These cozy nest noble … How many of them roamed the alleys of the old and inhale the scent of coming spring? Meanwhile, not far from the capital remained almost forgotten manor house, a trip which can be unforgettable.
In the near and far suburbs are numerous remarkable monuments of landscape architecture in the creation of which have invested a lot of effort, talent, inspiration master of landscape design. Most of these works are now, unfortunately, is only slightly reminiscent of past greatness and beauty of their heyday at the time. However, some gardens and parks. to keep the old layout and without losing the original idea of the creator, still able to captivate the beauty and richness of imagination of architects and gardeners like. eg. Arkhangelskoye, Kuskovo, Abramtsevo. Lenin Hills. Other almost completely unknown to the majority of Muscovites, although located near the capital and can become a place of walks in the suburbs.
The first parks and gardens in the territory of present-day Moscow region appeared in the pre-Petrine times. So, already in the XVI century in the fiefdom known boyars Basil, Ostafyevo. Big Vyazemy young. The number of estates greatly increased in the XVII century, when they were laid down such patterns of landscape architecture as Dubrovitzy and Polivanova, Vaskino and Marfino. Sukhanovo and Arkhangelsk. Yaropolets and Paradise Semenov. But the real heyday of landscape art reaches Russia in the XVIII century with the creation of entire manor complex by the great architects: Bazhenov — in Pehra Yakovlevskaya. Lviv — in Vedeno. Blanca — in Voronov. Starov — in St. Nicholas Gagarin. Kazakova — Petrovsky Alabino.
Initially, the landscape architecture prevailed regular style, t. E. Parks had a strictly geometrical layout, which is subordinate to all crops. In the very first plantations preference given to woody plants fruit: apple, plum, cherry. This tradition appeared in ancient times in the monastery gardens, and later moved to the manor ensembles. Since the second half of the XVIII century, especially in the XIX century, the construction of the park is widely distributed landscape or landscape style when layout of the park is more like a work of nature rather than human hands. 11a of fruit plants or shift along with them come not only trees and shrubs of the local flora such as linden, maple. oak. spruce, pine, but also foreigners. There are such exo you. as larch, fir, pine or cedar Siberian cedar later Manchurian walnut, black locust, pine Weymouth, bird cherry Maak. In landscape design becomes fashionable combination of regular and landscape styles. An example of a successful combination can serve as parks in Arkhangelsk. Gorenko. Voronov, red and many others. In this part of the grand estates, adjacent to the palace complex is solved in regular style, and the rest of the space is dominated by style, imitating the local landscape, which give small picturesque lakes or ponds, often forming cascades naturally featured a group of trees and shrubs. intricately intersecting alleys and paths, often leading to a depth of the park, or lead you to the observation platform, which offers a wonderful view of the surroundings.
Currently in the Moscow region there are about 200 old estates, but only 59 of them have kept their old plan or a little disturbed area close to the original appearance of the buildings and old plantings of ornamental plants. These parks are of great value of the estate as a memorial. historical sites associated with the names of famous figures of science, literature and art, as well as the collection of valuable woody plants, who witnessed previous eras. And even if the building is completely destroyed, you can often restore the surviving plans and drawings for the restoration of the park can take many decades, and sometimes centuries. to grow mighty giant oak trees, pine, larch.
The region accommodation parks uneven. The greatest number of them are located near Moscow and in the south west of the capital, that the. probably due to more favorable climatic conditions in these areas.
We dwell only on some not so well-known estates of great interest due to the rich composition of decorative and good, sometimes very rare plants. This mansion, used today as a health resort, holiday homes, child care facilities, often able to save not only the former owners of the buildings, but the original layout of parks themselves.
To the south-west of Moscow, in the Podolsk district, an area of 43.5 hectares stretches created in the second half of the XVIII century by the order of Count II Vorontsov manor Raven subsequently passed over possession Governor FW Rostopchin. Today it houses a holiday home. Manor House. built in the classical style, repeatedly rebuilt. but fully preserved Church of the Saviour and the Dutch house built by architect Karl Blank in 1760. The picturesque landscape of the park give the terraced slopes to the dammed river, turned into the place in the ponds. Park successfully solved by a combination of regular and landscape styles. The landscape of the park is represented by dense spruce and lime plantations with high group of old pine trees and with a significant participation of maple, birch, ash, oak trees separate. This park is more like a forest, if not a perfect system of alleys and paths. It is possible to meet the forest apple, hazelnut, raspberry, currant, honeysuckle. But the biggest attraction of the park is a walkway from the Siberian fir. It there are more than 2,000 copies. Giant thick trunks of fir centenary reach 23 m in height. Dark needles and long legs branches creates gloomy color of this part of the park. Under the canopy of mature trees, you can find a lot of young plants of various sizes fir grown from seeds, abundant and annually produced on old derevy1h. The lighter side of the park is dominated by larch, which forms as a mall, and the whole group a thick billowing, up to 1 m in diameter, trunks, sometimes reaching 35 meters in height. Its bark is yellowish-red as the color of lights in the sun. Attraction of the park is one instance of stone pine, sometimes incorrectly called cedar. She was about 70 years old, but still in it there were no seeds — pine nuts.
Ground part of the park is less interesting. There have already planted more recently several instances barbed spruce, the one that is called a blue spruce, western Tun and several species of shrubs: rose wrinkled, cotoneaster brilliant, chubushnika, physocarpus. meadowsweet. On the shore of the pond grow two largest black alder in the suburbs. or adhesive, reaching 20 m in height and 40 cm in diameter trunks.
To the west of Moscow, in the Mozhaisk district, on the top of the hollow hill. at the foot of which flows the river Inoch located manor complex belonging grafuK. Razumovsky. The palace, rebuilt after the war, designed by architect D. Gilardi. Extant Church of Nativity built in the years 18041819 commissioned by the owner of the estate. In 1824 the estate passed to Count SS Uvarov, whose family owned it until 1917. Zenith park, founded in 1814 in the English landscape style gardener Roche on an area of 150 hectares. reached in the second half of the XIX century, when a large forester then KF Tormerom its territory it was planted many different kinds of trees and shrubs, including larches, now reached 38 meters in height and 130 cm in diameter barrel. At the same time, built greenhouses significantly increased range of tropical and subtropical plants. such as the pineapple. and other citrus fruits.
Ground part of the park is small, it consists of planting a linden with a geometric layout. and fields, situated on the way down to the pond. In the middle of the pond island. overgrown with forest vegetation. A variety of trees and shrubs in parterre, and landscape of the park are now small. but all of them have made considerable age and well developed. Eight species of trees and shrubs typical of our local fauna, and 14 exotics come from different parts of the world. Among the latter, Siberian fir, larch, the very name of which tells about their origin. silver maple and walnut gray from North America, maple — from the Far East. Local, or. as they are called, native species: platanolistny maple, small-leaved linden, elm, aspen — reach very large sizes. The hedges of the park, framing the ground part. Used younger plants that appeared in the parks of our country much later. It snowberry, chokeberry, yellow acacia.
In Solnechnogorsky rennet. in a beautiful area with rugged hilly terrain, the river near the village of Serednikovo Gretovka located manor of the same name. Preserve the rich architectural complex, built in the late XVIII century, probably. architect IE Starov but ordered the owners of Vsevolozhsk. Serednikovo associated with the name MU Lermontov, who spent summers here in 1830 and 1831. This is evidenced by a large obelisk, set at the last owner of the estate in 1914 Firsanova to 100let of the birth of the poet. The whole estate complex is of great artistic and historical value. Here is preserved house and four wings, as well as a landscaped park with cascading ponds in the valley Gretovka. In the planning of the entire farmstead is well traced classical style. Central axial symmetrical layout of the entire ensemble with the surrounding natural landscape.
Artificial plantations in the park is not as varied, but their placement is very picturesque. Big old linden trees form an alley leading to the gate of the front yard, the other avenues formed the Siberian larch. Oak. maple, birch, mountain ash. ash or are in small groups or planted tapeworms. Large dense clumps consist of common lilac lilac and Hungarian. In living fences shearers are used most often honeysuckle, blooming in early spring with white, pink or reddish fragrant flowers, and snowberry, small, pea-sized, white berry-like fruit is stored until winter. Gradually to the south-west and south-east of the park turns into a forest park, foundation plantings are local plants. Who estate complex used as a sanatorium.
In Chekhov district since the beginning of the XVIII century manor house known but Vaska. The whole estate complex formed by the middle of the XIX century. From 1795 to 1885 its owners were princes Scherbatova. In 1885 it constructed preserved until now one-story house in the Empire style.
The park was established earlier — in 1780. The main part, which is adjacent to the house is solved in the regular style. From the house, standing on the high bank of the river Lyutorki. rays radiating avenues of fir and linden. Terraced slopes to the river and ponds, separated from the river dam, facing south and west. Of the least known and little common exotics here grow two trees of Siberian cedar pine, linden macrophylla different from our ordinary limes pubescent below, and larger leaves. Very decorative maple Schwedler. This grade maple derived from our ordinary maple by selecting temnolistyh forms. In the shade of the leaves appear dark brown and prosvechivaya the sun — bright red. Hedge maple Tatar formed with ovate almost lobed leaves, hawthorn blood-red, named for its numerous red fruits, snowberry and spirea. Certain groups made up of larch trees, arborvitae. apple berry fruit which by its size resemble cherries than ordinary cultural apple. In our time here posted holiday home.
At the turn of the XVIII and XIX centuries, commissioned by Prince II.B. Lopuchin architect NA Lvov was designed manor Vvedenskoe in the Odintsovo district. Since mid-1860 to 1884 the estate belonged to the father of artist MV Yakunchikovoy. Until now, there has remained a residential complex, which is now placed holiday home. In front of a large area divided into a regular park with the central axis layout. It leads from the entrance stalls birch alley. In the center of the pit is a fountain. Ground floor surrounded by sheared hedge cotoneaster. 11arallelnymi rows planted on the ground spherical Thuja occidentalis, giving the entire range of its final form. On both sides of the stalls there are groups of high-old larches. silver maple, and some shrubs: lilacs, mock oranges, honeysuckle. In front and behind him grow blue spruces with distinct horizontal tiers of branches. Ground part of the forest park is surrounded by maple, oak. elm. linden, spruce and pine trees, which gradually turns into a mixed natural forest on the steep bank of the river Nahabni.
In the Krasnoyarsk region with the first half of XVII century manor house known 11ikoloUryunino, originally belonged to the princes Odoyevsky. In the XVIII century, changing owners several times, in 1774 it became the property of Golitsyn. He also was defeated regular park, on the central axis is constructed hook-called «White House», and then built a house and various service facilities. In 1811 the reconstruction. and since then the manor house practically has not undergone major changes. A characteristic feature of the regular park with radiating avenues are cut at a height of 34 m of linden. As a result of the previously held haircuts on trunks and branches formed a thickening, which can judge the height of tapestries created earlier. While the tapestry is a highly dense «wall" thickly interwoven branches of the limes. The ground floor of the house is surrounded on all sides. Behind the house at the end of the pit dug pond «island of solitude.» In the depths of the park are two of the pond. The parterre of the park remained large specimens blue spruce. Siberian fir, cedar and pine Weymouth pine, different from our usual presence of pine needles in a bundle of five, not two, why Krona becomes more dense and fluffy. Particularly striking in their size Siberian larch, reaching 32 meters in height and 115 cm in diameter barrel. The landscape of the park continuous carpet in man-made forest forms a periwinkle — evergreen prostrate shrub with dark green leaves and bright blue flowers. It tolerates shade and. multiply root suckers, tightly covers the ground. For the landscape of the park is characterized by our local trees and shrubs — oak. birch, maple, pine.
We called a few not so well known but worthy of study and preservation of the estate, have not only the cultural and material values, but also give an opportunity to change our understanding of even the most ordinary. We are constantly surrounded by plants. Thus, the most common tree in the middle lane of average size — weeping birch — reaches across 11ikoloUryuiine barrel 1 of 10 cm, oak in the same park is 200 cm in diameter. Bogorodskoe Manor is one of the tallest fir trees up to 35 m in height. Even our widespread in the riverbed of the river alder adhesive is capable of surprising for its size. Its trunks, generally not exceeding 1520 cm in diameter, have a park Ramenskoye 100 cm.
Note that the appearance of some plants allows them to be used in many types of plants, the other — only in some specific landing. So. for example, small-leaved linden — tree universal in its application. It can be seen in malls, Bosquet, hedges. groups of trees, as well as in individual. And plants such as the yellow acacia, cotoneaster, hawthorn, usually only used in hedges. One of the favorite types of plants in the old estates were avenues that are almost certainly met the inhabitants of the house and their guests at the entrance to the estate. Vintage Alleyne planting a weeping birch are available in Manor Park Barvikha. Melikhova, on Christmas: from maple — in Pehra Yakovlevskaya. Fominkah: from English oak — in Izmalkova. Bykov: from Siberian fir — in Morozovka. TroitskomRatmanove; linden — in Polivanov, and so on. d.
In the large meadow in front of the facade of buildings are usually planted trees, yielding a powerful, branched crown. Good eoliternye. single plantings of Siberian larch in NikoloUryupine.
Yaropolets. Toasted pine wei mutovoy — in Oparin, Sennitsy, Znamenskoye Gubaylove, weeping birch — in Romney, Big Vyazemy, Arkhangelsk.
Also freestanding trees particular grandeur and solemnity of the regular park attached bosquets, tapestries, clipped hedge. They are often created from a linden — tree responds well to trimming. Such structures sheared known in linden estates Yaropolets, Gishnki. Pushchino Vyazemskoye. Later, it began to be used hawthorn. and for lower curb — cotoneaster, barberry.
11evozmozhno exhaust manifold techniques used by landscape architects to create unique ensembles. They need to see with my own eyes. To do this is to come for a few kilometers to go on the paths of the park, breathe previous eras, which breathe our famous compatriots, and perhaps even make the effort to restore and protect monuments.