Association in 1925 and ODVF Dobrohima changed the status of a holiday — in 1925 and 1926. He became known as the Day of Soviet aviation and chemistry (Aviakhim). The list of celebrations at the Central Airport name Trotsky (Khodynka), in addition to traditional flight entered and «pollinate» viewers from the air, land and «fights» in gas masks.
In 1927 there was another escalation, and Aviakhim merged Society of assistance to defense (CCA). Giant Osoaviakhim and demanded a grand celebration and in July instead of one public holiday, a whole week — Week of Defense. Unfortunately, in this week’s aviation holiday definitively lost, and indeed the week, somehow, very soon come to naught. Perhaps plans for large-scale achievements of the first Five-Year Plan pushed the problem of patriotic education into the background. The aggravation of the political situation in the early 1930s. again «put an edge,» the question of strengthening the Air Force. Now, the main slogan, unlike the previous one (sample 1923), became — «Komsomolets — Plane!», Calling to replenish the ranks of the Air Force. That is, «further promotion of civil and military aviation in the masses» and had to serve the new Holiday aviation. August 18, 1933 thousands of Muscovites and «guests of the city» is not spoiled at that time neither bread nor circuses, gathered at the Central Airport Lomonosov Frunze. For the first time in the country held a large-scale review of aviation achievements. See it at that. Thus began the story of the legendary Festival …
In 1934, the air hits found for many years permanent residence and became legendary — Tushino. It began to form and the traditional holiday scenario. Mandatory elements are: Balloons with the portraits of the leaders of the party and government aircraft flight systems, depicting words, depending on the wishes of the leaders of the country, «Lenin», «Stalin», etc. The first part of the Tushino air parade their skills demonstrated pilots and glider pilots Osoaviahima, showed their technique and pilots Civil Air Fleet (CAF). Second, the brightest, the separation was given to the Air Forces. Of course, the most anticipated was the aerobatics of the famous «Red Five». But the most significant action was an imitation of fighting, so, for example, vividly described in the Soviet press in August 1934 g .: «… Three aircraft, equipped with special devices washed fragrant rain — spirits — tens of thousands of spectators … Link fighter appears over the airfield. It attacks the «infantry». Echoing pop guns. The two fighters demonstrate dogfight. For fighters followed by 6 assault aircraft. They appear suddenly and are very low to the ground. Above the conventional railway station planes dropping bombs. «Station» takes off into the air and rises a huge black cloud of sand and dust. Assault Squadron departs. Or, here, the newspapers, 1940 .: «alarming siren roars. Its sounds are carried by the factory buildings, grew up on the border of the airfield. This large plant layout. This rush accompanied by fighters, bombers speed. Towards the fly fighter defense. Volley anti-aircraft guns, bombs recreate the spectacle of the military action. Cargo bomb falls right on target and detonates factory buildings. Under attack fighter silent anti-aircraft batteries. » Similar demonstrations at the end of the thirties became «fashionable» and provincial aviation holidays. Naturally, the scale has been more modest, smaller aircraft, explosions so loud, but instead plant layout or a large plant — a wood shed. Of the total coherent sequence it fell only in 1936, when the parade weather conditions were forced to move on August 24: «Very low rushes at great speed a new multi-seat aircraft design Tupolev, piloted by Hero of the Soviet Union, Comrade. MM Gromov. From the capital appears lycidae handsome man — the legendary aircraft ANT-25. Over the airfield, he falls very low. On its fuselage words: «Stalin’s route …»
When the ANT-25 is going to land, the aircraft design engineer Polikarpov order bearer takes the start of the famous climber record holder Vladimir Kokkinaki. At an angle of 45 degrees plane crashed into the sky and stringing dead loops and deep bends … High above the field on the fly fast fighter Lieutenant Fokin. He makes big red circles and draws smoke in the sky: «Stalin.» In the 1930s. the date of 18 August was justifiable and rational for the celebration, as the day was a rest day for six days, entered the Decree SNK on November 21, 1931 and canceled June 26, 1940 decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In fact, on August 18 was the third holiday of August.
The first Aviation Day was moved to Sunday August 15, 1943 Of course, during the war years, the celebrations have been modest, but the love of his «Stalin’s falcons,» the Soviet people was universal and sincere. Festive editions of major newspapers 1942-1945 years. They were «decorated» decree awarding aviators. Tushino air parade August 19, 1945 was to be a demonstration of the triumph of Soviet aviators winners, but the weather made its annoying adjustments. Newspapers noted: «Due to the adverse weather aviation festival in Tushino was canceled. However, in the afternoon the rain stopped. Muscovites took to the streets filled Red Square. Powerful loudspeakers broadcast the text of the order of the Supreme Commander of the Soviet Union Generalissimo Stalin. At 20 hours Moscow on behalf of the district of Dina salute our valiant aviators twenty artillery salvoes from 224 guns. The night sky of the capital heyday fires missiles. The parks were held mass celebrations. The park of the Central House of the Red Army opened an exhibition of Soviet aircraft. Pilots, air combat participants, visitors were given an explanation. By a great fireworks display. » August 18, 1946 became the first post-war air show air parade in Tushino airfield.
«… Fanfaristy herald the beginning of the holiday. As has become a tradition of long-standing tradition in the sky at once soared thousands of colorful balloons pilots … Then right impeccable build a giant five-pointed stars there were planes Po-2. They led a veteran Russian, Air Force Colonel Theodore Rodin … Approval of the audience is and group-level aerobatics aircraft UT-2, piloted by Zahudalinym, Nedoshkovskim and Petrov, and master flight seven pilots athletes headed to the pilot Pavlov. This concludes my statement seven spectacular horizontal spiral. In the classic build flying wedge group PO-2 aircraft. Show sport aviation over. Over the airfield appear original design. Test pilot Chernoburov demonstrates a new aircraft type «duck». The appearance of this machine is that it resembles the movement of flying tail first. It draws the viewer’s attention helicopter design engineer Bratukhina. Muscovites first saw the aircraft, freely soaring straight up, «hanging» on the ground, in the air moving sideways and backwards. Managing helicopter pilot Ponomarev introduces viewers with all the features of the machine. With a height of several meters from the board of the ladder and thrown him to the ground freely down the passenger. Great future awaits this car …
In perfect wakefield ranks appeared above the airfield group of Yak-3 with a leading senior lieutenant Sokolovsky. Team pilots were served by radio from the ground. And thousands of spectators could see how strictly obeying the voice of the land, the aircraft rapidly made «hill», then swooped down, then went into the bend …
Skilled craftsmen air combat — the pilots of the Higher Officers’ School — illustrate how various fighting techniques of Soviet aces as obedient aircraft. Under the applause of the audience are brilliant performance of lieutenant Mahalina, piloting fighter «Lavochkin-7», a flight of three aircraft La-7. led by Lieutenant General Aviation Ivanov, a complex group aerobatics Five «Yakovlev-3» Senior Lieutenant Bondarenko and groups «Lavochkins 7» Captain Trushina. It would limit the flight of art and human capabilities, the pilot exhausted. But in the air, a new part of the Yak-3. They fly so thick that turn all three aircraft suddenly merged into a single silhouette. Not for a second does not break like this welded structure, although the pilots perform the entire range of classic aerobatics …
The show ended with impressive combat skills played out a picture of the air battle. Patrol Soviet fighters attacked two bombers, flying fighter escort. The aircraft «enemy» viewers, many of whom are former soldiers, easy to learn «Heinkels» and «Focke-Wulf-190». Soviet fighters used a tactical ploy. One group of associates «Focke-Wulf» and another attack bombers. In the air, I heard the sound of machine-gun fire. Come into effect anti-aircraft guns. Leaving a trail of smoke, falling off steeply toward a «downed» bomber. Lights and second «Heinkel». It is separated from the black dot vyprygnuvshy parachutist. Plaque reflected. It starts showing different types of combat aircraft and passenger … In the fighting ranks are speed-2 Tu … They were flying over the airfield dive bombers Pe-2. Low sweep the Il-10 … With the understandable interest of viewers watched the appearance of rocket planes. They lightning flashed in the air, leaving behind a bright jet of fire … The final celebration looked solemn and symbolic. Viewers saw a blimp floating above them. His silver shell — portraits of the great leaders of the Soviet people to Lenin Stalin. The body of the airship carries a huge inscription: «Victory.» Proudly waving in the wind ropes attached to the national flag and the flag of the Air Force. Aviation Festival at the Tushino airfield is over. » By the way, this was not the first participation in Tushino parade of foreign aircraft. So in 1938 in Tushino demonstrated aerobatics plane, named in newspaper reports «green biplane.» It was the Czechoslovak aerobatic «Avia Ba-122», purchased by the Soviet Air Force in the amount of 15 units. At the air show August 3, 1947 in the traditional program for the first time I joined the group aerobatics on jet engines. It is interesting that for 12 years (from 1947 to 1958) Day of Air Fleet of the Soviet Union has never been celebrated on August 18. I draw attention to the fact that the transfer is not flypast, namely himself Day of Air Fleet of the USSR. During these years, the Feast of the date established by a regulation of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which is about a month before the event to notify the population of the central newspapers. Of course, for many years the main event of the Day of Air Fleet of the USSR was a flypast degraded later in aviation and sports festival. The reason for the move by the time the festival is, of course, the conditions of the air show. I assume that the main argument in favor of the transfer of the holiday was the weather conditions. Swing dates of the air show may have been connected with the plans of combat training (exercises, maneuvers, etc.) Air Force — the main actors flypast. We can not exclude the subjective factor — the wishes of «party and government leaders.» I hope that over time there will be materials to help reasonably answer these questions. From year to year flypast worked as an oiled machine, strictly follow the established script, over the years, becoming more extensive and compelling, demonstrating «potential» enemies and friends growing quantitative and qualitative level of the air fleet, «the country of victorious socialism.» In the postwar period, only the forces of nature are sometimes forced to endure a Holiday (1948, 1953), or even to abolish it (1950, 1957). So, June 30, 1957 was celebrated the Day of Air Fleet of the USSR. Air feast on the weather conditions did not take place. Although perhaps the main reason was the sharp political struggle, which resulted in a collision at the June (1957) Plenum of the CPSU Khrushchev between the group and the «anti-Party group» of Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich. Naturally, at such a time it was not up to the holiday. July 20, 1958 for the first time flypast held without the participation of the Air Force. But in Tushino celebration was attended by the foreign pilots — the athletes of the people’s democracy. Despite the lack of military aviation, the holiday seems to me the most striking and unusual. Judge for yourself: «The first part — Soaring over the field … — Double Glider CT-2. He is the master of sports, champion of the RPR Mircea Finesku. One after another, followed by complex aerobatics. Romanian athlete in the air replaced by representatives of other fraternal socialist countries. Tadeusz Slivak (Poland) showed acrobatic aerobatics glider «Hawk». For outstanding achievements International Aeronautical Federation (FAI) has awarded its highest award — the golden sign with three diamonds. Honored Athlete Hungarian People’s Republic Endre Korshai demonstrated acrobatic aerobatics glider «Bёke» («World»), and the Polish glider Jerzy Adamek delighted the audience made them a series of complex shapes. Group aerobatics gliders «Lunyakov» master of sports showed Czechoslovak Frantisek Tuma, Worms and Jiri Karel Valasek. An interesting counter the flight was two gliders «Primoretz». Piloting showed Muscovites — working Victor Makhov and Vasily Ohonko. Special Branch of the holiday was dedicated to helicopters. Those present at the festival admired column helicopters — Mi-6 and M-1, a «flying car» Yak-24, Mi-4 and a small helicopter to -15. Yet none of the air show spectators have not seen such a variety of customized flying helicopters of various designs. Alexey Lutsenko pilot carried out a number of unique pieces. Everybody liked the «air swing». His great skill demonstrated on the machine K-15 pilot Oleg Vanya. Vsevolod Vinitsky flying maneuverability Mi-4. The real surprise was piloting the helicopter K-10, which is directly from the truck took off and then gently down on the same truck. Spectators admired the exceptional courage, skill, trapeze artists and lion Donat Morus Gulyaev. Helicopters lifted them to a height of 150 meters. Athletes worked one on the rings, and the other on the trapeze so freely, confidently, as if their exercise equipment mounted on the ground. In the third branch of the festival (airplane), along with Soviet pilots made their Czechoslovak and Romanian friends. Kind of air show pilots soccer Alexander Korobov and Nikolay Davydenko on airplanes to I -18. It was fun, exciting spectacle. Aircraft propellers rammed Air colored balls. The radio announced that the latest approach to the airfield civilian aircraft. All eyes are directed to a huge passenger aircraft Tu-114. Flying other machines: the Tu-104A, and R-18. And there is no doubt that among the audience there were many who wanted to be the passengers of these beautiful aircraft. Many interesting things happened in the parachute compartment celebration. Paratroopers headed master of sports GF Fire and IP Plyukhin. The participants could hardly trace a parachutist jump, as was shown the next number. Finally, the air show in the sky rose a lot of balls with flags of the Union republics. The apotheosis was the daily fireworks under the solemn music of «Glory» Glinka «. I think that the audience that were I witnessed this extraordinary performance, could not even imagine the imminent sunset Tushino air parades. So, in 1959 (23 August), aviation holiday passed without air show (though the rehearsals were held, but they were suddenly interrupted. Note. Editor). Restrict the conduct of formal meetings, folk festivals and fireworks. Victory of the Soviet space, and indirectly demonstrate the omnipotence of the combat missile technology of the Soviet Union brought new priorities. Yesterday’s favorite «leaders of nations» — Aviation — was in the shadow of Astronautics, was only its «cradle». In the absence of a «high» demand for air parades, DOSAAF leaders tried to somehow maintain the former status of celebration and delight audiences, especially young people, aviation and sports festival. For several years in the days of August held the national championships on the airplane, helicopter, Gliding and Parachuting.
From 17 to 20 August 1960 in Voronezh the All-Union competitions athletes skydivers DOSAAF, dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the birth of mass parachuting in our country. Competitions preceded by a large aviation celebration. It was attended by pilots, gliders and parachutists. From 21 to 29 August the same in 1960 at the Tushino airfield held national championship sport airplane. July 9, 1961 held a large-scale aviation celebration. In that year, a broad front were institutional reforms of the Air Force. We cut to the quick, and the impression that the pilots went out in his «… the last and decisive battle» and demonstrated their achievements, trying to reverse the situation. Armada bombers Tu-95, Tu-16 and Tu-22 missiles «air-land» Be-10, Yak-28, Su-7, Su-9, MiG-19 and MiG-21 and, of course, M -50 left an indelible impression as the public, and at the numerous foreign experts. Equally clearly made by athletes DOSAAF, helicopter pilots, parachutists flew convoy of passenger Tu-114, Tu-124, Tu-104, Il-18, An-10 and An-24. Alas, this air show is not played the role assigned to him, and was the last parade with the participation of the Air Force, conducted at the airfield in Tushino.
Were the years of neglect that only sometimes, the efforts of DOSAAF, brightens Aviation and sports festival. The most striking event in this series, in my opinion, are: International friendly competition aerobatics in 1963, Aviation and sports festival in 1965 and IV World Championships in aerobatics in 1966, but got the impression that even a Activity DOSAAF «at the top» is not welcomed. How else to explain the conduct of aviation and sporting events on the Day of the Air Force with the participation of the country’s leading aviation athletes in Yaroslavl (1963) and Kaluga (1964) instead of the traditional Tushino. The breakthrough came July 9 1967 Team LI Brezhnev, replacing the supporters of absolute nuclear missile shield, once again remembered the air (probably it was a consequence of «the lesson of Vietnam»). There was a political need to once again demonstrate the aircraft «muscle.» Tushino could no longer meet the writers grand air show. The new airport Domodedovo fully consistent with the scale plan. The main reason for the review of aviation, of course, announced the upcoming 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. I will not talk in detail about repeatedly described the Day of Air Fleet. I can only say — the holiday was and remains a pity that he was the last Soviet air parade with the participation of the Air Force. After 1967, within ten years, the country’s leaders did not recall the Day of Aviation. And the leaders of the defense of society, probably tired of swimming against the tide. That is why in the period from 1968 to 1976. DOSAAF mouthpiece — newspaper «Soviet patriot» in their holiday rooms only print orders of the Minister of Defense, ceremonial articles and boring plan for the week, dedicated to the Day of Air Fleet of the USSR: «… August 19 … the year — the Day of Air Fleet of the USSR. The Soviet people solemnly celebrate this holiday, it will mark the new advances in the struggle for the implementation of the decisions of … Congress of the CPSU. » Only August 21, 1977 held in the Tushino Aviation and sports festival dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Great October Revolution. The festival, demonstrating the peaceful policy of the Soviet Union, was attended by only athletes DOSAAF. Next Aviation Festival dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Soviet Union, in the sky over Tushino held five years later — August 15, 1982 again showed his skill athletes DOSAAF on the Yak-50, Yak-55, L-29, Mi-1 . For the first time, viewers saw the paraglider soaring in tow the car. Add, and elements of the «show»: «… at the airfield motosportsmeny demonstrated their skills. They made jumping, playing motoball. In another sector showed a high-speed maneuvering … When motorists over the Tushino airfield silent roar of engines, the song soared into the sky. For Muscovites and visitors were given a gala concert. «
Change of leader of the party and the government in 1985 brought a breath of fresh air in the aircraft. I will not evaluate controversial reforms MS Gorbachev, I will mention only a «renaissance» of aviation holidays. Together with reviving air parade in Tushino, began to gain momentum holiday pilots in Zhukovsky. August 16, 1987, the Day of Air Fleet of the USSR, held in Tushino Aviation sports festival, dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the October Revolution. The first group demonstrated aerobatics pilots flying club Viazemsky on L-39 (now, aerobatic team «Rus») and aerobatics four Su-26, flying gliders and trikes. August 20th, 1989 for the first time since 1965 at the Tushino airfield marked only the USSR Air Fleet Day without additional ideological reasons. It would seem that this recent our history, must be well known to many. Alas, the political vicissitudes of the 1990s. quickly erased the memory of the Tushino holidays end of the 1980s., so give some details: «Tell everything in a short report — an impossible task. It’s no joke — forty-four rooms in the program! And against the majority of the mark: «For the first time!» Well, it does not come in a tremulous delight at the sight of the aircraft VM-T, bearing on its «back» the fuel tank rocket «Energia» of 44 meters long! The spectacle is truly fantastic! How not to admire the brainchild of OKB Ilyushin — widebody passenger aircraft IL-96-300 … What a powerful and beautiful machine! It replaces another novelty — a passenger plane Tu-204, which, according to the designers, will be the most economical in Aeroflot … Truly wonders agility demonstrated helicopters first ship Ka-27, and later most of the world lifting Mi-26 and Mi-28 — the newest combat vehicle equipped with a powerful rocket-cannon armament and high-aiming system. This last, move in space, as if he knows no laws of aerodynamics: dramatically changed the flight path, rotates around its own axis, he hovered above the ground under the most improbable angles … Someone in the audience are not breathless when over their heads swiftly raced plane -perehvatchik MiG-25, and his brother — the MiG-29 … with extraordinary ease executed purely sports aerobatics — «bell» … in Tushino was shown training aircraft Su-25UT, which is a modification of the stormtrooper … Well, it shows that the aircraft would be no exaggeration to call a sensation. In the sky above the airfield — the newest supersonic strategic bomber Tu-160 with a variable sweep wing … Joint aerobatics two interceptor Su-27 Mi-24 and can be safely included in the category «The obvious — an incredible». Nobody in the world has not performed such numbers — supersonic cars go at the same speed with the helicopter of about 200 km / h. By approaching the airfield fighter-interceptor Su-27, which became a sensation this year’s air show in Paris! .. In the sky over Tushino Su-27 piloted by the Soviet Union Geroem Victor Pugachev, to perform complex maneuvers, named for the pilot — «Cobra Pugacheva.»
See this unique number is impossible without enthusiasm … when the announcer declared that the airfield is approaching «Albatross», once it became clear that we are talking about the amphibian A-40 … has completed the demonstration of military and civil aircraft Four fighter planes MiG-29, passed to build a «diamond». And then came the sports part of the holiday, and we heard a lot of familiar names: Irina Adabash Nicholas Nikitiuk Svetlana tavern … The skill demonstrated not only Muscovites, but also their colleagues from flying clubs DOSAAF Kaluga Vyazma, Krasnodar, Vilnius and other cities » . August 18, 1991 and held the air show at the Tushino airfield in Zhukovsky. Unfortunately, on the last day of Air Fleet of the USSR in Tushino press in those dramatic days (remember — Emergency Committee) only sparingly known — «… I took aviation sports event …». We must pay tribute edition of «Red Star», which found it possible, together with reports from the «fence» to talk about the festivities in Zhukovsky, «the parade towing the helicopter Mi-8 parachutist-tester, the master of sports of the USSR Nikolai Roslyakova. No sooner Roslyakov splash down as the audience’s attention has been riveted on the Tu-22P and his MiG-21. That showed the Yak-38 — the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing — test pilots Leonid Lobas and Andrei Sinitsyn, could not help but admire. A unique spectacle demonstrated during aerobatics on the MiG-29 as part of a pair of multiple participant of the international air show in Britain and France honored test pilot of the USSR Anatoly Kvochur and test pilot Alexander Beschastnov. Piloting-class audience pleased the author of the famous «Cobra» Hero of the Soviet Union, Distinguished Test Pilot of the USSR Viktor Pugachev. This parade was first demonstrated his ship version Su-27 K … One of the characteristic features of this parade was that the audience had the opportunity to see the unique winged flying machine. Such as, say, M-17MR «Stratosphere» … Genuine interest aroused audience aircraft VM-T «Atlant». On the outside of the suspension of the aircraft was established element of the carrier rocket «Energy» … the audience applauded the demonstration flights of heavy strategic bomber Tu-160 and multipurpose supersonic fighter-interceptor MiG-31. Large air-sport event held in Monino, where museum on the basis of the Air Force was an exhibition of aviation equipment «.tak ended the history of Soviet aviation holidays. The following day, August 19, a memorial Emergency Committee appeal to the Soviet people, brought the country to the abyss of civil war. Six months later, «one mighty Soviet Union» crumbled. However, the empire collapsed and the imperial fleet. For aviation of the Russian Federation has started (and, it seems, has not ended to this day) a new difficult period. But that is another story. To us it is time to draw some conclusions. First, as exciting a lot of questions about the dates of the Feast of Aviation. I suggest to the reader to answer this question. So, from 1933 to 1991, the Soviet aviators celebrated their professional holiday 59 times. Of these, 24 times of the USSR Air Fleet Day held on 18 August. As mentioned earlier, from 1933 to 1940 (eight times) holiday — 18 August the output and the so-called six days. Six times on August 18 at the behest of the calendar, fell on Sunday. As a result of 59 years of the Soviet Aviation Day on August 18, was the only holiday only ten times. Here, I have to admit — these years (excluding the war years) were years of neglect Festival. From 1960 to 1971, with a few exceptions (the parades in 1961 and 1967), there was no need to carry from 18 August Festival, is rapidly losing the status of a national, and to emerge as one of the many professional. Celebrating the Day of Air Fleet of the Soviet Union has been reduced to ceremonial events. The main objective of the airmen in the capital and in the field was to hold solemn assemblies speeches, from one year to write under a carbon paper, a celebratory concert and, of course, a feast with traditional toasts. In 1980, in the minds of the authorities it appeared a wise idea — to minimize production losses associated with the inevitable consequences of celebrations and transfer Day of Air Fleet of the USSR on the third Sunday of August (Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated October 1, 1980). Since then and to this day, we celebrate the Day of Air Fleet of Russia every year on the third Sunday of August. In 1997, thanks to the initiative of Peter Stepanovich Deinekin, there was a documented date of birth of the Air Forces of Russia. Probably, in the course of searches of archival documents worthy of a starting point in the history of the Russian Air Force, the main criterion was the desire to bring a date to the existing Air Fleet Day. And we found it! Peter S. in an interview described the event: «… August 12, 1912 our sovereign in the bay of the New World on his yacht» Standart «was written on the law of the State Duma on the financing of military aviation,» So be it. Nicholas. » And, of course, I sipped brut for that matter. So Boris Yeltsin this date we adopted as the Day of the Air Force. And to celebrate it commanded just on Sunday. » Today, in my opinion, there is a fairly well-balanced, «Aviation Week», which, beginning the afternoon the Air Force, usually «captures» a nostalgic August 1st of August and ends on Sunday afternoon all Russian pilots. And, of course, in odd-numbered years, the Day of Air Fleet of Russia decorated with «Max» — a true feast for all aviators.