and collocate in such a manner that one painting was repeated after 12 meters.
Experience t. Zadorozhnogo shows that with this arrangement hives loss of ewes returning from the flyby of the marriage, does not happen. On the day flyby all bee colonies briefly examined. Slots do not understand, but only relegated extreme frame in order to determine the quantity and quality of honey.
Families checked for ewes and in the absence of their families corrected by replanting replacement ewes, which are in the apiary year left at least 10-15% of the number who had gone into winter bee colonies. Spiking queens made through the notches, and pre-lubricated with chalk uterus. This method provides a spring reception ewes 100%.
One of the important measures of capacity of bees to the main bribe is a thorough spring warming of beehives top and sides with a simultaneous reduction in nests. To bee colonies developed normally after the exhibition on tochok immediately after a cursory inspection of bee colonies, one entered into the prepared space for a detailed inspection. During the inspection is determined by the status of each colony, the presence of the uterus and the number of brood and honey and pollen.
All extra neobsizhivaemye bees frame, as well as the old, damaged are removed from the hive. Each family having at least 7 streets, left 8-10 kg of honey and 1-2 frames of pollen.
Then, hives insulated. Top head insulation is made of 1-2 layers of newsprint, imposed from above potolochka. On paper placed tightly woven straw mat thickness of 10 to 12 cm or some rags. The corner of insulation is hay mat which is placed between the two plug-in boards on the north side.
After touring and recording in the statement of the hive with bees carried away in its place, and the rest on the window bees produced through the window.
If individual families out of hibernation shabby, it makes a complete change in their hives disinfected and clean frame. Worn hives and frames are thoroughly cleaned, washed ash lye and dry, and dry, free of brood immediately overheat.
This method works regardless of the weather allows to inspect an apiary of 100 hives in for 5-8 days.
If the spring of bribes is absent, to increase oviposition the uterus is done printing of small areas at the extreme of honey frame.
With the development of bee colonies made the expansion slot.
Until May 15-20 nests expand sushyu light brown in color, translucent in the bottoms. Honeycomb before directing the hive sprayed lightly sweetened water.
With the onset of warm and stable weather, and even with a slight trick ‘in the hives are substituted with an artificial honeycomb frame — first one at about frames with brood, and during large bribes 2-3 frame with artificial honeycombs from which However two placed at the center of the nest, and one — near the border at brood.
During the main bribe, along with the production of the hive frames with artificial honeycombs, put construction frame with detachable bar.
To bee colonies to the main bribe we were strong and neroevom state, ie. Zadorozhnyy Use the following method: the families of all necessary conditions for maximum oviposition the uterus, t. E. In the hive is always 6 or more kilos of honey to two frames of pollen, benign dry, the young of the uterus, the conclusion of which is dated before the start of the main bribe.
It is noticed that bee colonies with these queens work much better and higher productivity of 20-30%.
Since one does not provide the uterus accumulate sufficient force is applied queen-assistant. For this purpose, the beekeeper uses the remaining part after the winter fetal ewes in the nucleus, and the missing amount is displayed to them in the spring from strong families with more than 7 streets and high productivity.
Selected bee colonies until the first of May are in the normal equal terms with all the families in the apiary, and then made reinforced medopergovaya feeding them at the rate of 300-500 g per family. Outdoor brood have selected and transferred to other families. The number of frames with a printed brood is brought to 7-9. In addition, they further shake the young bees from 2-3 frames from other families and to reduce streets 8.5-10 mm. Jack carefully insulated top and sides. Thus prepared bee colonies quickly come to swarm state and lay the 10- 12-20 swarm queen cells.
As soon as the queen cells start to mature, ie. Zadorozhnyy proceeds to the formation of small semeek.
The double-hulled hives to the upper body nailed a sheet of plywood sized quantities bottom and notches in the second building does with the right or left side. The second body, he puts on family, occupying more than 8-9 frames. Strains in the second housing is formed of two or three frames of brood printed with sitting and two bees medopergovyh framework. If a young bee is not enough, then further shake off the bees from 1-2 frames. The little family formed passed the liquor.
The hive-loungers hollow wall portion is separated by 4-5 frames, entrance is done in the other direction and formed strains, as in the second case. Families slips before fertilization queens constantly podsilivayutsya due to strong families. To these families have not come to swarm the state, they are shown in the indoor brood.
From three years of practice in this way O queens t. Zadorozhnyy convinced that by May 20-25, you can get a barren ewes, and in early June have fetal ewes, which are used first as assistant to the uterus, increasing the bee, and then as the planned increase.
Uterine-assistant to help build the main bribe a large number of bees, which are involved in honey collection.
With the onset of the main bribe when controlling the hive shows a profit of more than 2 kg, families of both buildings are combined into one in which the young leave the womb. The old queen is temporarily used for layering the planned growth. Spare uterus output. During honey collection by obtaining a swarm queen cells. This method of preparation of bees to the main bribe in 1951 allowed to collect an average of one family, even under adverse weather conditions, 35 kg of honey and wax 0.9 kg, while the neighboring apiary received only 14-18 kg gross honey and the average honey yield in the district amounted to 21 kg per bee colony.
Using the main bribe
Spring 1951 was extremely unfavorable for the development of bee colonies. Since bees and exhibitions until the second half of May the temperature at night dropped to -5 °, and in the afternoon reached + 10-15 °. There is a strong north-westerly winds, which makes the bees could not fully use the early spring bribes from willow, maple and dandelion. During this period, there was a sharp decline in stocks of forage-nectar began to flow only in the beginning of June, with white clover, raspberry and later with the Amur velvet. All this definitely hindered the progress of development of bee colonies, which in turn delayed the setting and the second body. The first 6 buildings were set only June 9th.
To compare the efficiency of beekeeping in different systems hives June 10 were selected three groups of colonies, equal in strength and number of brood. Each group consisted of 10 families. The first group was in the single-hull hives, the second — in the two-hull and the third — in the hive-loungers.
One of the important conditions for obtaining high honey yield is to maintain families in working condition. To do this, ie. Zadorozhnyy especially timely expands sushyu nest or honeycomb. Then he selects the printing constant brood (each 8-9-th frame) and interchanges in families with queens-assistants.
One of the most important points to ensure safe vimovki bees is leaving them ample kormozapasov, so as to be enough not only for the winter, but also in the spring. Harvesting of winter kormozapasov made very carefully. For this purpose, during the period of the eye with linden honey collection in double-hulled hives in the upper body, in the first pitching four complete frames are left, the rest of honey from the hive frames are selected. The hive-loungers also left four frames. When commodity pumping all the frames with honey harvested in a sealed room, inaccessible to the bees, which kept until the final preparation of nests for the winter of 15-20 September, when the leaves are added to the hive even 2-3 frame. Thus, the first charges harvested per family, going into the winter, 6 full frame.
Preparation of bees for winter
Beekeeping season, says t. Zadorozhnyy essentially begins in the fall.
Major work on the preparation of bee colonies for the winter so on. Zadorozhnyy considers the following. Preparation zimovnika it starts even in the summer. Zimovniki the apiary dvuhs-tenny, warm in winter temperature below -1 ° it does not fall. In the summer, it is open and dry out. By the end of the summer, if necessary, repaired windows, ventilation pipes, racks, while there is a struggle with mice.
Renovated in early September winterer sulphured at the rate of 50 g of sulfur per 1 sq. meter area. Secondary fumigation is done in 15-20 days. After that, the floor zimovnika sprinkled fresh sand winterer well ventilated, and in late October belitsya lime and rose to the acceptance of bees. To measure the temperature inside the room, there are two thermometers hanging — one at the third tier, the second — at the level of the first tier. Humidity is determined psychrometer.
The temperature is controlled ventilation pipes.
Summing up the experience of the head of the collective farm named after Stalin apiary t. ‘Zadorozhnogo, it can be concluded that to improve productivity and the rapid growth of each apiary beekeeper need to fulfill the following requirements.
1. Keep apiaries only strong beer families and in working condition.
2. Provide bee colonies benign feed stocks at the rate of not less than 18-22 kg, depending on the terrain.
3. After the exhibition, and in the autumn as well as possible to insulate bee colonies.
4. Create pripasechnye sites for bees to honey collection time, additional capacity of bees in the spring and fall.
5. Apply assistants, queens, queens replaced annually produce.
6. Make timely shift breeding combs, reserve land be at the rate of at least 24 frames.
7. Special attention is given to the unit with warm, dry Zimovniki.
BEST beekeepers Moldavian SSR
(Experience LA Cheban — beekeeping farm «Red October".
Advanced beekeeper Moldova — Leonty Amvrosievich Cheban working on the farm «Red October», Rybnitsa district.
In the spring of 1947 after a one-year school bee, t. Cheban took the farm «Red October» 5 of bee colonies, in two or three within each without food. Beehives were different systems, rotten. In three years, ie. Cheban created a highly productive apiary.
On 1 January 1951 there were already collective-farm apiary of 80 bee colonies, and for the last three years, she had the following indicators.
Tov. Cheban annually improves the content of the bees, and care for them.
In the winter, together with farmers, he makes new hives and repair old ones.
Much attention t. Cheban pays winter maintenance of bees. Special zimovnika on the farm there. The bees spend the winter in a small cellar fitted, which is difficult to monitor their condition. But t. Cheban regulates the temperature and humidity in Zimovniki by increasing or decreasing ventilation.
In the hive leaves the gap between the planks of the ceiling to release moisture. As a rule, in the winter and in the spring t. Cheban reserves per bee colony of 20 kg of 22 benign honey.
In the spring apiary is on the point in the collective garden, consisting of
55 hectares of apricot trees, 5 hectares of plums and cherries.
Apiary is located on, the south side of the slope, is well protected from northern and eastern winds, and lined with honey scrub.
Hives spring t. Cheban puts on a thick layer of straw to protect the floor from moisture. But once established warm weather, he removes the straw and leaves the hives on stands or pegs 25- • height 35 cm. The hives in the apiary located at a distance of 4-6 meters from each other in the row and 2-3 m between rows.
For most of bee colonies and to increase productivity so on. Cheban used mainly families queens assistants.
To ensure the basic bee colonies, queens assistants
May 18, 1950 were formed (early spring cores with sows output from the four strong, highly productive families and placed in pairs with the major families yrs in the same direction.
From these cores m. Cheban endured open brood cells in standing near the main family, and of the main hives in the bore cores brood printed output, covering young bees.
Repeating this trick in 5-8 days, depending on the progress of «steam» of the family, the beekeeper making rapid build-up of young bees in the two families. Swarm state in the main family has created, and it increased its productivity. At the time of flowering acacia new families with overwintered spare queens had already 5-8 frames covered with bees.
During the honey harvest these families set aside 4-5 m to the side, and therefore almost all the bees, flight passed from them to the main family.
Such strengthening basic family lёtnymi bees due to family-assistants conducted in collecting honey from a sunflower in July, as well as the collection of honey and other honey plants.
As a result, the number of bee colonies in the apiary has doubled, gross output of honey and wax above the average for the region more than doubled.
The method of detention of families with queens, assistants can be used with great success in all collective Moldova.
Tov. Cheban believes that as an assistant principal families are best used spare overwintered queens, which in the second half of the summer is necessary to create cores with extra queens for the season next year.
LA Cheban supports the apiary and hives exceptional purity thoroughly warms the nest, and so on. D.
Particular attention he pays to breeding.
From local families in Cheban took the top 4 of economically useful traits, in which he displays and educates queens and drones.
Beehives in the apiary of the collective farm of three systems: the twelve-frame of conventional-type shops, and double-hulled Ukrainian two-wall beds.
The best t. Cheban said double-hulled hives; in their bee colonies in the collective-farm apiary gave 30% more honey and wax, than families in the twelve-frame hives.
Double-hulled in the collective hive — beekeeping should take a leading position, but it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of care for the bees, especially in the formulation of the second body.
In 1950 tonnes. Cheban contained 10 families in double-hulled hives, and in 1951 he already had in double-hulled hives 50 bee colonies. The second body is good for queens-assistants and store them in the replacement ewes in the winter.
For their excellent work and over-fulfillment of the plan on beekeeping LA Cheban awarded by the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR badge «Excellent socialist agriculture.»
Apiary farm «Red October» is a candidate for the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition. The development of the collective-farm apiary help to chairman of the «Red October» YV Doroganich and agronomist of the collective farm P. Resnick.
The members of the cooperative elected LA Cheban deputy village council
Collective-farm apiary beekeeper CREATED Obraztsova
(Experience beekeeper AP Getmanova)
Beekeeper kolkhoz Kaganovich, Suvorov district, Stavropol Territory, Alexei Petrovich Hetman, a veteran of World War II, he returned from the army, in 1945, took an apiary in 8 families of patients with American and European foulbrood.
The following year, 1946 tonnes. Getmanov decided to improve apiary by double haul bees, and that he was quite successful. At the end of the season to the existing 8 families, he added two more cuttings.
In the winter of 1947, it was put 10 families, from whom he received 30 cuttings, t. E. Apiary quadrupled. Gross honey was obtained for each zimovaluyu family of 52 kg and 1.4 kg of wax. In the following years apiary grew rapidly. In 1948, there were already 65 families in 1949 and 88 in 1950 as 120 bee colonies.
Thus, for 5 years apiary increased 15 times. It should be noted that these results are obtained in an extremely unfavorable for beekeeping years.
In 1950, the gross honey was collected to 31 kg per family of bees, or 105% of the plan, and the wax of 670 g, or 134% of the plan.
For good performance on the implementation of planned tasks AP Getmanov on regional agricultural exhibition has been awarded in 1950 with money; supplementary payment for exceeding the plan he received from the collective farm family of bees and 26 kg of honey.
Apiary in 120 families Alexei Petrovich served with assistant-apprentice.
Thanks to the skillful care of bees and their correct preparation for winter bee colonies out of hibernation healthy and strong.
Tov. Getmanov works. After a cursory inspection of the exhibition and it reduces the nest, leaving only the frame with brood, densely covered with bees, and two opaque frame. All frames — even with honey — it is removed from the hive and takes them for storage in winterer. The streets in the nest reduces to 8-9 mm, which contributes to the conservation of heat.
Subsequently, as needed, it sticks to the nest to lay their eggs and feed taken previously empty frames with brown cells. Feed frames in the hive for the plug-in board does not leave, because, in his view, it contributes to some cooling of the socket.
At the exhibition of bee zimovnika Alexei Petrovich puts hives than pegs or ground, but on a bed of straw with sex, which protects the bottom of the hive from the cold, wind and damp.
He drew particular attention to the good insulation nests of bees since the exhibition before putting them in winterer: on both sides of the socket plug board sets behind them side chakanovye mats, and the remaining empty space between the mats and the walls fills the small crumpled hay. On top of the frame nests he puts chakanovy woven mat on a newspaper in two or three layers, and a wooden potolochek newspaper.
To derive the greatest number of bees from 15 April to 8 May he spends incentive feeding all families sugar syrup, pouring it into the empty cells in small portions — on 200-300 g per family over two or three days.
In the first decade of June ie. Getmanov proceeds to the formation of cuttings. Next to the strong family, which is taken from the strains it puts an empty hive of the same color. Taking from the main family of four or five frames with brood, mostly printed, with bees sitting on them, he puts them in the middle of cooking the hive. This leaves the uterus in the main family. On both sides of the frame, he adds with honey and pollen; laterally puts plug board, followed by the side chakanovye mats.
To Flying bee distributed equally between the two families. Getmanov migratory interchanges on the main board of the family to the layering. After one or two days in the strains generated in the liquor gives a mature cell. Inspection layering makes no earlier than three or four days after the planned withdrawal of the uterus.
After seeding the uterus and begin laying eggs, caring for cuttings comes to expansion slots and setting combs to lay eggs. By this time, the lateral insulation is removed from one side and the whole nest is moved to the south side of the hive.
A few days before the onset of the main bribe beekeeper rearranges all capped brood of the main family in a new family, and the old, with the remaining open brood and bees obsizhivayuschimi carries 10 meters to the side. Beehive with a new family and a young uterus it leaves in place or moves towards crop family. Thus, all the bees are flying in the new family to which two or three days put the second body, and it becomes a strong family-Honey.
Caring for a family with an old uterus is warming the hive, and in the production of frames with artificial honeycombs. Under favorable conditions, the family itself self-sufficient in food for the winter.
The plan for growth is performed by dividing the autumn of strong families.
To increase the yield of wax and combs tons detuning. Getmanov detuning extensive use frames with artificial honeycombs.
New family tonnes. Getmanov forms from the best, most productive families. In them he brings queens and drones. For tribal families Alexei Petrovich special care, creating better conditions.
In 1948, in Stavropol nursery were bought 12 ewes, which are derived from the daughter and granddaughter. The resulting offspring has good performance.
Especially valuable are four tribal families in 1950-51 went into hibernation in ten streets with reserves of 30-35 kg of honey per family.
Conclusion queens produced in the apiary in nature when a bribe. From the best of productive families beekeeper takes away the queens, all open brood and bees, of which organizes the cores, emerging later in the slips. Nest-family educator, he cuts, well insulated from the sides and top, and three to four times feeds thick sugar or honey syrup, about a liter each feeding. Larvae for output queens he takes one day of age, moves into bowls and put wedges of 28-30 pieces in the middle of the nest nurse colonies. Within two to three days to feed the family.
On the day after the administration of all the larvae of sealed queen cells are selected, but one from which the family takes the uterus itself, and selected queen cells are placed in cuttings and cores. As a rule, two years older mares AP Getmanov not hold annually replace 50-80% of them.
Preparing families to bribe the chief Alexei Petrovich begins with the exhibition of bees and all the attention was paid to build them, so to the top of the main honey crop in the apiary are no weak families. In this case, great help to have uterine-assistant, which the apiary is always a 15- 17% of the total number of bee colonies.
Autumn t. Getmanov distributes fodder reserves of 20-25 kg per family of bees and 6 kg spare Natco. In addition, each family he leaves one or two medopergovyh frames, depending on the strength of the family.
In winter, families are in the power alleys, and the replacement of the uterus — 2-5 streets.
Spare uterus preserved winter side main families.
As a result, honest and skillful work Getmanova apiary beekeeper brings great income farm.
Annual Income apiary in 1950, put 51 000 rubles, which is more than 12% of cash income of the collective farm, not counting the increase in income from increased crop pollinated by bees.
Consumption of workdays in the apiary expressed in 0.07% of workdays spent on all the work on the farm.
These figures clearly show the importance the beekeeping industry.
Leaders of the collective farm in the face of his unchallenged for the past 10 years the chairman — Communist ND Svistunova — always has beekeeper AP Getmanova assistance and support, which greatly ensures the success of the apiary.
MV Chasovnakov tons. Yessentuki, Stavropol Territory
BEST beekeepers Tatars
(Experience of the beekeeper IK Matveev)
A major shortcoming in the collective beekeeping Tatarstan so far has been the presence of a significant number of small apiaries. Now, with the enlargement of collective farms, this disadvantage is eliminated. Create favorable conditions for the organization of large apiaries, to the cultural growth of beekeeping. For example, in
Tatar ASSR to consolidation in the farm «Sala» has 22 bee families on the farm Gorky-23, named Vahitova- 10. Such dwarf apiary gave little income and were not cost-effective.
In 1951, the farm Gorky only one marketable honey got 114.76 p.
The enlargement of apiaries, as well as the systematic introduction of beekeeping science and best practices to create all possible to make full use of this industry sector.
Prior to enlargement of collective small apiary not respond to the increasing demands of agriculture and did not provide the pollination of crops. Organization of the correct placement of apiaries and bee colonies on the farm Gorky after enlargement made it possible in 1951 to cover 75 hectares of entomophilous pollination of cultures.
Foremost bee deeply studied the characteristics of honey collection in their area, and achieve high collection of honey and wax. They are perfectly mastered the techniques and technology of beekeeping, precisely comply with all mandatory rules for the care of the bees, so became masters of their bodies.
Such beekeepers and K. Matveev, who spearhead the beekeeping in the Tatar Republic. On an apiary farm named after M. Gorky, he keeps only the strong family in the hive warm with abundant feed supplies. Annually content uses twin-bee colonies and voskostroitelnye frame. From the day the organization is apiary breeding work, selecting the best queens and getting them better offspring.
In 1950, with the consolidation of the collective farm, that is. Matveev was nominated for The management of six apiaries, but one of them, it works just beekeeper.
The poor on the honey harvest in 1950, with an average regional collection of honey from one bee family to 14 kilograms and 470 grams of wax t. Matveev made produce marketable honey on average in farm 1 bee colony at 23.6 kg, increasing the number of bee colonies in farm 27.5%. » At the same apiary, where he worked directly with the beekeeper, it was obtained 26.6 kg of honey and 1 250 g of wax from each family.
In 1951, according to preliminary data enlarged farm named after M. Gorky, all apiaries, who led tonnes. Matveev, received an average of 1 honey bee colony 67"kg, and in the apiary, where he works himself tonnes. Matveev, 60 zimovalyh bee colonies received 90 kg of honey and wax 2000. By the end of the season ie. Matveev increased to 96 apiary bee colonies, or 60%.
By way of socialist competition he pledged in 1951 to receive 70 kg of honey and wax 1,500 g on average one bee family. His socialist commitment tons. Matveev exceeded.
Taking the 1950 student t. Kashin, he soon gave him his experience, and in the current year t. Kashin, independent work in the apiary, it increased from 55 to 76 bee colonies. In 1951, according to preliminary data, this apiary received an average of 89 kg of honey and 1,500 g of wax to each bee colony.
In winter 1950 comrade. Matveev, together with t. Kashin produced 100 hives, which made it possible to exceed the growth plan of bee colonies and to increase the collection of honey and wax.
The conscientious work put forward fellow Matveeva and Kashin in the first ranks of beekeepers Tatar Republic.
FOR YOUNG collective-farm apiaries
Inspection of bee colonies before assembly nests for the winter.
The collective farm Moldino", Brusovsnogo district, Kalinin region, thanks to the skillful care of bees beekeeper AI Vinogradgeoy achieves good preservation of bee colonies in winter.
IMPROVING LOCAL BREED BEES
Along with the average and good bee families, there are also those whose productivity is two to three times higher. And since some families show high productivity, it is through the annual selection, in close connection with the directed education and good care can improve the productivity of bee colonies in the apiaries.
On the regional breeding apiary farm «Kyzyl-Yulduz» Menzelin-sky area manager. apiary tons. Akhmetov has systematically engaged in breeding work. In 1948, when srednepasechnom honey harvest in 50 kg individual families were given for 90-87 kg of honey; In 1949, 7 families were given honey from 74 to 116 kg and have built up from 18 to 30 frames of comb-foundation, and in 1950 when srednepasechnom honey harvest in 33 kg individual families have gathered from 40 to 55 kg of honey.
In apiary kolkhoz Voroshilov Mamadyshekogo district manager. apiary SD wedge in 1949 was 37 kg gross honey; individual families gathered to 45 kg, and in 1950 the same best family gathered more honey with an average gross output in
Of particular interest are the data on the collective farm liqueurs «Electro», Sarma-ray area where the apiary manages known in the republic Intermediate Mirgasimov. In 1948, the average productivity of family-Pasechnaya this apiary soybeans and i drank and 55 kg of honey, and one family-rekordistka (№ 16) da la 100 kg of honey.
In 1949, the productivity of households increased to 82 kg. Family number 16 collected 116 kg, and the family-daughter — 100 kg. Besides these, another 7 families collected from 60 to 100 kg. In the same year on high-families it was derived 49 queens-daughters, who in 1950 collected 80 kg of honey in the mid-bee productivity 58 kg.
The resulting t. Mirgasimovym honey harvest is the best in the country and was only achieved as a result of systematic mass selection and good care of the bee families.
Head. apiary farm «Stalinets»
Laishevsky district, M. F. Romanov engaged in breeding work with
1948 at his apiary in 1949 at mid-bee productivity
46 kg of the top ten families have gathered from 50 to 60 kg of honey. They are obtained 25 queens-dochoroy whose families gathered in 1950 from 30 to 40 kg of honey.
Such examples, which, along with the average families in the apiary are family, giving higher productivity could be cited. Identified on the collective apiaries highly family are very valuable breeding material to be used, not only on this apiary, but also within the country to improve the local breed of bees on the collective apiaries.
To this end, in 1949 an experimental station of beekeeping in conjunction with the Republican Bureau decided to set up a breeding apiary of the best local queens identified for a number of years on the collective apiaries. This was the beginning of work on the qualitative improvement of the local bee.
In the same year it received the experimental station of the 12 districts of the republic 15 families, is highly productive. In June 1950 it was obtained by three families. Families enrolled in the experimental station in the six-frame conveyance boxes.
Our task — to identify and select from among the best families on the main economic useful traits.
Work began in the winter of 1949- 1950 g. family went into winter quarters by an average of 8 under the benign feed stocks.
The results showed that better than any other family wintered number 88, 37, 51, 44, 40. They came out of hibernation strong brood was at under three; Honey, these families eat less of other families; dampness and diarrhea was not. Throughout the summer season, we took into account egg laying queens, measuring a printed brood frame-mesh.
In addition, during the bribe we spent observing the power of flight of bees, working hours and the ability of bees to fly in cloudy weather. All these observations, we conducted separately for each family.
Bribes with linden began July 4 and was of short duration due to cold and rainy weather. July 10 flowered buckwheat separate sections, located near the apiary. Blooming it lasted until August 15, but frequent rains hampered the fly normal bees Despite the unfavorable conditions of honey collection, some families are well developed and collected a lot of honey.
At the end of the season, after the results of the best number 37 proved to be the family received from the farm «Stalinets» Laishevsky area. Family wintered well; thanks to good egg production of the uterus, it has developed rapidly in the spring; propensity to swarm did not show; Bees are flying for a bribe in cloudy weather and even on days with little rainfall. Bees worked from 5 am to 8 pm. Despite the unfavorable conditions, the family collected 45 kg of honey in the mid-bee honey harvest in 26 kg.
Mark and family number 40, 51 of the collective farm «New Life», Takanyshskogo area, «Armored» Kama-Ustinsky area, «Workers’ Buhinskogo area.
Families received in 1950, number 65 of the family farm «Electro», Sarmanovsky district collected 30 kg of honey. Bees of the family, even at a temperature of + 10-14 °, strong winds and high clouds are actively flying in the field. The family came to the apiary Experimental Station 8 June 1950 r .; bees quickly accustomed to the new location, and the uterus in the day start to lay eggs.
As a result of tests for families with queens-rekordistkami received a collective farm apiaries, we have selected five families has the most high productivity, winter hardiness and high egg production of queens, energetic lёtom and other features. The rest of the family did not show good results.
From selected five families in 1951, we have received more than 70 mares, daughters and spread them as breeding material on apiaries country.
Work on the identification, inspection and reproduction of the best families continues.
This work, carried out in cooperation with beekeepers collective apiaries, — one of the ways to improve the quality and capacity of the local breed bees and beekeepers and beekeeping agronomists should take active part in it.
SIGNS insemination of queen bees
Researcher at the Institute of beekeeping form two copulatory pocket. Top unpaired oviduct is a seminal receptacle, excretory duct which opens at the border of the unpaired oviduct and vagina.
The workers have two testicles, turning into vas efferens. The back of the vas deferens extended
When the conventional method of producing fetal ewes fetal uterus believe, when she starts to lay fertile eggs, which is possible if the content of it in a sufficiently strong family, ensuring the development of the reproductive system cancer.
When the content of the uterus in the micron-kleuse it can not start laying eggs, since the service ten -pyatnadtsatyu bees enough, and the development of her reproductive system is delayed.
Therefore, when the content mikronukleusnom queens became necessary to search for other signs that determine the fertility of the uterus.
The structure of the genitals and uterus drone
The reproductive system of the uterus consists of two ovaries, two oviducts paired, unpaired oviduct and vagina. The side walls of the vagina and forms a so-called seed bubble, which serves as a storage of sperm mature drone.
Seed bubbles are connected to the base paired accessory glands. From the latter departs ejaculatory duct, which goes into the bulb.
A characteristic feature is the presence of bulbs of two pairs of dark brown chitin plates.
The rest of the genital apparatus drone lying between Lou kovitsey and genital opening, called copulatory sleeve. This part is arranged very difficult; She has a number of protrusions and areas covered by different grouped hairs. At the bottom of the sleeves, a pair of copulatory side (copulatory) horns.
When paired copulatory drone sleeve is pushed out of the abdomen, pulling for a bulb. At full eversion of the penis bulb, located at the end of it, it is filled with sperm and Mukusev (secret accessory glands.
In the literature, the most common presentation following the pairing uterus drone: queen mates in the air; mating protruding part of the body of the drone in the genital tract of the uterus so that the side horns penetrate; copulatory pockets in the uterus, providing a strong connection of both individuals. Drone thus dies. Uterus with him falling to the ground, and then released him, bit the sex organ, and returns to the hive with the remainder of the penis drone — train.
Until now believed that the departure to the marriage game queen mates with a drone.
Observations departure queens and drones carried out in the apiary number 14 Kabardinsky gospchelopitomnika in 1949-1950., Indicated that the flight of drones begins at 14 o’clock and lasts until 17-17 hours and 30 minutes. At the beginning and end of the period and the uterus drones flying low, and can be seen as a handful of drones pursue queens.
Often a small handful joined more and more number of drones, a handful grows in front of up to several hundred individuals. Finally, scattering, it falls to the ground. Going to the crash site it is possible to see the object of persecution on the grass around which continues to curl excited drones. Such an object may be the queen with a train, a uterus, and sometimes the worker bee. For some time the queen is sitting on the grass, and then takes off.
During these observations were found two drone (one handful at the crash site), to mate with queens.
In both cases, the drones were near and uterus with trains.
The process of liberation from the drone of the uterus occurs, apparently, so fast that it is difficult to imagine that the uterus bit off sexual organ drone.
When working with the micronucleus, and earlier with the nucleus in the normal frame, we need to open a large number of queens who have returned with a train. All of them were filled to overflowing with sperm paired oviducts. Mukusev in the oviducts were not. It was established in sections through the paired oviducts recently paired uterus.
When comparing the amount of sperm in the fallopian tubes of the pair of queens with a volume of sperm in the genital Turned drone strikes sharp discrepancy between them. The paired oviducts sperm many times greater than in the body of the drone. Seed bubbles drone too much inferior in volume filled with sperm paired oviducts uterus.
On this basis, it is safe to assume that the uterus is not paired with a single drone.
Two drone, covering queens and found during observations lёtom them unexpectedly confirmed this opinion. They were completely torn up the sexual organ, all parts of which have survived, with the exception of onions, usually located at the end of it and forming a plume covered drone uterus.
But at the base of the penis was attached thereto trail from which drone released to mate with him uterus.
Thus, during the mating flight the queen mates with several drones (four, five). At each subsequent to the transfer of its bulbs womb with sperm, frees her from the trail left by a drone predecessor.
The uterus of the mating flight, continued for 15-20 minutes, until completely filling mates sperm paired oviducts — and comes back with a train last paired with her drone.
The release of the uterus from the loop
Returning after marriage departure uterus within minutes" (3-5) is released from the loop. At the same time it produces motion belly: raises and lowers it, turns in one direction and then the other, trying to catch the train of the rear leg, and so on. D. More often the uterus drags the tip of the abdomen of a cell, clinging to them over the edge of the cell, and thus «picks out» trail.
In rare cases, they come to the aid of bees, trying to grab a trail jaws. But they almost immediately release him and no longer pursue the uterus. The release of loop participates and stinging apparatus, which, advancing from the abdomen, promotes the expulsion of the loop.
Following the train or together with the queen freed from the remnants of musk. The remains of these protruding from the end of the abdomen, look like tails.
After the clots musk uterus begins to get rid of excess sperm, filling the paired oviducts and leaving out, too, in the form of a ponytail. This process lasts for 18 to 24 hours and more.
When you exit the sperm out of the sperm penetrates the seed receiver.
Approximately only 20% of the sperm, falling into the oviducts mating, enters the seminal receptacle, from which to clear the contents of the seminal receptacle accepts a marble look, since sperm are collected clots and layers. This can be seen if you remove the tracheal membrane spermatheca.
However, there are uterus, partially inseminated, then their seminal receptacle is different. The content of it can be slightly turbid or take the form of highly dilute milk with water, or the contents can be scheduled as described above the marble look but layering weakly expressed.
Not always the uterus for a full insemination is limited to one flight to the marriage game. The percentage of ewes committing one flight, decreases in spring and autumn, when the uterus bring in one day 3-4 or loop when the first mating flight for two to three consecutive days with a train back several times
The reasons for this phenomenon is not yet established. Apparently, it is associated with partial uterine insemination.
Uterine insemination may live long in the micronucleus without starting oviposition. Ovary in these queens barely functioning, so they are easy to carry postage over long distances.
If the uterus insemination plant in the family, then in the third or fourth day after the release of her cell, she begins to lay eggs, a rare delayed egg on the uterine days.
Symptoms of uterine insemination
From the data on the pairing of the uterus and the drone can install the following features uterine insemination: presence loop and tails (musk and spermennyh residues). Flex is determined by the above-described chitinous plates. Its color white (if a fresh trail) or yellowish, and the trail of transparent (if it is dry, Fig. 7-A, B, C).
If the release of the uterus from the trail he even blurred uncured musk trail glued to the wall, or bottom edge of the cell. In case of delay in the release of the trail it leaves have dried up with musk and falls to the bottom of the cell. In the cell, he is free and can be transferred to another location bees micronucleus and even taken out of it, if the uterus sooner returned with Music player.
Musk tails slightly yellowish and have an irregular shape. They come out dry, freely lie on the bottom of the cell, and the bees can carry them from place to place and throw (Scale
Figure 7. Signs of ewes inseminated A — loop (top view); B — the same (side view); B — the same (bottom view); D, E, L, Z. spermennye tails; 3-musky tail.
Spermatozoal (or spermennye) tails have varying shape and thickness, but depending on the thickness and of varying intensity brown (thick — a dark, thin — lighter. They can be thick and short, thick and long, and finally, the long and thin .
Long tails are much more likely to short. The number of tails of a uterus may be up to 14 or more pieces.
For these tails, regardless of their thickness, the characteristic transverse striations explains alternating thicker and less fat tail sections.
After the release of the loop for a while at the uterus may remain open past half-ring of the abdomen. It occurs quite often and can also be a sign of insemination, even if the plume tails and were not found. It is much less common in flies mating uterus remains a trace in the form of stained sperm or musk abdomen, wings and occasionally chest.
This feature can also be used to determine inseminated queens.
Determination inseminated queens
When collecting microcores after the flight of drones before closing notches plug, make sure that there are no loop on the stand, prilёtnoy plank, cover or micronucleus Lethke, as well as whether there is in the micronucleus uterus. If the inspection turns out to be the queen nucleus with a loop, tail, has disclosed half-rings or blurred abdomen, then on the side wall next to the date micronucleus examination necessary to make the appropriate entry on the detection of signs of uterine insemination.
A more detailed examination of micronuclei made the following morning so as to finish the work in time for the next exhibition. This is due to the fact that the uterus after returning from the wedding Music player needs some time to get rid of musk and sepermatozoidtsyh tails.
Location selected for inspection at the window, to make it light.
When viewed micronucleus primarily pay attention to the uterus, which may have zoospermatic or musky tail. In the latter case the uterus often have much parted half rings.
Then the exposed surface inspection sotika walls micronuclei and after that the bottoms and walls of the cells.
The last visiting stern compartment. If any sign of insemination was found, then put on the wall micronucleus date of inspection and the negative symbol in a circle.
If the plume was discovered, put the letters «SL»; detection tails say how many tails found it thick or thin; if the uterus half rings apart, preceded by the letters «RCC» and so on. d.
Train and all the tails found on â micronucleus or removed with tweezers, a needle, and so on. D. During the inspection and correct all defects: add feed bees.
Since a large number of bees prevents inspection in cores should not be more than 15-20 bees.
It makes no sense to expose the uterus more than 7-8 times; the percentage of insemination of queens, neoplodotvorivshihsya 7-8 in the first exhibitions in future, shows small — 2-3. Therefore uterus unfertilized after 7-8 exhibitions, it is rejected.
The uterus is considered to be fetal if after the discovery of the last vestiges of insemination in the next two shows she no new signs had.
The errors in the insemination of queens
When inattentive inspection and failure to comply with the basic rules of working with micronuclei are often errors in the insemination of queens.
The uterus after mating can be freed from the loop outside the nucleus; sometimes the bees will have time to throw the train of the uterus after mating flight personnel in the first half of the day. In this case, the main feature of the uterine insemination remain tails. However, during the inspection they can not help but notice and during regular exhibition bee their emissions. Thus, all traces of the uterine insemination will be lost, and it can then be properly culled how barren.
Signs insemination easy to miss if sotik, loosely adhering to the wall of the micronucleus, has openings through which the bees can get under the honeycombs.
In this regard, the percentage of fetal ewes among culled due to careless work of the beekeeper, can reach up to 30.
In the definition of the plume is difficult to make a mistake, because it is characterized by dark brown chitin plate. But it may be overlooked or taken for a ball of wax, if it lies down plates.
Sometimes, though rarely, that the bees chew chitin plate loop, and then from it remains slightly translucent yellow ball, which is easily mistaken for a piece of wax.
Sometimes the tail take thin slices of wax or splinter. To avoid this error, you can set the number of times the touch spermatozoal tails and musk, stretching and roaring their thumb and forefinger. Musk tails are very fragile and crumble into small pieces; spermatozoal thick tails broken into several large pieces without changing its appearance; thin tails roll; wood pieces do not change their shape, and wax particles are crushed.
Sometimes the uterus can not get rid of the loop during the day and more. In this case it is possible to remove the plume of tweezers. After surgery, the uterus can normally lay eggs.
Musk plug jammed under the tip, can also be removed.
Long disclosure last half rings of the abdomen is adverse events. Typically, half rings remain open for a short time, and then take the same form. In this case, this feature does not entail adverse effects. But if the uterus remains open with half rings for 5-6 days, it is undesirable because the uterus can not get rid of the sperm in the fallopian tubes, and, freed from her sometimes begin egg laying. Such uterus discarded.
We should not think that fully inseminated sows can be only those that have all the basic features of insemination: plume mukusnye spermatozoal and tails.
The uterus, which had a single sign, and even just blurred or abdomen parted half rings, with a high probability can be considered insemination, but provided a two-day test after the discovery of the last vestiges of the departure of the uterus to the marriage Music player. It has been tested by us and the opening of many hundreds of queens and queens by checking on laying
The task of the pilot plant include research work on beekeeping in relation to the conditions of the various geographical areas of the Far East.
In recent years, experimental station decided the following issues that have practical value for beekeeping.
1. In view of the great importance for the Amur and Primorye linden designed farming practices that increase the nectar of honey plants on the ground
200-250%, and create a permanent medosbor with her nothing for three or four years in a row.
2. The method of research to determine the nature of the upcoming flowering linden and its nektarovydeleniya for days before the main honey crop.
3. Actions have been developed for using honey plants, sown for bees to fill without periods before the main honey yield with limes and after
4. introduce into the collective production of the best methods of beekeeping and care for them as well throughout the year.
5. examine and summarize the experience of the foremost of the Far East in order to promote and implement it on a collective farm apiaries.
Production Agriculture Experiment Station in productivity beekeeping is one of the first places among the collective and state farms. Primorsky Krai.
This is confirmed by the following average figures for the past year at: medosbor participated in 757 Station bee colonies; Gross yield of honey per family amounted to 104.4 kg and wax 930
Transportation of bees to honey collection is systematically carried out at a distance of 250-300 km.
Net income from beekeeping on the farm experiment station for 1949, I 1950. It amounted to 1745 thousand. rubles. This should serve to further strengthen the management and expansion of scientific work station.
BEE and harvest cucurbits
Cucumbers, melons, watermelons, pumpkins and other cucurbits are very common in the Soviet Union.
At pumpkin flowers heterosexual requiring mandatory participation in pollination and fertilization ovaries pollinating insects without which the formation of fruits and seeds can not be.
With sufficient pollination of flowers increases the yield of these crops, the fruits are more large, regular shape.
On the contrary, in the absence of (or failure) pollination of fruit, although sometimes formed, but there are small, irregular, ugly and do not contain seeds.
The highest value in pollinating pumpkin are honeybees.
Our observations in the Kiev region (station Boyarka, technical beekeeping) and Firovsky District, Kalinin region (Art. Batalina, kolkhoz «Red October», the village Christmas raysemhoz «Forward», «Red Skokova» and others.), During the period 1936 -1949 years., found that honey bees among the total number of insects — pollinators pumpkin occupy from 84.8 to 96.2%.
At the same groups of plants grown cucumbers, testes, which was obtained with the following number of cucumber seeds.
With plants, flowers pollinated by bees are sufficient, viable seeds were obtained account and weighing more than two times higher than those plants that are pollinated by other insects (without bees) or artificially.
Flowers cucumbers isolated from visiting insects paper, parchment or gauze bag, did not form a fruit or ovaries they will soon fall.
The same phenomenon has been observed and pumpkins.
NEW DATA ON dracocephalum moldavica
Candidate of Biological Sciences
Agrobiological station of the Moscow University
Zmeegolovnika Moldovan (Draco -cephalum moldavicum) belongs to the family Labiatae and is known as "annual essential oil and honey plant. It is also called: liquor, lemon balm Turkish, and drakonogolovnik Sinyavka. It has a four-sided branching stem and, depending on soil and climatic conditions, it reaches a height of 15 to 95 cm. The leaves are opposite, oblong-lanceolate, margins coarsely serrated (upper) or incised-crenate (bottom). The flowers are collected in a strongly shortened semiumbels, apparent whorls, and are arranged in tiers on the upper part of the stem and branches. Flowering is from the bottom up on the inflorescences. Flowering occurs in July, August and later. Corolla two-lipped blue-violet, rarely white. Corolla length of 20-32 mm. Calyx almost twice shorter. Stamens four are located under the upper lip of the corolla, and two of them are long, some outstanding beyond the upper lip and two short. Ovary is four-lobed. The bar is adjacent to the upper lip. Stigma is located above a pair of long stamens. Nectary surrounds the ovary and on the side adjacent to the lower side of the corolla lobe is. The greatest amount of nectar is released during the uncovering of the anther to the stigma lobes full deployment.
The upper part of the corolla is strongly dis-shirena and allows insects in search of nectar penetrate deep into the flower. Honeybees immersed in an extended part of the corolla nearly half, hurting his back and wings anthers and stigma. Under favorable weather conditions, abundant nectar is released and acts of the extended halo of light brilliant drop.
In addition to the usual form of the Moldovan zmeegolovnika with blue-violet flowers and quadrangular stem there are other forms. So, botany Vakulina (1939) among a large number of samples from different places of the two appeared white-flowering (from Zhitomir and Gorky). In the process, he discovered, among conventional and among the rare white-flowering forms, plants Allen stems and leaves arranged oppositely not 2, and 3.
In determining the total yield of essential oil from different samples zmeegolovnika in the botanical garden of Odessa State University was found that (as a percentage of the bone dry weight) of the plant stem with hexagon each specimen contains more essential oils than plants with square stems from the same sample. The highest yield of essential oil (0.627%) was found in the white-flowering plants with hexagonal stem. Hexagonal shape of the stem met only among samples from the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia and Belarus, with an increase in the number of plants with hexagonal stem from west to east. In the northern specimens of such variations were not.
In the wild according to Stankov, Taliev and Glukhov zmeegolovnika Moldovan found in Bialystok, Minsk, Mogilev, Volyn, Mykolaiv, Moldavian, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Tambov, Saratov regions, Crimea, Altai and Eastern Siberia.
For cultivation zmeegolovnika as aromatic plants recommended areas: Ukrainian SSR, the Central Black Earth Region, Middle Volga, the North Caucasus, the Crimea.
However, studies conducted in the Leningrad region, shows that, although essential-oil plants and are considered typical for the dry and hot climate, many of them, including zmeegolovnika Moldovan, can successfully move to the north.
Zmeegolovnika unpretentious and, as experience shows, growing almost any soil. But it is better for him are dense loamy or sandy black soil with a significant amount of humus. Light or sandy podzolic soils are less suitable for him. Podzolic soils are unfavorable for zmeegolovnika because they swim fast, condensed and form a crust after the rain. Zmeegolovnika good at low moist but not waterlogged ground. In culture, it requires a thorough weeding and loosening of row spacing.
Essential oil zmeegolovnika very close to melissovomu smell and can be used successfully as a substitute for the latter, especially since the yield of oil from zmeegolovnika higher than that of lemon balm, and plant it can move much further north balm.
As honey plants zmeegolovnika Moldovan studied AK-Ostashenko Kudryavtseva (1937). The observations were made near the town of Yessentuki on clay before the Caucasus chernozem with lime content. Nectar from flowers was selected in the stage when the anthers and stigma already otpylili was ready for pollination. In experiments Ostashenko-Kudryavtseva plants not only met the usual blue-violet colored corolla and white. When comparing them with each other it turned out that the nectar-efficiency white-flowering zmeegolovnika was higher.
The data show that despite the lower concentration of sugar in the nectar of the flowers with white corolla, it is still in the end was more than 4.5 kg per 1 ha than in the flowers blue-purple corolla.
In 1947, the nursery honey plants zoological station in Ostankino Moscow University (Moscow), organized to explore the selectivity of bees and other insect pollinators in respect of fodder plants, among ordinary plants zmeegolovnika Moldavian blue-purple corolla were found two plants with white corolla. Taking into account the data of the higher nectar white-flowering form, it was decided to reproduce the seeds of these plants.
In 1948 and 1949. white-flowering seeds sown zmeegolovnika separately and falls among these plants with blue-violet flowers carefully weed.
In 1950, on agro-biological station of Moscow State University in Chashnikove (Khimki district, Moscow region) was conducted the first comparison of the two samples on the number of allocated zmeegolovnika nectaries sugar.
Since podzolic soil on which lays the nursery is considered the least suitable for zmeegolovnika, you would expect a large percentage lunge plants, seeding rate was increased to the recommended (5 kg) to 20 kg per 1 hectare. On plots of 25 square meters. meters were planted 50 grams of seeds of each sample. Ras distance between rows across the width of a narrow long strip (1 X 25 m), equal to 40 cm. On each plot was obtained by 63 rows. By the beginning of flowering in each row was an average of 26 plants.
Relief long narrow plot was uneven, slightly wavy, and plants on the lower parts of the developed plots are small, little branches and formed a significantly smaller number of flowers than the rest.
Since the plants were divided into 2 groups with no gradual transitions, the samples to compare both forms zmeegolovnika were taken and processed separately from the small and large plants, and further calculation of production per unit area also separately.
On the plot zmeegolovnika a blue-violet colored corolla of 63 rows of 30 turned out to be large plants and 33 small, and plot reproduced white-flowering zmeegolovnika 48 rows are large plants and 15 smaller ones.
Nectar chosen from isolated from insect flowers access filter paper was cut into strips 20 mm long and about 1 mm wide. If large quantities of nectar in the flower had to invest a few strips of filter paper, one by one, until the latter turned out to dry. Dried samples were kept until analysis nectar in weighing bottles and tubes.
Apart from isolated samples of nectar plants were taken and flowers to dry the sample in its entirety.
In further processing of the material of the filter papers with the nectar from the flowers and an aqueous extract, which after the deposition of proteins and conversion of complex sugars into simple enters the analysis. Total for analysis of sugars was taken 35 samples of 860 flowers.
Also considered nectar seed production plants (25 plants in the sample).
Comparative characteristics of both forms zmeegolovnika shown in Table 2.
When comparing equivalent groups of plants (large and small to large to small) it was found that the sugar in the nectar of the flowers with large plants by an average of 1 a reproduced flower white-flowering form zmeegolovnika were almost five times more than in the same flower plants with blue- purple rim.
In the analysis of whole flowers zmeegolovnika sugar by an average of one flower naturally get more than the analysis of selected from flower nectar, so in this case, the sugar found in nectar, add more sugar contained in the tissues of the flower. But in this case, the amount of sugar (plus fabric flower nectar) zmeegolovnika in flowers with white corolla more than the flowers with a blue-purple corolla, although differences «between them and less due to the different amount of sugar in the tissues of the flower. Overall zmeegolovnika flower with blue-purple corolla with large plants turned out an average 0.5786 mg sugar and whisk with a white flower — 0.7140 mg. Subtracting this amount of sugar contained in the nectar, we find that in the tissues of the flower with a blue-purple corolla was 0.4546 mg, and in the tissues of the flower with white corolla 0.1113 mg of sugar.
Obviously, in the white flowers transition sugar fabric nectar occurring faster than the blue-violet.
When comparing the small plants among themselves the average amount of sugar in the nectar of a single flower was higher among blue-flowering zmeegolovnika than the white-flowering, although the terms of the data per unit area in both cases saharoproduktivnost negligible because of the small number of flowers produced in small plants.
The big difference in the amount of sugar and seeds from large and small plants and the difference in the value of these plants shows how responsive zmeegolovnika on soil quality. You can be sure that with a small root system at a depth of 15-20 cm in our conditions, it is very responsive and fertilizer.
As a result of this work the following conclusions.
1. When comparing the 1950 Moldovan zmeegolovnika two forms — the usual blue-flowering and a rare white-flowering, reproduced from the two original plants, found in 1947, it was found that the average amount of sugar in the nectar of a single flower with a white corolla was almost five (4.86) times greater than one flower with a blue-violet corolla.
2. One plant white-flowering zmeegolovnika was an average of 109 flowers more than one blue-flowering plants.
3. Need further reproduction of white-flowering form zmeegolovnika and test it on pripasechnyh areas on the farm.
4. zmeegolovnika can be used as a substitute for lemon balm in areas where the culture it is not possible, and as a source of bribes autumn, as it blooms and highlights the nectar in August and even September.
Two years of experience AGAINST foulbrood
The successful development of beekeeping in some areas of the Georgian SSR greatly hinder gniltsovye bee brood diseases.
To fight foulbrood us was given the task — to carry out recreational activities as a broad experience in one of the most dysfunctional of foulbrood — Kaspi district.
According to the plan drawn up by our collective farms and village councils throughout the district letters were sent on mandatory on all apiaries gniltsovyh measures against foulbrood and preparation for that all the necessary materials.
Along with the 11 to 15 April 1949 in the village of Tsiteli Kalaka, Kaspi district, short-term courses were organized seminars for local beekeepers to familiarize them with the methods of struggle with rotten.
From 13 to 25 May of the same year were examined collective and individual apiaries area, and found that of the 22 existing in the area of collective apiaries hit American and European foulbrood 7 — 9, and total 16 apiaries. Of the total of 320 bee colonies in these apiaries hurt foulbrood 115 families.
Approximately the same pattern was observed on individual apiaries.
Recreational activities started with the organization of the insulator, which was built on the territory of the kolkhoz apiary Tsinarehi village, located in the foothill area near forests and distant from neighboring villages 4-5 km. This area abounds in different honey plant, and is characterized by a long period of bribe.
As a collective farm and apiary of all individual villages were struck by foulbrood.
The head of the insulator was appointed an experienced beekeeper apiary village Tsinarehi; guarded detention center guard the same apiary, that collective-invoiced work days according to the established norms.
The insulator of the neighboring villages were transferred to the affected foulbrood bee family as a collective, and with some individual apiaries. There were collected 66 families.
Brought sick family collocate on the territory of the insulator at appropriate intervals, and recreational activities were carried out for each sector separately.
Not all owners of individual apiaries these villages provide transportation of patients foulbrood families in detention centers; 17 apiaries events were held at the site. The same procedure underwent rehabilitation at two farms 37 patients foulbrood bee colonies.
As a result, for the 1949 season recreational activities covered 120 bee families, 66 of them in solitary confinement, and 54 — on the spot.
Families in the prison were divided into three groups. The first group included 44 families, in which it was noted a severe defeat foulbrood, t. E. In the cells, there were a large number of dead, decayed and dried in brown larvae.
The second group included 12 families in the cells of which a small amount of recently dead had not yet greatly decayed and dried in brown larvae.
The third group consisted of 10 families, the so-called conditionally healthy, in which signs of foulbrood were found.
Each group was divided in turn into two subgroups.
Prior to recreational activities has been prepared inventory, disinfected old hives, frames, procured new nadramochnye sackcloth tires hives and frames were first cleaned of wax, propolis, dirt, and then burned the flame of a blowtorch so browning wood. Frames with some collective farms after mechanical treatment were digested
• In a large pot, and then Drain burned with a blowtorch.
The first subgroup of the first group in an amount of 40 families 7-8 and 9 June
1949 was subjected to the stretch of the two-day starvation. Driving is made on an entire sheet of artificial honeycombs. During the driving of a new nest after fasting bees give a sugar syrup with norsulfazol-solution (1 part sugar to 1 part of water + 0.5 g norsulfazol sodium per liter of syrup).
Thereafter, every 6 days bee colonies obtained the syrup in an amount of 0.5 to 1 liter, depending on the strength of the family.
The second subgroup of the first group of four families were left without playout and bees given only sugar syrup norsulfazol sodium every 6 days
The first subgroup of the second group of 9 families were also left without ferrying and received sugar syrup with norsulfazol sodium.
Second subgroup of the second group in an amount of three families and not subjected to the stretch of sugar syrup received only without norsulfazol sodium.
Bees first subgroup of the third group of 5 families were asked twice with sugar syrup norsulfazol sodium intervals of 6 days for the prevention and the second subgroup of the same group in an amount of 5 families were left without any interference.
Overtake the first family group for two to three days after ferrying rebuilt, 4-5 frames with artificial honeycombs, and uterus in these families have started to lay eggs. After the appearance of the brood until the conclusion of a new generation provides a systematic observation of the development of the brood during the season. No signs of foul brood was seen.
In the second subgroup of the first group (4 families) who received only medical additional forage for 15 days, signs of recovery were noted. The defeat continued a new brood, bees do not have time to clean up the dead cells of the larvae, which took a thick consistency and dry in the crust. These families after three therapeutic feeding have also been the stretch in the same manner as the first subgroup of the first group. After that, the new nests the new brood, signs foulbrood throughout the season has been found.
In the first subgroup of the second group (9 families) after three therapeutic feeding (without driving of within 15 days — from 7 to 22 June) showed a significant improvement. Five families signs of the disease completely disappeared, and four continued to appear even though the dead larvae, but we found them only in isolated cases. After the fourth therapeutic feeding, t. E. After 22 days, in three families foulbrood signs disappeared, and in the same family were found dead only three recently dead larvae with the characteristics of American foulbrood.
June 16, 1949, during an inspection of the families of the first subgroup of the second group, none of the family signs of the disease were found. The bee colonies had a printed brood already second generation, where no signs of foul brood was not.
Families of the second subgroup of the second group (two of them are affected by the US, and one — the European foulbrood), received only sugar syrup without norsulfazol-sodium, no signs of recovery did not show, therefore, is three times after feeding syrup, they were transferred to the medical dressing norsulfazol- sodium. This drug was given to them three times from five-six-day intervals. By late June, signs of the disease completely disappeared.
Families of the first subgroup, relatively healthy third group received double prophylactic feeding syrup norsulfazol-sodium, no sign of foulbrood has not been established, develop a good family, had a 7-8 brood frames.
Among the families of the second subgroup of the third group left without any interference, the two families were found dead single freshly dead larvae with signs of American foulbrood, though these families are well developed, have 7-8 frames of brood and required extensions. These families were podkormleny medicinal syrup thrice.
The remaining three families throughout the season did not show any signs of foul brood.
When conducting health tests brood cell spans collected after incubation in the hospitals, which were held for a few hives patients foulbrood families.
Health measures have been also affected European foulbrood bee apiaries family collective villages of Kaspi and Rtvali-Chala. All the families of these apiaries affected by foulbrood in strong, and to a lesser degree, got a medical dressing twice, and the rest — for the purpose of prevention. A total of 37 families.
After the inspection in July of bee families in these villages revealed that slightly affected families the condition has improved dramatically — after twice therapeutic feeding further damage brood ceased, family cleansed from dead larvae, and severely affected families, although there was a significant improvement, but not a full cleaning slot.
In the period from 19 to 23 August, we made a final inspection of all families treated in the season
On examination it revealed that the development of most distilled families went poorly, although the first 10-15 days after ferrying in nature there was a significant bribes. But due to the fact that from the first of July bribes greatly reduced, honeycomb construction stopped, the uterus reduced oviposition and family behind in development.
Best condition mentioned in the second group of families who are not subjected to the stretch and received only sulfa medication. However, the family were amazed foulbrood weaker and is more powerful than the first family groups.
No signs of foul brood in the first and in the second group were found. Only the apiary G. Shakula-shvili in two families were found to strong defeated American foulbrood (note that m. Shakulashvili not conducted proper sanitation).
From processed in 1949, 120 families in the winter went 116. Of these, 113 families spend the winter, which from early spring is well developed, the main trick is significantly increased, and were formed new families that required extensions.
Bee families in which
1949 marked a full recovery from the spring were twice podkormleny syrup norsulfazol sodium.
During the season 1950, we examined three times treated the family. No signs of foul brood in any of these families during the inspection were noted.
From overwintered families for 1950 obtained 54 new and 20 cores arranged. All owners of the former gniltsovyh received marketable honey apiaries, all apiaries were provided abundant fodder reserves for the winter — an average of 15-16 kg per household, whereas in previous years the apiary any income not given, often fed by the bees, and the total number of families It is decreasing every year.
During the season 1950, we have been working to improve the health of other affected foulbrood collective apiaries are not covered by the work in 1949
It was used the following types of recreational activities.
1. For severely affected families — Stretches conjunction with treatment norsulfazol sodium in sugar syrup. Total processed nine families.
2. For the average affected families — treatment norsulfazol sodium in sugar syrup without hauls in this way are processed 22 families.
3. For weakly affected family spraying combs 0.05% -Water solution norsulfazol sodium. Processed 7 families.
Processing households in all groups was conducted mostly in May and June.
The first 9 families subjected to the stretch together with sulfa medication, all recovered and no signs of foul brood throughout the season did not show.
From mid foulbrood affected families being treated nor-sulfazol sodium every 6 to 8 days without spans, recovered 19 families, three families were signs foulbrood until late summer; the families left behind in the development and did not give any income, while 19 were given families recovered marketable honey.
Among the 7 families affected to a lesser degree foulbrood and subjected to spraying combs -Water 0.05% solution of sodium norsulfazol through spray every 3-4 days for longer than one month, it noted convalescence, but very slowly, in a same family were signs of foulbrood until the fall.
Our experience in dealing with foulbrood shows that bee colonies, strongly affected by foulbrood is often quite treatable norsulfazol-sodium, in some cases, symptoms of the disease in them like disappear, but if not in the same season, in the following spring foulbrood reappears.
Norsulfazol sodium gives good therapeutic effect in the event that it is used to treat weakly affected families foulbrood. But it should be noted that while some families are cured with difficulty, particularly if American foulbrood. Therefore, during the struggle against the rotten, you must first establish the extent of the affected ™, as well as the type and foulbrood to each affected family to come individually.
It should be noted that the cure for one season only nor-sulfazol sodium family, which are highly decomposed and dried in brown larvae, without removing such a stable source of infection, t. E. Without changing the slot, you can not, because of his infection systematically transferred to a new brood and the illness lasts from year to year. In addition, these families can be a source of infection, so first of all need to eliminate the apiary sites of infection and in parallel need to treat norsulfazol sodium (in the form of dressing medical syrup, cottages drug in the trough, spraying combs aqueous solution, and others.).
1. Use as combating diseases gniltsovymi haul method with simultaneous treatment norsulfazol-sodium, we conducted 49 bee families severely affected by the disease, gave a good effect. All families noted a full recovery.
2. Use only treatment norsulfazol sodium-free spans in highly affected families did not produce a noticeable effect.
3. The use of treatment norsulfazol sodium-free driving of foulbrood on weakly affected families gave good effect, although in some cases, some families have been cured with difficulty.
4. Preventive feeding healthy bee colonies in the affected apiaries foulbrood — appropriate, as in our experiments apparently healthy group of families (5 families) who received prophylactic feeding, no signs of the disease did not show, while among the same group of families left without prophylactic feeding (5 families), have pi showed signs foulbrood.
BEES protect from destruction in chemical processing COTTON
For artificial removal of leaves from cotton (cotton collection machine before) he dusted calcium cyanamide.
Dusting is made for 2 to 3 weeks before the harvest of cotton, t. E. At the time, especially when the bees are working intensively on cotton.
In addition to collecting honey bees produce additional pollination of cotton flowers, promoting selective fertilization and consequently increase yield by 20-25%, and in some cases — up to 70%.
However, bees do not always visit the flowers of cotton; Increasingly, they are also outside the flowering nectaries — leaf and podchashechnymi. But even in this case the role of bees in increasing the yield of cotton is extremely important.
On this basis, the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek SSR in June 1951 issued a decree requiring all organizations with an apiary, take them to the cotton fields.
When placing apiaries in the cotton fields is necessary to consider the risk of death of bees in various chemical processing of cotton.
Measures of protection from destruction of bees in the chemical control of pests of cotton has already been written in the journal «Beekeeping» № 8 of 1951. In this same article is devoted to the issue of prevention of bees for dusting cotton calcium cyanamide.
Calcium cyanamide dark gray, almost black powder with an unpleasant heavy, very strong smell. This drug is unstable and its atomization on cotton leaves decompose quickly, particularly in the formation of dew on the leaves.
The process of decomposition of calcium cyanamide under favorable conditions — the presence of heat, moisture and atmospheric carbon dioxide — occurs within three to four hours, and under unfavorable conditions traces of it can be found on the fourth day after the spraying.
Highlighted in the process of decomposition of cyanamide absorbed by the leaves of cotton, in which they quickly wither and fall off.
Observations show that the bees, getting into the dust wave as dusting, contact with calcium cyanamide on the leaves, or the capture of nectar after dusting, die quickly.
Bees visit the cotton in the early morning, when the leaves can be copious amounts of dew with dissolved cyanamide. Drops of dew get into a poisoned leaf nectaries and nectaries located at the base of boxes.
After 12 hours of dusting of calcium cyanamide plant more than 50% of bees visited the pollination die. After two days had killed about 90%.
The mortality of bees in the cotton dusting of calcium cyanamide
The number of bees in the experiment
228 44 207
The form of the poison
In the first days after contact with bees calcium cyanamide killed more than 65% in two days killed about 90% on the third day as the death of bees reached 100%.
Thus, calcium cyanamide is dangerous to bees at all times — when taking nectar from pollinated plants, with a simple touch and in contact with them in the dust wave, while dusting.
The best way to protect bees from perishing in the processing of cotton calcium cyanamide is the isolation of bees in the hive for three or four days. In the evening, after work of bees, you can discover them overflight notches and leave it open all night for better ventilation of the hive; In the morning, before work, entrance is closed again. In this case, it is necessary to strengthen the hive ventilation, shading from the sun hives and bees give water.
This event eliminates the need for frequent and very cumbersome transport apiary. Four days after treatment fields again bee can work on cotton.
SELECTION honeydew honey from the frames with brood
It is known that not only is not recommended, and even prohibited to pump out the honey from brood frames. Recent circumstances have forced beekeepers in our area in the past year to resort to this method.
From June 15 on the leaves of oak, aspen, maple and other plants appeared Pad animal origin. At first it was a little, but gradually increased the allocation of honeydew and the end of June the daily earnings of forest apiaries reached two to three kilograms. Bees filled the vacated from the brood cell, limiting the oviposition the uterus two or three of the central cells. While collecting honeydew honey bees vigorously rebuilt artificial honeycombs. Destruction began flying bees and weaken families.
Isolation honeydew stopped June 30 after heavy rain. For two weeks the bees have collected an average of 12-18 kg of honey honeydew family.
Honeydew honey had to be removed from the nests as soon as possible, as approaching the main bribery and bees could mix honeydew honey from a flower.
At this time, the family had four or five capped brood frames and two or three open frames. If pumped honeydew honey only from frames without brood, it will be possible to withdraw from the nests are not more than half of stocks of paddy. Replace the frame with honeydew honey spare sushyu was impossible, as seven to nine frames have been busy brood, and free land at this time was not. Then, of two evils choose the lesser had to: have decided to pump honeydew honey from the majority of nesting frames, including frames of eggs, larvae One-two days and capped brood.
The first experiment was conducted on an apiary farm «Victory» (beekeeper Ivan Volkov). Honey pumped to the extractor of the «Farmer» in the bee house. Honeydew honey for viscosity splashes of cells with great difficulty, so I had some time to turn the cassette frames. Eggs in the evacuation of the cells does not take off, one-two days the larvae somewhat shifted to the sides.
First, honeydew honey is pumped out only 10 families. After five days of examination was made of these families: the larvae and eggs developed normally, the death of the printed brood also observed. After that, honeydew honey is pumped out of the remaining 50 families.
In the same way honeydew honey has been selected in other collective apiaries. Honeydew honey is not only pumped from the scope of larvae over a two-day age. This framework was noted and removed during assembly nests for the winter.
Thus it managed to almost completely remove the honeydew honey from the nests and make space for the folding benign flower honey. Death of eggs, larvae and capped brood, as a result of centrifugal force and for pumping cooling extractor was not noticeable.
APPLICATION Kamysheva Matte
Working on the kolkhoz apiary, I for many years to insulate the nest of bees other than cotton pads and paper, even mat of reeds 10 cm thick.
Quilted insulation and the paper are in my nests of bees in early spring and in the fall after the main bribe to wintering bees and reed mat — all year round. In the summer, reed mat protects the nest of bees from overheating sunlight dries the hives in winter.
In setting the bees in winterer I put away insulation on top is folded edge of gingham and leave only the reed mat. In winter reed mat absorbs water vapor secreted by bees, so bees from the exhibition zimovnika mat is completely wet, with the same is dry, free of mold and dampness.
I recommend to all beekeepers to experience reed mats for insulation and for drying the hives in winter.
My experience of foraging bees flour
In the spring, after the flyby of bees are often seen in large numbers in the mills, where they fill their baskets with flour.
Wanting to test the attitude of bees to the stern, one of the springs, when he felt a lack of pollen, I made a plywood trays and poured them different kinds of flour, namely rye seeded, wheat pea, corn, soy low-fat, cotton, low-fat and also of dry yeast and mustard powder. Only 10 species. In the morning I put all the trays in the garden. The bees began to check the trays exposed me, but never detained even soy flour, and took only mustard powder. On the first day bee took 2500 g of dry mustard. Trays for the night, I put away, and the next day put 9 trays of flour in the same place, the same tray with mustard — the opposite side of the garden, about 50 m.
Nine trays set was not a single bee, but the tray with mustard powder was completely covered with bees, and I had to put another 2 trays with mustard. 12 days later blossomed apricots, mustard bees on fewer, and when blossomed cherry, mustard flight of bees to very weak. During these days, the bees took 12-14 mustard powder to 16 kg. The rest of the substitutes remained intact. When viewed from the bees at the beginning of flowering apricot uterus is well laid eggs.
In the spring of 1950, in spite of the availability of pollen, much greater than the spring of 1949, I gave the bees dry mustard powder; Bee took it very willingly From a dressing grown larger brood.
Amateur beekeeper IV Shaban Zhdanov, Stalin Region
On the collection PROPOLIS BEES
In early May of this year, I noticed in the apiary energetic flight of bees to the shopping extension left on the porch. Observations showed that the bees visited the store to collect propolis is in rebate for hanging poluramok.
This work bees to collect propolis proved interesting for the viewer, but the bees it cost a great effort. Bee propolis collected by small grains and movement of legs stacked them in baskets hind legs as pollen.
In the area of 80-100 square meters. cm-bee propolis collectors flocked to 50 pieces at a time.
Solar extractors, set directly on a flat-stand, due to the high friction on the bottom of the stand is rotated with great difficulty. To facilitate the rotation at the bottom of the extractors have to put one ball or balls.
Four small ball bearing or ball evenly distributed on a stand in a circle with a diameter of about 52 cm.
The device for rotating extractors:
A — board-stand with ball bearings
B — depressed ball — and rolikopod-bearings;
B — bottom extractors with an iron circle.
They are pressed into the wood so as to protrude above the surface of the stand-by 3-4 mm. The ends of the ball axles reinforced strips of iron, and beads — iron plates carved in the center of the circles.
To protect the floor from dents extractors have to nail him to the appropriate diameter and width of the metal ring of roofing iron.
Ball bearings and balls much easier rotation extractors and make it smooth.
On an apiary farm «Our Homeland», Gulkevichsky District, Krasnodar Territory, the second year is used mnogoshilny punch, designed and manufactured by this collective farm beekeeper NM Dubinin.
The new design mnogoshilnogo Punch has significant advantages over punch MZ Krasnopeeva and deserves the attention of beekeepers.
Punch a simple device.
The base is made of solid wood with solid rock so that the side panels and frames close tightly adjoined to the projections — props. The lever is made of flat steel of appropriate size.
Iron triangle made of iron vat into which the corresponding side rivet iron bar. The strips are cut and drilled four holes for screwing sewed. Sheila steel, chisel. Lever to the board and the triangles are bolted to the arm lined with washers. To frame in the original position when working on abutments board attached with screws turntables.
To triangles moving in the right direction, one end of the triangle rests in the groove of props.
Piercing bars produced movement of the lever. Reverse
movement of the lever are sewed to the original position
Such a device Punch provides a smooth and easy puncturing strips frame, with one movement of the lever is pierced just eight holes on the two side bars of the frame.
Please practices beekeepers to share your thoughts about this hole punch unit.
For separators frames without nails or if they do not fit the size (thickness and length), I use a thin wire, is used for hanging frames (about 1 mm thick). If the wire is thinner, for example № 26-27, then I curl it twice.
The wire I cut into pieces 65-70 cm long. One end is bent ringlet, the other passed through a separator 12 brusochkov size of 15 X 15 X 100 mm.
I made my way brusochkov ends an awl, «not on a round and square cross-section as a thin awl does not split brusochkov. The hole should be such that brusochek move freely along the wire.
For each hive I make two wire strung them into cubes.
When you paste frames between brusochkov I put them on the lap and, taking two frames, begin to lay the opening lap and gradually pushing the frame for frame by frame, between which separators are already in, I close another lap. Once all the wedges are inserted, I hook the ends of the wires on the top bar or the outer framework of their nails nailed to the walls of the hive.
In this framework of consolidation again. dividers do not fall, and the frame does not stagger and secured in place, wedges are always collected and will not be lost.
Furthermore, an advantage of fixing the framework described method is still saving nails. To consolidate brusochkov 50 hives in 1200 required the nails, t. E. About 2 kg, the wire will just 200 g
The wire is necessary to take soft. If the wire is tight, then it must be burned in the fire for 5- 10 minutes and allowed to cool gradually.
FIX bee colonies
I, together with the beekeeper Ogryzkov tested a new way to fix families with bees trutowka. This method gives good results and is as follows.
A family with bees trutowka include the evening away from the apiary and shake out from the hive. In place of the hive correctable family put a box-roevnyu or an empty hive without frames. Once the bees will fly to the old place, and will enter the box or hive, it is closed and carry it in a cool room. Feed the bees do not give.
The next day at noon through a hole or notches podsazhivayut barren or fetal uterus after replanting uterus bees calm down, and in the evening they are transplanted into their hive, put in its place.
In this way, in 1950 we had fixed 27 bee colonies, all of which were adopted by the uterus.
Questions and answers
QUESTION. 1. How can a manufacturer of transfer characteristics which he does not possess? 2. What is the temperature needed wintering bees? (Agronomist beekeeping Alpay, Sol Karmalinskogo district, Chkalov Oblast).
ANSWER. 1. Pastoralists have long known that many economically useful signs, which do not have an expression in males, females consistently passed by them-daughters. So bulls often transmit high milk cows, despite the fact that they themselves do not have breasts.
The reason is that the milk is determined by a number of qualities inherent in both cows and bulls. These qualities include propensity to development of glandular tissue, the type of constitution of animals, the nature of their metabolism and others.
Since the drones-fathers, as well as other animals, males are able to transmit to posterity the female economically useful qualities, it is necessary to educate them in an environment conducive to the development of the latter. So the drones should be displayed only in the strong, highly productive families enjoying the best care and maintenance.
2 In recent years, accumulated a lot of evidence about the best wintering bees at a temperature of -2 ° — -2 °. So bees imported in the Arctic, had a good winter of 1950-51 at -2y. Consequently, the temperature zimovnika, approaches 0, is favorable to bees.
QUESTION. Do defecate inside the hive queen? (Beekeeper KI Booth, Lenin collective farm, Krivoy Rog district, Rostov region).
ANSWER. The whole life of the uterus takes place inside the hive. In the fetal state, it flies out only in the case of a swarm of bees gathering. Therefore, clean the intestines of the uterus inside the hives. But the bees immediately removed her stool.
QUESTION. 1. Should we feed the bees after the very early flyby? 2. Harmful if shaking off the brood of bees from the frames? (VM Beloglazov, Rayselhozotdel Ivanovo district, Kostroma region).
ANSWER. 1. After a very early flyby of bees, as a rule, returned to winterer and hold it until the final exhibition. Feed or drink them while optional. But some advanced beekeepers, including O. Filatov (Kaluga region), after the very early flyby of bees fed to increase the number of brood and thus strengthen families to early spring bribe. 2. Concussion adversely affects the brood. So bees with honeycombs containing brood should not shake, and to sweep away a tuft of grass.
QUESTION. How to make the simplest form psychrometer? (Oil, bee agronomist Stalin District, Jewish Autonomous Region).
ANSWER. Psychrometer consists of two completely identical thermometers, strengthening «next to any stand. Ball (tank of mercury) of one of the thermometers are usually right, Baptiste wrapped in a single layer and fixed thread. To measure humidity lawn moistened with distilled or clean rain water.
The operating principle of psychrometer is that the water evaporates from the wet bulb, the heat takes its na evaporation and the thermometer shows a temperature lower than the dry bulb. The drier the air, the more intense the evaporation of water from the wet bulb temperature and the greater the difference between the readings will be dry and smochennogo1 thermometers. From the difference of the thermometer with a special table is determined by the absolute and relative humidity.
QUESTION. What action has the pepper syrup nozemu bees (bee agronomist EK Loshakova, Rodnich-Minkowski region, Saratov region).
ANSWER. Action pepper syrup to bees is not known nozemu
QUESTION. If liquidation requires a change of queens. How to be in cases where the replacement ewes to the apiary there and when to buy them is not possible? (Beekeeper Palnichechko, subsistence farming factory «Udarnitsa», Kuibyshev district, the Crimean region).
ANSWER. In such cases, the bees produce Stretches without changing the queens and bees are fed norsulfazol sodium. Queens replaced later, after the withdrawal of artificial.
QUESTION. 1. Does contagious honey obtained from gniltsovyh families?
2. Is it possible to carry out 20% solution of formalin disinfection nesting at rotten? (Agronomist beekeeping ET Astakhov, the farm area, Chelyabinsk region).
ANSWER. 1. Spore-forming bacteria causative agent of American foulbrood long preserved in honey, so the honey in the US gni7tse contagious bee. The causative agent of European foulbrood does not form spores in honey dies within a few days and therefore the centrifugal honey at European foulbrood contagious bee.
2. In breeding cells pathogens Euro-pean and American foulbrood are stored in the cadavers of larvae in the crusts and Perge. Any solution of formalin is not able to penetrate into the deeper layers of these materials *, so the breeding combs formalin disinfection solutions * has not justified itself.
STUDY ON BEE URAL
(In response to requests from readers)
In the journal «Beekeeping» № 3 for the year was put a note about the features of native bees in the Sverdlovsk region. In this regard, the editors received several letters from readers asking to tell the magazine in more detail — what kind of bees, as well as their differences, and that is the study and use of these bees.
The answer to these questions.
In the mountain taiga of the Sverdlovsk region since ancient times, the bees bred in the sides and decks. These bees naturally progressed from Bashkiria along the Ural Mountains to the north. Traces of ancient and wild-hive beekeeping Kolodny are now available in all areas of distribution of fake forests, for example, in the Shali Visim and others.
Promotion of bees to the north is closely linked to the proliferation of fake forests; Linden ends — ends and the natural progression of bees.
Ural mountain taiga bee, of course, the most advanced in the northern regions of the country; therefore, the process of natural selection one; It has been well adapted to the harsh northern conditions in this regard are of great scientific and practical interest.
The peculiarities of local bees have long been eyeing Sverdlovsk beekeepers, especially the district agronomist bee t. Poteykin. But the question of the study; these bees and the possible use of «for the northern regions and breeding have raised the head. part of the school curriculum Sysertsky bee AL Clement and employees of the regional offices of beekeeping AM Gumerov and FS Don. Their initiative was supported by the Sverdlovsk Regional Executive Committee, the regional committee of the CPSU (b) and the Institute of beekeeping.
This year the decision was made, the Sverdlovsk Regional Executive Committee (DPP 298 of April 6, 1951) on the protection of the mountain taiga ‘bee in the ruling executive committee recognizes the need for restoration and conservation of wild bees D Forest v Manchazhskogo, Achitskogo, Krasnoufimsky, Bisertschogo, Shali, Visimsky , Lower Ta gilskogo, Kuvshinskrf, Isovskogo areas. Executive Committee forbade the destruction of wild bees with the withdrawal of honey and wax from the board and executive committees 7. Only Kolo district councils may authorize the removal of wild bees from the forests to the development of beekeeping collective farms and other organizations, with registration through appropriate forestry.
Instead, each family farms should be withdrawn append trees three empty deck at the locations specified administration forestries
By decision of the Executive Committee Sverdyaovskogo it planned to organize in the tribal area of apiary Visim mining and taezhpyh bees based on a collective farm apiaries.
To implement this decision, the regional office of beekeeping and the Institute of Beekeeping organized this spring breeding liqueurs grief taiga bees in the Shali district — on the basis of the collective farm «Red Partisans» on point, placed in the village 1ii Capra district executive committee ordered the farm to conduct the work in the apiary in full compliance breeding plan approved oblsel-hozupravleniem Practical work on the organization of the breeding apiary and control its operation rests with the district agronomist bee t Poteykina
Second breeding apiary mountain taiga bees scheduled to take place in Visim area-based farm «7 Congress of Soviets.» The survey of local apiaries found that all the bees in the region come from the taiga bees found at different times in the forests and resettled in the number of hives framework lyubiteley- Beekeepers (AA Shane T Kolosvetov A. et al.) a systematic selection and content of the bees in the hive with a large wintering in the wild and in cold rooms for many years have high productivity and winter hardiness. District agronomist t Kozhevnikov suggested to organize the collection of breeding material from amateur beekeepers, who are willing to go to meet the farm
The work on the Ural mountain taiga bees including the State University of Sverdlovsk
A team of students under the supervision of Assoc. Dulkin was aimed at an apiary farm «Red Partisans» for systematic observations of the characteristics of the Ural mountain taiga bees and studying its difference-enforcement signs brigade works on the methodical plan drawn up by the university with the participation of the Institute of Beekeeping in the plan include the study of the anatomical features of the bees (painting, weight, body size), the biological characteristics and economic useful qualities — brood rearing, release wax swarming honey collection, honeycomb cell size, the nature of flight operations, and so on. d.
Of the hallmarks of the Ural mountain taiga bees should be noted bromine
The deck on the tree in Visim goszapovednike sayuschuyusya great value in the eyes of queen bees and bee slightly larger than a commonplace Central Russian bees Ural bee can fly for a bribe at a temperature of 6-7 °, in which the Central Russian bees do not fly Beekeepers say the ability of bees to the Ural wounds it overflight spring (March)
Work has begun on organizing plemechnyh apiaries and studying the features of taiga mining bees can be successfully carried out at constant vnil1anii and assistance from the Regional Department of Agriculture and especially the regional offices of beekeeping.
By the day of the celebration of the 34th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution collective farm beekeepers North Ossetian ASSR, Gorky and other regions to report on the implementation of the state plan for the development of beekeeping in 1951
Kabardinian Bee-Bee Nursery Department of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation has fulfilled the annual plan on all counts. For the season 3800 obtained new bee colonies from 1400 zimovalyh. Implemented collective-farm apiaries about 8,000 ewes. Medosbor on apiaries kennel exceeds the planned target
Twelve days were in Moscow visitors — beekeepers Ukrainian delegation arrived and the Office of beekeeping Ministry of Agriculture of the RSFSR for cross-implementation of the commitments of socialist competition, a delegation’s headed by a senior agronomist Department of beekeeping Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR N P Mortars «The delegation consisted of professionals and foremost beekeepers: NA Turner, With Aleksyuk A, C, and Ivanenko, 3. And Paul and TG Bdyuvets
Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation revised and introduced from August 1 to r new rules leave the artificial honeycombs
Management of the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture approved the beekeeping mandatory rules for wax-processing enterprises
There was a release of beekeepers scientists, graduated from the Institute to improve livestock-beekeepers at the Research Institute of Beekeeping Institute of improvements completed 25 people. They are designed to work on experimental stations on beekeeping in regional pchelokontory and educational institutions
In Moscow, at the Institute of beekeeping attended one-month courses are about 50 people — chiefs and specialists dchelo-water offices and inter-district department of beekeeping of the RSFSR
Kabarda ASSR this year celebrates its thirtieth anniversary at this time was organized agricultural exhibition booth on the big achievements have been widely shown Kabardinsky bees nursery for the development of beekeeping, the conclusion of queens and getting high honey yield.
Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation prepared for publication multicolor poster on the experience of the advanced beekeeping farm named after Stalin Mosalsky District, Kaluga region, O. Filatov.
Chkalovsky publishing brochure TN Donets «Good kolkhoz apiary», describing the experience of beekeeping farm «Virgin Soil Upturned», St. Andrew’s district, FP Prokofiev Director of the Taganrog plant beekeeping equipment beekeeping Office of the Ministry of Agriculture
In Moscow (Landscape Kudrinskaya 14/16) opened the newly appointed company store of the Moscow regional office of the Ministry of Agriculture bee RSFSR The new store significantly expanded range of products Besides beekeeping equipment in sale honey, seeds, honey plants, etc.. If the store is organized consultation on Beekeeping
Many collective farms of the RSFSR in the current year have significant crop phacelia collective farm named after Stalin (g Stavropol, Stavropol Territory) has 100 hectares of phacelia Over the past year from the sale of farm seeds Phacelia rescued 100 thousand rubles.
The collective farm named after Stalin (g Mineralnye Vody, Stavropolskrgo edge) sowed 50 hectares phacelia
Essentuki pchelorazvedenchesky nursery Stavropol Territory this year sent more than 1,000 fetal ewes collective and state farms of the republic — Byelorussian, Ukrainian, Tajik, Lithuanian, Latvian, and various areas of the RSFSR.
In the Stavropol region has 45 apiaries with more than 500 bee families, including 12 apiaries have more than 1,000 families. The farm «Chapaev» Ust-Dzhegutinsky district has 1500 bee colonies.
Moscow regional office of beekeeping book «kolkhoz apiary» composed pace-kolkhoz apiary. Vladimir Makeev, But Golovanov, Dmitry Rodionov. The book outlines the methods of work of these authors.