Language development and writing of the USSR (ON THE MATERIAL Turkic languages)

I

Before the Great October Socialist Revolution, the level of development of the Turkic language and culture of their carriers — the people who were a part of the former Russian Empire, was quite colorful. Among the peoples speaking Turkic languages, some of them — have already been formed in the bourgeois nations, each with its already developed a national literary language; others are not yet reached the stage of national development, although they had their own written language and literary language, finally treti- were either newly created nation, did not have a written language is, or is not yet consolidated in the People’s tribal groups, with tribal languages ​​and dialects.

The first group of Turkic peoples can be attributed, for example, the Tatars, the national literary language whose script with the Arabic alphabet served partly neighboring nations, such as Bashkirs, Astrakhan Nogais and others.

This group of Turkic languages ​​should include the Azerbaijani language. The norms of the Azerbaijani national literary language were developed on the basis of the whole people of the Azerbaijani language in the struggle against Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism reaction of the Azerbaijani bourgeoisie and the feudal-clerical circles, who sought to impose their own people «obscheturetsky language» common to all Turkic nations from China to the Mediterranean Sea.

From Central Asian languages ​​in this group could be attributed partly Uzbek and Kazakh. Uzbek and Kazakh languages ​​are written in turn exerted some influence on the formation of literary languages ​​of neighboring written peoples Turkmen, Uighur, on the one hand, and the Kyrgyz and the Karakalpak — on the other.

The second group consisted of Turkic peoples, whose languages ​​are not yet developed into a national and were either non-literate or from the script, poorly developed. These peoples concerned Chuvash, Kumyks, Nogai, Karakalpak, Kyrgyz, Yakuts.

It should be noted, however, that the level of national identity, national culture and the degree of formation of national language were different for the above mentioned nations. For example, the Chuvash languages, Kumyk and Yakut languages ​​are more advanced with respect to the other languages ​​of the group of Turkic nations and the Kazakh language to a large extent already acquired the characteristics of a national language. However, all these people were not even the necessary and well established four criteria, which are, by definition, Stalin, are characteristic of nations.

Finally, in the last group of the Turkic peoples were Altai, Khakassia, Tuva (then a part of feudal Mongolia) Chulyms, gaoeriktsy, kamasins, Karagas (Tofa) Shor et al., Before the Great October Socialist Revolution fragmented into separate groups of peoples and tribes and essentially doomed to destruction and disappearance. For example, in the recent past Altai consisted of two ethnic groups, which in turn fragmented into smaller tribal units (Altai Kizhi Teleuts, Telengits, Toles, tirgeshi, tuba, Kumandins, Chelkans and so on.).

These fragmented small closed tribes had no major economic centers and were essentially subsistence farming. They have not yet consolidated in the nation and did not have the appropriate common language, as characterized by a variety of tribal languages ​​and dialects, marginalized and greatly differing features and vocabulary of some grammatical structure, although common in origin. These tribal languages ​​and dialects had no written language, except for the publication of certain religious books on the alphabet developed by the missionaries.

The same motley group of tribes and clans were also modern Khakassia, which consisted of the following tribal connections: koybaly, sagaytsy, Kachin, beltirtsy, Shor, kyzyltsy and so on. Languages ​​Altai, Khakassia and Tuva, at the initial stage of national ^ education, hitherto retain dialectal features of tribal languages ​​that are included in these nations.

With regard to the periodization of the development process of the Turkic languages ​​to the Great October Socialist Revolution must be said that, despite the available diversity of levels of development of these languages, and outlines the following two are common to most peoples periods: 1) during the formation of the majority of modern Turkic peoples in independent nation with a common language, covering mainly XIV-XIX centuries., and 2) the time of the birth of a number of nations and national languages, dating back to the second half of the XIX century., until 1917.

The first period is characterized by the gradual addition of nationalities on the basis of merger related tribal groups and the gradual elaboration of common rules in the ethnic languages ​​leveling dialects — the former tribal languages. In this period the majority of modern Turkic peoples: Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Karakalpak, Uighurs, Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Kumyks Azerbaijanis, Yakuts, and others. The only exception is the Siberian Turkic tribes and some numerically small peoples in other parts of the present territory the Soviet Union, which did not have the appropriate conditions for the association in the nation. This period is characterized by an intensive development of folklore and in particular, the heroic epic and a significant gap between the spoken language of the whole people and the literature written languages ​​that were not at all people and used by the upper layers of the feudal society.

The second period is the period of completion of the development of peoples and the formation of nations, the emergence of the literary language as the highest form of popular language and the emergence of national languages ​​other than the languages ​​of ethnic groups is much greater volume and more universal public functions on the basis of securing them in the literature. During this period, the majority of Turkic peoples occurs intensification of the struggle between the two antagonistic camps: the reactionary-minded group of the ruling class seek to maintain standards of old written language, rich in Arabic constructions and farsizmami, and on the other hand, the advanced section of the people, the progressive democratic strata, fighting for convergence of literary languages a popular language for purists from Arabic, Persian and Turkish language for rapprochement with the culture and language of the great Russian people against the ideas of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islamism.

These are characterized by the progressive aspirations of a struggle Kayum Nasyri and then G. Tukai, S. Kamal, G. Kamal Tatar and other major poets and writers for the creation of the Tatar national language.

The same should be said about the founders of the Azerbaijani national literary language-M. Akhundov, J.. Mammadguluzadeh G. Zardebi, Agverdieve A. et al., «Islamism, -pisal MF Akhundov — did not bring our fatherland nothing but harm. The Arabs not only undermine our power and glory, ravaged and plundered our country, but we have imposed their own alphabet, which hinders access to literacy and learning which requires many years of work «(from a letter to Mirza Yusuf Khan). The progressive role of MF Akhundov is he in the struggle for the literary Azerbaijani language sought, on the one hand, to clear it from a variety of Arabic and Persian words, but on the other — to enrich the vocabulary of the language of the Russian language and thus bring Azerbaijan language to the Russian language and culture of Azerbaijan to the Russian culture.

If MF Akhundov was the founder of the Azerbaijani language literary works of art, the Gasanbekov Zardebi be considered the creator of the language of the Azerbaijani journalism and the media. The language of his scientific publications are extremely proximity to the colloquial language. He, as well as the M- F- Akhundov, looking for maximum approximation to the literary language of the broad masses as opposed to the reaction of Azerbaijani journalists of the time, a language which, due to the extremely large number of Arabisms and farsizmov, had the character of social jargon and was completely unavailable people.

The same role in the history of the Kazakhs and Kazakh literary language played a major Kazakh educators of the late XIX century. Abai Kunanbayev, Ibrahim Altynsarin and others. However, the consolidation of the Kazakh national language in literature should be referred to a later period.

So, to the Great October Socialist Revolution Turkic peoples and tongues of Russia in terms of its development is rather mixed picture. Only a very few of the Turkic languages ​​have their own written language, remaining for the most part either with some rudiments of writing, or, as is typical for most unwritten languages.

Those few languages ​​have reached the level of self-literary national language, what were Tatar, Azerbaijani, Uzbek et al., To the recent past based usually on the rules of the old writings (books) languages, characterized by archaic vocabulary, rich Arab-Iranian borrowing and some archaic features of grammatical structure. The formation of national languages ​​in most of the Turkic peoples of Russia before the revolution is not over. The feudal-clerical circles and the most reactionary part of the bourgeoisie (Tatar, Azerbaijani, Uzbek) promoted the idea of ​​Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islamism, sought to substitute its own national language of the old literary language, characterized by richness in vocabulary and even grammar elements of Turkish and Persian languages. Against this, the purity of the national language, with the introduction of a nationwide literary language rules of the spoken language, for rapprochement with the culture and language of the Russian people fought progressive democratic circles.

Drawing most of the old written language based on the traditional Arabic alphabet is very poorly reflecting the sound system of Turkic languages ​​and generally unsuitable for them. The only exception was the Chuvash literary language and the rudiments of writing some Siberian Turkic peoples who used the Russian graphics.

II

Great October Socialist Revolution opened a new era in the development of the Soviet peoples and their languages. Release of the October Revolution of peoples and massive shifts in economic, political and cultural of their development is also characterized by a significant development of the languages ​​of these peoples, the creation of many new literary language, the development of writing for languages ​​had no written language, enriching the vocabulary of the language and the famous perfection of their grammatical structure .

However, all these changes in the development of the languages ​​of the Soviet Union that took place in the era after the October Revolution, should not be regarded as the formation of any new language with a new basic word stock and a new grammatical system, as well as improving the existing languages, expanding their functions and turning tribal languages ​​and peoples in the development of national language with a rich vocabulary and terminology.

Together with a significant enrichment of the vocabulary of these languages ​​are known to occur, and the redistribution of vocabulary between the basic vocabulary and vocabulary. The vocabulary is like a moving fore in the development of language, with whom he comes into motion and change, but more slowly, and basic vocabulary and grammar more slowly language.

New socialist conditions of economy and culture, a sharp rise in literacy rates and the beneficial effects of the Russian language in the development of other national languages ​​of the Soviet Union — all these factors contributed to the acceleration of the development of language, meaning and continued expansion and increasing complexity of their functions in connection with the school teaching, the development of the press, scientific and political literature, grew more rapidly.

As a result of the creation of the national republics and regions, along with the change of the foundations of literary dialect spoken, cleansing them from the elements jargon ruling classes, even more of their approach to the rules of common language in the course of the consolidation of peoples in the socialist nation, appear and develop national languages. Nation, revival of the Great October Revolution, received the right to national self-determination, grow into independent nations and their languages ​​- in local languages, which are developed on the basis of a new national literature, school teaching, press, theater, government paperwork. The continuous growth of industry, agriculture, culture, science and technology requires the language of the new replenishment and development of its vocabulary, terminology, improving the graphics, spelling, and in connection with the development of different styles — and the demand for greater flexibility of language — and further development of the grammatical structure.

Leninist-Stalinist national policy has contributed to the development of national consciousness is not only more or less large nations oppressed in the former Russian Empire, but small tribes and nationalities that were doomed under capitalism to extinction and death. With the help of the great Russian people, these are small in number, ethnic group, along with the economic development on the basis of socialist methods of production, raised and developed well and their socialist in content and national in form and culture have not only universal literacy, but also significant progress in the development of its literature, science and the arts.

This group of Turkic peoples, to the era that October had not yet been formed into independent nation and represented a non-consolidated disparate tribal groups include, for example, Nogai, Khakassia, Altai, Shor and other nations.

The largest of these ethnic groups, for example, Khakassia and Altai in the development of the Soviet state formed independent and autonomous regions through the Leninist-Stalinist national policy had the opportunity to develop themselves in equal socialist nations, bypassing the stages of development of them as bourgeois nations.

A striking example of such a revived nation, to successfully develop their national culture nowadays are Khakassia, united in their national Khakass Autonomous Region that came as an independent administrative unit in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

With the recent unification of Khakass people into a single nation, evolving into a socialist nation, the modern Khakas language, tribal groups, respectively, included in it, it consists of several dialects, historically dating back to various tribal languages. Prior to the merger into a single nation Khakases there was not only a literary, but in general a single spoken language. There were only the tribal groupings individual dialects: sagayskoe, beltirskoe, Kachin, and Koybalskoy Kyzylskaya that now though partly preserved their own characteristics, but gradually, under the influence of the literary language, offset, blend in with the norms of the literary language. Consequently, modern Khakassia national language, the national language becomes important, as a result of consolidation, consolidation Khakass tribes into a single team, has now become a single dominant language of the Khakass Autonomous Region. It is based on not all tribal dialects united to them, and only one of them, namely, sagaysko Kaczynski, has historically had earlier united essentially two dialects, with the dominant role sagayskogo dialect. In parallel with the establishment of the database dialect literary language directly after the formation of the Khakass Autonomous Region began to develop Khakassian alphabet Khakass written language, which, after use, the first missionary of the old Russian alphabet on the basis of (1922-1928), then the Latinized (1928-1938), finally established a common with the Russian alphabet chart supplemented with several letters for specific Khakassian sounds.

A similar process of gradual consolidation of disparate tribal groups into a single nation, and, then, a socialist nation and the formation of a unified whole people of the national language took place in the era after the Great October Socialist Revolution and the modern Gorno-Altai Autonomous Region, in the Tuva Autonomous Region and some other republics and regions .

So modern Altai, united in the common nationality, sb made up as part of the Khakass nation, it included several tribal groups who have successfully completed the process of its development as an independent and full-fledged socialist nation.

Before the Great October Socialist Revolution Altai had written and literary language, created by the missionaries, who used it for their own purposes. After the revolution, the old Altai literary language, which was based on a minor dissemination Teleut dialect, was far from the whole people of the Altai language, and therefore the base of the literary language was soon changed and it was based on other more mass self-Altai dialects, most fully reflects the the laws of all the Altai language.

However, this behavior of the very basis of the literary language is only possible when the old literary language is the language of a particular tribe, which is in the process of consolidation was included in the broader community of kindred tribes and peoples, larger in its composition.

Common to the processes of Khakass and Altai language features were also the processes of formation of other Turkic languages, standing at the general level with them, and in particular the formation of the Tuvan language.

Thus, the formation of the Turkic languages ​​of national socialist nations of the Soviet Union, with baseline differences of each individual people, in general, took place in the same historical conditions of rise of the socialist economy and culture of all peoples of the USSR.

Hence, of course, we should not draw conclusions about the presence of only the general regularities in the formation of national languages, because each language is known to be developing according to its domestic laws, not directly, depending on the economic and political conditions.

Therefore, a more detailed and thorough study and careful analysis of regularities in language development of socialist nations must be made differentiated with respect to each specific language and each historical period of its development. It should be taken into account and those general features of languages, which are formed according to the geographical proximity of these languages ​​to other literary language, for example, some of the common features of the Turkic languages ​​of the Volga region, which is influenced by the Tatar language, common features of the Turkic languages ​​of the Caucasus due to the impact on them the development of the Azerbaijani language in the period of pre-revolutionary, unwritten state.

However, the overall historical perspective on the development of literary languages ​​of the peoples of the Soviet Union in the era of socialism under Soviet statehood and socialist construction, and allows you to define some general trends in the development of these languages, each of which, of course, as a result of this development, and also receives a characteristic specific features.

Bearing in mind these general historical conditions of development languages ​​socialist nations within the borders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, you can install a known sequence, and periodization in their development, based on the fundamental, historically significant, a period of national development of the peoples of the USSR in the era after the Great October Socialist Revolution. The major periods in the development of the Soviet peoples and their languages ​​in the post-October epoch of the two can be considered:

1) during the formation of national autonomy and literary languages ​​- from the beginning of October to the development of socialist construction, and so on. E. From 1917 to 1928, and 2) the period of extensive socialist construction and the growth of the national in form and socialist in content culture of the peoples of the USSR — with 1928 to the present.

Thus, the Leninist-Stalinist national policy, and the formation of national republics and regions have created favorable conditions for the development of national literary languages, which are improving and polishing, it has not changed, but its base is exceptionally stable and resistant. The nature of language change in the aftermath of the October Revolution can be judged from the statement of JV Stalin with respect to changes in the Russian language in the same period: «What has changed during this period in the Russian language? Changed to a certain extent the vocabulary of the Russian language has changed in the sense that added a significant number of new words and expressions that have arisen in connection with the emergence of a new socialist production, the emergence of a new state, a new socialist culture, a new public morality, finally, in connection with the growth of technology and science; It changes the meaning of a number of words and expressions that have received a new semantic value; Dropped from the dictionary for a number of obsolete words. As for the basic lexical fund and the grammatical structure of the Russian language, form the basis of the language, they are after the elimination of the capitalist basis is not only not been eliminated and replaced by a new basic word stock and a new grammatical system of the language, but on the contrary, remained intact and left without -or major changes — it survived as the basis of the modern Russian language. «1

The same character were changes during this period and in the languages ​​of other peoples and, in particular, in the Turkic languages, which are, however, being less developed language than Russian, respectively, were more significant and sometimes quite significant changes, which nevertheless not affect existing language and its foundation.

Acad. Vinogradov, highlighting the fundamental differences between the internal laws of the development of language and changes in language, caused by social conditions, writes: «For social conditions of language development are changing its social foundations, non-governmental organization of its carriers, due to the development of society. The language of the tribe, language, nationality and national language vary in the amount and diversity of its social application, in its organizing and unifying force for the dialects and, therefore, in part by elements of its quality. Most opportunities to develop the language of the tribe, its ability to become the language of peoples, nations due to economic, cultural and historical conditions of the tribe. That is why the language should be studied in close connection with the history of society, with all the complex characteristic of a particular era of social and economic relations. «2

Social conditions that arose in the era after the Great October Socialist Revolution, caused relatively deep changes in all the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR, mainly: a) on the expansion of the significance of the literary language as the main language of the national republics and regions, the development of writing, improving the graphics and new relations arising between nation-wide literary language, on the one hand, and the regional dialects of the language — the other; b) in relation to the extraordinary growth of the vocabulary of the national languages, and c) with respect to certain shifts in the development of phonetic and grammatical structure of the system, is to enrich the sound structure of language and grammatical structure of some changes, mainly in the area of ​​syntax, which is enriched with new designs offer.

All of these changes should be deep and comprehensive study differentiated with respect to each specific language and consistently on key periods of development in the post-October epoch languages.

Ill

Regarding the basic and general trends in the development of literature written languages, we must first consider the general issues of formation of literary languages, and in particular, the question of the relationship between literary language and dialects, those relations which have changed dramatically, along with the extraordinary increase in the value of literary languages ​​in the post-October period.

Expansion of social functions popular language associated with the expansion of the network of secondary schools, higher education institutions, the growth of the press, artistic, scientific and political literature, the development of the theater, broadcasting in these languages, and so on., — Promotes extraordinary enrichment of languages ​​both due to their internal resources, at the expense of dialects and sub-dialects, the same vocabulary by borrowing from other neighboring languages ​​and especially the great Russian language. These fast pace of the process of enrichment of the literary languages ​​most clearly visible in the new literary language, the problems of some people in the post-October period. In connection with the new challenges and needs of developing literary language or dialect varies based on language, for example, the Altai, or the process of concentration of dialects, all the riches which are used to enrich the literary language, for example, the Khakass. The process of concentration of dialects and leveling and grinding under the leadership of one of them, sometimes reaches its completion, a full merger, the convergence of dialects as we can ascertain, for example, in relation to sagayskogo and Kachin dialects Khakass language is largely lost their differences, or Teleut, Thelen-gitskogo and self-Altai dialects of Altai language. Largely peremolovshimisya appeared also speaks the Kazakh language.

Profound changes have also occurred in languages ​​that occurred before the October Revolution has long been the current script and the old literary tradition. A striking example of this is the Uzbek literary language, which until October had archaic features that link it with the old Uzbek literary language, developed back in the XV century. Only the foundation of the socialist era literary language has undergone a radical change in the direction of convergence of standards with the norms of the literary language of the living, inclusive of spoken language. At the same time in the early stages of post-revolutionary development of the Uzbek literary language was guided by singarmonisticheskie kishlak says, and only in his early thirties, are the basis of dialect Tashkent-Fergana city says more fully reflect the general laws of development of the Uzbek language.

The struggle for the dialectal basis of the national literary language was related to the political struggle. For example, in Uzbekistan the bourgeois-nationalist elements in an effort to lead the Uzbek language of the total flow of the languages ​​of socialist nations, tried to «create» an artificial literary language based on the language of the old book with a focus on the use of the Arab-farsizmov, obscure people. These bookshelves, incomprehensible to the people, and Arabic constructions • farsizmami sometimes dazzles, unfortunately, modern Uzbek poetry. There were also attempts to «create» a literary language based on interdialect mixture by an artificial combination of features of grammatical structure and vocabulary of all the dialects of the Uzbek language. An example of such artificial introduction of the Uzbek literary language of grammatical forms, little understood or known to most Uzbeks, is a form of communion in the future tense -azhak taken from Khorezm dialect of the Uzbek language.

Literary language in the early stages of its development jealously guard nationalists of mass integrated in them Russian and international words and terms that are artificially were eliminated and replaced in some languages ​​alien to the broad masses of Arabic and Persian words, and in others — artificially created «national», but as alien and incomprehensible to the people of words and terms.

A fierce struggle was waged in the development of writing for both arises the new literary languages ​​and languages ​​that had the old written tradition. The bourgeois nationalists of all forces clung to the old, completely unsuitable for Turkic languages ​​Arabic alphabet. Supporters of the Arabic alphabet then sought to maintain the general principles of the old traditional Arabic script for all Turkic languages, had the basis for drawing the literary language Arabic alphabet. But soon, due to the general trend of convergence of literature written languages ​​with live spoken national language and the need to reflect this in a letter to the national peculiarities of language, they were forced by the masses to embark on the «reform» of Arabic script and these half-measures to save it. There was a lot of different options reformed Arabic alphabet adapted to singarmoni-tic languages ​​(for example, the Kazakh version of its universal character «dayakshy» regulate the vocalism of the whole word) and for languages, characterized by changes and violations of the laws of vowel harmony ‘(for example, options for Tatar, Uzbek, Azeri) and so on.

New challenges of literary languages, arising from a growing economy and culture, and soon secured a victory and over the old-fashioned way of writing and all the Turkic languages ​​have moved mostly to the Latin first, and then based on Russian alphabet.

Basic and exceptional in its scope changes in the languages ​​of the USSR took place in their vocabulary. Pointing out that «the language reflects changes in production immediately and directly, without waiting for changes in the basis», — Comrade Stalin stressed that «the vocabulary of a language, as the most sensitive to changes in a state of almost constant change, in this language, unlike the superstructure, does not have to wait for the liquidation basis, he makes changes in his vocabulary before the liquidation basis and irrespective of the basis.

However, the vocabulary of a language does not change as the extension, not by abolishing the old and building a new, but by replenishing the existing vocabulary with new words that have arisen due to changes in the social system, the development of production, with the development of culture, science and so on. N. In this case, despite the fact that from the vocabulary of the language falls usually a number of obsolete words, added to it a much greater number of new words. «

Lexicon thus need to be considered in the process of gradual change in accordance with the shifts and changes in the history of the people, the language of the media, therefore, in this context is particularly important correctly built periodization of the history of the language of each particular language. His most development language is to change the meaning of words, the gradual withering away and the loss of some obsolete words and vocabulary replenishment far more new words. It comes as a completion dictionary from the resources of the native language, and by borrowing the words of the Russian language, which has a rich vocabulary. It should also be emphasized that, according to the instructions of Stalin, the greatest development is subject to the part of the vocabulary of which is associated with the production and social relations, and less susceptible to changes in vocabulary, related, for example, with the relationship of man to nature itself.

After 1917, all the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR are a common way of development, preserving their specific features. They form also some general patterns in the development of their vocabulary. First of all, it should be noted that with regard to the nature of changes in vocabulary, dying off and falling out certain words and replenishment of new words are still some local characteristics for some groups of Turkic languages. Thus, developed for a long time common phenomena in the lexicon, for example, in the languages ​​of the Turkic peoples of Siberia, are characterized by common features of its historical development and the characteristics of his life, as well as common sources of borrowing vocabulary (Mongolian, Tungus, Finno-Ugric languages ​​as well as Chinese, Sanskrit and other languages), and is now stored. The same can be said of the Turkic languages ​​of the Volga region, the Caucasus, Central Asia, with its own characteristics and sources of borrowing.

However, the general socialist character of the economy of all the peoples of the USSR and the general socialist in content culture promote education in the vocabulary of a number of languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR significant in terms of the total layer, which is mainly socio-political, scientific and professional terminology, ie, . e. the part of the vocabulary that relates to the post-October period.

These laws define the general and specific features of the basic processes of language change — the withering away of old words and updating the dictionary with new words.

In describing the processes of development of the vocabulary of the Russian language in the era of socialism, Stalin points to the following change: firstly, the vocabulary of the Russian language, «added a significant number of new words and expressions,» and secondly, «changed the meaning of words and number expressions, acquired a new meaning of «and thirdly,» dropped from the vocabulary of a number of obsolete words. «5

The same processes loss of old words and addition of new words, but to a much larger scale, occurred after October, and in the languages ​​of the formerly backward peoples of the Soviet Union, in a short historical period that replenishes vocabulary that accumulated over a number of periods in the Russian language.

So, in the Turkic languages ​​of Siberia, due to the growth of the new socialist mode of production and a new socialist culture, gradually dies vocabulary associated with the old socio-economic formation, the old ideology and culture. For example, in the Altai language from the active vocabulary of the modern generation gradually falls terminology related to primitive subsistence farming, the old way of life, religious beliefs. Fall terms such as alt. Abylai «hoe» andazyn «kind of primitive plow»; / amza / g Mong. «Zaisan-feudal title-sergeant»; Albanians’ tribute to file «selbik» submit to zaisan «Suna, sur, uzut, KUTP» soul «(in various modifications and conversions of old shamanic beliefs Altai) kbrmbs» spirit of the dead «and so on. n.

The languages ​​of the peoples who stood up to the revolution on a relatively higher level of economic development, social relations and culture, the individual words for the old concepts fall and are replaced by new words, contained similar, but new concepts, such as Uzbek. dorulfunun in the old sense of «High School», the letters, the «gates of Sciences», the word is replaced by a new university in a new meaning; karakalp.- mustatsyllsch or falls out of the dictionary and replaced by a new word autonomy; audaryspats, «a revolution, a revolution» forced out the word revolution, and so on. f. In the same move in the Karakalpak language archaisms and historicism are primarily drawn from the terms of the Russian language as Bolysov «rural municipality» pryystap «bailiff» and so on. n.

It should be noted, however, that the dying and falling out of the vocabulary of obsolete words and expressions does not occur suddenly, but through their gradual expulsion first from the active part of the vocabulary in the passive and from productive to unproductive and then in the category of rarely-used words — archaisms which eventually fall out of all vocabulary. Wed., for example, the transition into the category of historical vocabulary words such as Peasants, the tax in kind, educational program, and so on. N. In the Russian language, as well as their equivalents in the languages ​​of other peoples of the USSR.

Broader in scope and complex in a variety of techniques is the process of replenishment of the vocabulary of the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR.

The main sources of the vocabulary of the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR are: a) the resources of their native language and b) Russian vocabulary and terminology.

The most extensive and rich source of enrichment of the vocabulary of a language-specific basic vocabulary of a language, with its root core. Features of word of each language are inexhaustible. «The reasons for the emergence of new words are to changes in society, in the development of production and other areas of human activity. But the methods of forming these words if they are created from the material resources of the language, has defined the internal laws of language development. «6

To a method for the formation of new words from their native language resources should include an expression of new concepts through: 1) tracing, 2) rethinking of old words by narrowing or widening values, 3) complex words and combinations of words, 4) derived words and 5) abbreviated words.

The most productive of these methods is a rethinking of old words and their adaptation to the designation of new emerging concepts in the language.

Applying to designate a new concept or that are available ready-made word, the language develops this concept, bringing in the word a new meaning, a wider or narrower.

An example of narrowing values ​​can serve dim. kyaalan- || kystalan «crisis» (the previous value — «embarrassment, harassment, embarrassment-position»); mdroy «competition» (the previous value — «the goal, the prize in the contest»), etc .; Kazakh, buy «rich» 7 (in the same sense:

1) «the rich man, the exploiter»; 2) to affix accessories such as bayym «my husband»; 3) «the rich»).

As an example, expansion values ​​can be reduced dim. sogush «battle» (and «collision, fight»); tebu «pace» (and also «kick kicking») Ichke / gt; ideal «attack» (as well as the «go ahead»); agar «sacred» (and «holy») karakalp. Sailau «election» (as well as «selection, selection, picking out»); Orynbasar «change» (ie pionerler — komsomoldyng Orynbasar «pioneers, the change of the Young Communist League,» as well as «substitute deputy»), etc .; Turkmens. Kuwwat «power» (as well as «strength, power»), goranma «defense» (as well as the «fence, fence»); Mudd «stuff» (as well as «matter, the stuff») and so on.

A very productive is a method for tracing, naprimerg most Turkic languages ​​beshyyllsch or beszhyllsch «Five-Year Plan» (the word is a combination of the run or the devil «five» Yıl zhyl or «year» and affix abstract concept -lsch) Wed. Turkmens. uchburchluk «triangle» (uch of «three» Burch + «angle» + affix-face); Halkaro «international» (Hulk from «the people», ara «the gap between»); tat. kuchme Kyzyl Bayrak «transitional red flag» karakalp. zhamietlik zhumys «social work»; zhotsary Otsu Ornan, «higher education»; Ozzy otsyttsysh «tutorial» and so on. n.

To enrich the vocabulary of the widely used as a method of composition and phrases, the method of paired words and at least — the way hard-abbreviated words. By the words and terms of this group include: a) the phrase, consisting of two or more words and expressing one concept: ALT. ishkuchile / atkan «worker» (literally, «living their labor»), tdrol Uchun jyy «Patriotic War» (literally, «a war for the homeland»); maktulu board «Hall of Fame» (literally, «a board with honor»); karakalp. hauada Wushu «ballooning» (literally, «flying through the air»); Su ayrgtpasy «watershed» (literally, «water separator or rivers»); tat. uylap tabuchy «inventor» bonds yoreshle harvester «self-propelled harvester»; Turkmens. vnumchilik capital «productive capital,» Dil bilimi «Linguistics» and so on. n.

b) a pair of words: alt. EP-sume «method» (ep of «agility» scrip «fiction»), Amyr-enchu ​​»peace»; Al-Kursakov «food», and so on. n .; c) the compounding of the full or abbreviated words such as alt. kolchabysh «applause» (literally, «applause»); jypm — farming «agriculture»; politishchi «political commissar»; tat. kupstanokchy «mnogostanochnik»; raybashkarma «executive committee», etc .; Turkmens. Turkmendvv-letneshir «Turkmengosizdat» and so on.

No less productive way is affixation or use of the service and support words. At the same time baselines are often also borrowed words such as alt. remontto- «repair» {repairs + verb affix education on behalf -tolt; ^ — talt; ^ — la); Kolkhozchiyon «kolkhoz» (collective + affix profession BBC -chy) and mobilize ederge «mobilivizovat» (izinfinitia Russian verb and auxiliary verb ethno «do»), etc .; karakalp. koloniyalsch «colonial» (colony + adjective affix -lsch, -lik); konveyerli «pipeline» (conveyor + affix of possession -ly — Do), as well as trip ET «secondment» (where ET auxiliary service); Turkmens. leninchi «Leninist» partiyaly «party member» agentlik «agency» pasportlagidyrma «certification» analizleme «analyzing» and so on.

In the first period of development of the national languages ​​since 1917 approximately 1928, to express new concepts in some languages ​​are characteristic of bourgeois nationalist attempts plantations Arab-Iranian terminology of old writings (books) languages, which later, as a rule, has been replaced with common to all languages Soviet Russian and international terms.

Vividly these trends expressed in the languages ​​of Central Asia, cf., For example, following the previously existing artificial term: Uzbek. ischilob «revolution» zhumuuriyat «republic» Tirzah «party» and so on. n .; Turkmens. darylylym «academy», sermayadar «capitalist» zerre «molecule», etc .; karakalp. Wazir «minister», dzhamietshilik «socialism» and so on. n.

However, it should be noted that many Arab-Iranian words in the same language, not only firmly established in the vocabulary, but also in the basic vocabulary of languages ​​and have been used successfully in the modern language on a par with nezaimstvovannymi words.

Arab-Iranian words and terms in one way or another present in all Turkic languages, in addition to the Turkic languages ​​of Siberia, carriers which historically were not part of the sphere of influence of Islam and the culture of the peoples of Iran and Arabia. In the past, rather than the Arab-Iranian borrowing has many Mongolian words, less characteristic of the Turkic languages ​​of the Volga region, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It should be noted that the popular spoken languages ​​contain significantly fewer araboiranskih words than those written (book) languages ​​of the past.

A characteristic feature of the Arab-Iranian borrowing in the Turkic languages ​​is that they are mainly represented by nouns and adjectives rarely. As for other nominal parts of speech and of the Arab and Persian verbs, they usually do not assimilate the Turkic languages, except for the so-called compound verbs, consisting of a name and an auxiliary verb, exactly where a part can be expressed and loan words.

The vast majority of Arab and Iranian debt preserved in modern languages, is in its importance mainly to the concepts related to religion and science, as well as of some of the socio-political and other vocabulary.

Internal derivation possibilities basic lexical fund each language extremely high. However, commonality of historical conditions, as mentioned already above, was the reason for the introduction of modern national literature in the languages ​​of the USSR Russian sets of words and terms.

The impact of the Russian language on the development of the languages ​​of the Soviet Union began in the pre-October epoch, but then Russian borrowing mainly refers to household or vocabulary or terminology related to agriculture, trade relations, administration and partly cultural.

By borrowing this period include words such as: karakalp. kengse «Office» badyrats «laborer» shirkeu «church» parahot «steamer» May «card suit» samovryn «samovar», etc .; alt. serip «sickle» salam «straw» Soucek «Soucek» simitten «sour» Sakon «law» or Punt Mõntu «pound», etc .; Turkmens. hip «bucket» prystav «bailiff», day or hundreds of «court» and others.

The overwhelming majority of Russian and international words borrowed through the Russian language was included in the Turkic languages ​​in post-October period.

The first period of the development of the national republics and regions characterized by purist tendencies withdrawal of Russian and international words that until 1928, as a rule, or artificially translated into the native language, or replace the Arab-Iranian terms, for example, in the Karakalpak language: audaryspan; «Revolution» (literally, «rollover, rollover») silteushilik «briefing» (literally, «direction»), Shaitan Arba «bicycle» (literally, «Devil’s crew wagon»), by bullock cart «train, train» (lit. , «fire wagon»), and so on. n.

In the period of extensive socialist construction of the national republics huge shifts in economic and cultural development, the transition to a new, first in Latin and then in the Russian plan, the growth of literacy, the strengthening and development of the literature of the peoples of the USSR to a large extent affected the development of the vocabulary of the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR . Despite opposition from burzhuaznonatsionalisticheski minded elements in languages ​​began to penetrate Russian and international words, forcing artificially introduced and mastered by the masses of the Arab-Iranian words and terms.

The development of the vocabulary of the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR in particular contributed to the translation of literature in Russian schedule, which has further strengthened the tide of Russian lexicon. Russian and international terms, as a rule, become assimilated into Russian spelling form, which greatly facilitated also easier assimilation of the Russian language.

The continuous growth of the economy, culture, science and literature contributed to the further enrichment of the vocabulary and terminology of all industries and culture. The influx of Russian and international vocabulary and mostly socio-political and scientific terminology is increasing every year, and now exceeds its share of terminology sometimes reserve Native words.

Borrowed through the Russian language vocabulary and terminology covers all major areas of vocabulary and all the special terminology of the industry of the languages ​​of the USSR. It forms common to all the languages ​​of the Soviet Union lexical fund, generated by the same social conditions of these languages ​​in the post-October period.

By common to all peoples of the USSR foundation of vocabulary and terminology are political and economic, scientific-technical and kulturnobytovye terms, such as: the revolution, the proletariat, the country, party, communism, socialism, democracy, farm, factory, combines, tractors, philosophy, mathematics , chemistry, biology, atom, amps, volts, Culture magazine, theater, museum, sports, telephone, radio, and so on. n.

Besides international in its design and meaning of the words, as part of a borrowed through the Russian language vocabulary there is also a category of words that are specific and general meaningfully only Russian terminology for example, words such as industry, government, university, factory, art, creativity, horn, ice cream, etc., p.

Borrowed from the words of the Russian language, as well as used to express new concepts root words can narrow or expand its meaning, Wed. karakalp. Bolysov (from the Russian. «parish») within the meaning of «rural municipality»; mement (from the Russian. «moment») within the meaning of «time»; Yakutsk. Baku (from the Russian. «rest») within the meaning of ‘leisure, free time «; biecher (from the Russian. «evening») to mean «a gathering, party,» kuruubay {from Russian. «Rude») within the meaning of «grumpy» and so on. P. 9.

Sometimes Russian words borrowed in the value is not peculiar to them in Russian, for example, karakalp. the first (from the Russian. «first») to mean «very good, the best» or Yakutsk. kirilies (from the Russian. «porch») within the meaning of «ladder»; Meheex (from the Russian. «Bag») within the meaning of «a hundred rubles» bietes (from the Russian. «Rags») within the meaning of «lining clothing» and so. N.

The grammatical relation to the vast majority of nth-borrowed through the Russian language the word refers to the nouns to adjectives and less. Other parts of speech, with rare exceptions, are not found among loanwords. It is significant that, for example, the Yakut language borrowed from the Russian verb forms, some are perceived as names, Wed. meIey (from the Russian. «disturb») within the meaning of «disturbance»; boduus (from the Russian. «mess about») within the meaning of «fuss, bother,» kvduus (from the Russian. «godis») within the meaning of «suitability, availability, use» et al.

Sometimes Russian significant words used in the languages ​​of the USSR only in the service value, cf., For example, Yakutsk. Muori (and Russian. «sea») to mean «a lot»; Kuhu Muori elbeh «so many people»; Haar Muori tuste «snow fell very much» and so on. n.

However, the monotony of the grammatical foundations borrowed words, t. E. It is their value largely neutralized by means of word in the language.

Thanks to an extensive arsenal of word-building means many of the language borrowed words, doing «at the disposal of grammar», form a set of derived forms, are distributed in their grammatical meaning of the various parts of speech. The most productive affixes word formation from the basics of loan words in Turkic languages ​​are:

1) formation of a verb affix the name of la / le, in conjunction with which borrowed the word acquires the meaning of the verb stem, Wed. karakalp. farm «farm» kolhozla-chdelat in kolkhoz «kolhozlas-» collectivized «kolhozlastyr-hours. collectivize «kolhozlasu

«Collectivization» kolhozlasushy «collectivized» kolhozlastsan «collectivized» and so on. D.

2) affix of possession -ly / li forms a shape corresponding to the Russian adjective, Wed. karakalp. traktorly «having a tractor with a tractor»;

3) affix to a negation, the absence of the subject -syz / -siz, Wed. karakalp. traktorsyz chbez tractor «;

4) affix forming in the modern language relative tide-gatelnyh: -lyts / -lik, Wed. karakalp. demokratiyalsch «democratic» kolhozlsch «collective farm»;

5) affix forming in the modern language upodobitelnye adjectives: -Give / -dey, Wed. karakalp. motorday «as a motor»;

6) affix forming in the modern language dialects: -sha / -she, Wed. karakalp. demokratgia «democratically»;

7) affix -shy1-shek forming attributive form of a noun within the meaning of the name of the profession, Wed. karakalp. Tractor-shy «tractor.»

All borrowed words of the vocabulary of each language are common to the root of the word system of word formation and inflection to form common to all Turkic languages ​​are two main functional forms of grammatical derivation: a) the substantive form, and b) attribute form (realized in its two versions attributive and adverbial) and common to all Turkic languages ​​are two major lexical and grammatical forms of the lexical derivation: a) unverbalized and b) verbalized form, for example, in the Karakalpak language:

Unverbalized form:

1) substantive: the farm, a Democrat;

2) attribute: a) Identification: kolhozshy «relating to the farm, farmer,» kolhozshy «having a farm with a collective farms, collective farms,» ​​kolhozsyz «without collective farm, which has no collective farms» kolhozlyts «kolkhoz» demokratlyts «democratic» and b ) adverbial: kolhozgia «in the collective farm» democracy, «democratically».

Verbalized form:

1) substantive (s action): kolhozlasu «collectivization» demokratlasu «democratization» and others.

2) attributive: a) Identification (communion): kolhozlasschn «itinerant» demokratlaschan «democratize», and b) the adverbial (gerunds): kolhozlasyp «itinerant» demokratlasyp «democratize» and others.

, Thus, all the borrowed words are included in the system of language on general grounds and have a common root word to word formation and inflection system, ie. E. Subject to the internal laws of language development.

With regard to spelling mastered through the Russian language the word in different periods of their loans are processed differently. In the first years after the revolution borrowed through the Russian language the word is usually made according to their proiznositelnoj shape considering the phonetic features of the national language, Wed., for example, the old loans in the Altai language: salkobay «ruble, the ruble,» ostolmoTsstolmo «pillar» pyk «fluff «bdgrdp» cellar «ostol» table «and so on. n .; in the Karakalpak language: a) the old loan: porum «form», yskylat «warehouse» and so on. n. and b) new borrowings in the first period of development of the literary language, kelliyktip «collective», kzmuenes «Communist», ldpkvz «educational program» bagon «wagon» perma «farm» and so on. n .; in the Turkmen language: a) the old loan: epishge «window», assansyya «station» Magoon «wagon» and so on. n. and b) new borrowing of the first period — tylypun «phone», kapyratyl «cooperative», onbirsal «universal» and so on. p.1a

The biggest changes in loan words were subjected languages, had an insufficient number of differentiated consonants. These languages ​​include languages ​​such as Khakassia, Tuva, Sakha. Wed., for example, registration of borrowed through the Russian language words and terms in the Yakut language: mekvvh, Russian. «Bag» where the labial vowel word explained by one of the laws of vowel harmony — the reaction of the labial vowel o, a double century in the second syllable refers to the stress; replacement w ^ gt; b is due to the lack of consonant w in the Yakut language of the time, which usually was replaced with, but in the intervocalic position of phonetic laws goes into h, and thus the Russian word «bag» given in the Yakut mvkvvh; kuruubay or huruubay, Russian. «Rude», phonetically explained by: a) no ringing g at the beginning of the Yakut words; b) the impossibility of combination at the beginning of words in one syllable of two consonants c and the transition of the group in style, sparse hu vowel or Ku; c) the designation of long vowel stress and so on. d.

However, later, when Russian words were borrowed at a large scale, when the tradition of writing from former illiterate peoples largely strengthened when, along with a lot of new words and terms in national languages ​​began to penetrate and new sounds when the increased value of Russian as a second language language for all peoples of the Soviet Union — the spelling of borrowed words in national languages ​​is moving closer to Russian orthographic norms. However, the spelling of borrowed words, especially regarding the processing bases and affixes the borders, as well as in relation to word-building funds, and take into account the specific features of the national language, which has its own characteristics and its own internal laws of development. During the October Revolution languages ​​of the USSR not only greatly enriched his vocabulary, but to some extent broadened, and its basic lexical fund, which under the influence of extraordinary enrichment of vocabulary, there was a well-known rearrangement of words. In some parts changed, of course, and the grammatical structure of the language, keeping in all essentials the structure. There have been some phonetic changes.

So, due to the enrichment of the vocabulary composition and borrowing large amounts of words through the Russian language phonetic system of Turkic languages ​​has been enriched with new vowels and consonants, Turkic languages ​​such as Kazakh, Karakalpak, Nogai and others. Vocalism of which is characterized by the absence of normal narrow vowels complete education, relevant Russian vowel silt, learned these sounds together with the adopted Russian lexicon. Tatar and Bashkir languages ​​have borrowed together with Russian words, vowels, corresponding to her about the Russian, who did not have before in their phonetic system.

Even more it changed composition consonants. Most of the Turkic languages ​​for them to learn new consonants p, b, c, w. Kazakh, Karakalpak, and some other Turkic languages ​​have borrowed the same consonants and, moreover, absent in these languages ​​according to part, Khakass language — f, c, u, u, u, x, and Yakut — f, c, u, u , w, x, z.

Along with the change in the composition of sounds modern Turkic languages ​​are gradually changing also inherent in these languages ​​phonetic patterns. Languages ​​maintain consistency synharmonism words, lose it in respect of borrowed words. Influence of the front and back vowels on neighboring vowels and consonants in borrowings Vova-words is limited in some languages, for example, in Kyrgyz, outside of one syllable. Change for loanwords also laws relating to the assimilation of consonants, and so on. D ,. In Turkic languages, where the system was limited to syllables only six types of syllables (a-, Ba-, removals, Bab, barb-, arb-) n, there are new types of syllables: marriages, brab-, brarb- and so on. Syllable structure and changing patterns in the phonetic loan words entail a change of venue and expiratory stress, which in modern languages ​​have borrowed words mobile character, while the first emphasis was strictly fixed.

Much slower, but changes and grammatical structure of language. As pointed out by Stalin: «He, of course, it undergoes changes over time, it improves, improves and refines its own rules, enriched by the new rules, but the fundamentals of grammatical structure are retained for a very long time, since they are, as history shows can successfully serve society for a number of periods. «12

Modern languages ​​of the USSR, have been subjected to a significant change in their vocabulary structure and developing and improving as literary language naturally improved in that time its grammatical structure, to clarify the rules change words and realized their internal capabilities with respect to the enrichment of its syntax, and so on. D.

In modern Turkic languages ​​is noticeable, for example, the trend of development and selection of fully independent part of speech adjective, which until recently was very poorly differentiated with a dialect, on the one hand, and the noun — on the other. Adjective in modern languages ​​have acquired an independent place in the system of parts of speech, and has developed its own system of word formation. Nominal affixes word formation: -ly / li (with options), -lyts! -lik (With options), -syz / -siz, and some others, had a slightly different meaning before, and now also gained importance affixes that form adjectives . Some languages, such as Altai, Khakass, Russian affixes borrowed adjectives education, and mastered only one form of neutral in respect of grammatical gender and the number of end: in the Altai language masculine form ethyl, -ski, which is used and is determined to stand in feminine (cf.. naukalar social «social science,» Communist party «Communist Party» and so on. n.); in Khakass language — a special form on -pay, -skay also neutral with respect to gender and number (Wed Azskyzskay area «Azskyzsky area» Verhovnay Council «Supreme Council» and so on. n.).

In connection with the development of complex structures offers an increasing number of different functional words and, in particular, the unions, which in the old language was much less. Changes in part the order of words in a sentence, this phenomenon is particularly evident in the spoken language. In certain specific cases is more versatile control of some verbs deaths, since in modern Turkic languages ​​booby verb «to ride anyone to sit on something» controls of the guide now and accusative, paydalan- verb «to use, use» — and the source and the accusative case, and so on. d.

Modified gradually grammatical relations in some designs offer, Wed., for example, change in shape of the logical subject in such constructions as Artistic auylsh baruymys kerekty should go to the village «(instead of the previous form bizding auylcha baruymyz Kerek) — in Karakalpak and other languages, and so on. P.

Languages ​​of the Soviet Union in the era after the Great October Socialist Revolution went a long way (some of them are spoken by unconsolidated tribal groups and nationalities to the languages ​​of socialist nations), and this long road conditions in other nations of the USSR performed in an unprecedented short period of time. It is therefore natural and significant shifts in these languages ​​in the sense of enriching their vocabulary and improving the composition and polishing their grammatical structure. However, all these changes are not in any way violate the centuries-old foundation of the language.

IV

Development, improvement and enrichment of the languages ​​of the Soviet Union in the era of development and formation of socialist nations is radically different from the same processes of formation of literary languages ​​before the Great October Socialist Revolution.

The development of national in form and socialist in content cultures of the peoples of the USSR, the expansion of the school network, the organization of the National Theatre and other cultural institutions, the unprecedented growth of literature, preparation of textbooks, translations of scientific and political literature — all this caused a need to organize a planned development issues literary languages, which is based on a scientific basis, on a careful study of each particular language, taking into account the domestic laws of its development.

Planned and organized the development of literary languages ​​of questions concerned mainly practical issues of normalization of the newly developing literary languages, the establishment of the foundations of their dialect and grammatical rules, improve graphics and spelling, regulation required a huge number of new terms.

However, in the development of national literary issues written languages ​​were allowed a lot of mistakes.

Marrovskoe so-called «new doctrine» of the language caused great harm to the study of national languages ​​and the development of theoretical and practical questions of linguistics. Antihistoricism this «doctrine» prevented the study basic questions of history, dialectology, vocabulary, grammatical structure of language-specific processes and their development in relation to the specific history of this nation. All languages ​​in this respect, considered in isolation, outside of their relationships. Sravnitelnoistorichesky method was expelled from the practice of research, which is why there was a low theoretical level. Many mistakes were made in this regard, and in resolving practical issues of linguistics.

IV Stalin not only exposed the anti-Marxist essence of the «new doctrine» of the language, but pointed to the vicious practice of his followers, on their wrong attitudes towards the study of national languages.

The provisions of Stalin allow us to finally put an end to the confusion that prevailed before in these fields of knowledge, and to organize further work on Marxist principles. Stalin gave exhaustive indications that relations between nations and their languages ​​before and after the victory of socialism is different. If the conditions of capitalism in the crossing of languages ​​is a struggle for supremacy between the languages ​​of one of the languages ​​in our country after the victory of socialism, the languages ​​were able to free development.

In the new socialist conditions changed and the attitude of all the peoples of the Soviet Union to the Russian language, which is recognized by all of the second native language. Russian language as one of the leading languages ​​of the world has become a major source of enrichment and development of the other national languages ​​of the Soviet Union. Because he borrowed all the basic scientific and socio-political terminology. The Russian language is now occupied an important place in the school.

Fundamental works of Stalin’s Soviet linguistics have set new challenges with regard to practical issues of further development of national literary languages ​​and including the first languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR.

One of the main issues of normalization of the national literary language is that of the correct choice of the dialectal basis of language — the main dialect, grammatical structure and basic vocabulary-nsh fund which becomes the basis for developing a national literary language.

National republics and regions basically correct resolve this issue, even though in some cases have even place the erroneous conclusions in this regard, and consequently, their practical implementation.

Usually languages ​​of the USSR for the first time will receive a written and an opportunity to develop his literary language, although sometimes colorful dialect differences, has its base a single dialect, fully reflects the general laws of development of all common language. However, some languages, for historical reasons have been put in the special conditions of development on the basis of not one but two or neskhsolkih dialects. These languages ​​include, for example, the modern literary language Komi-Zyryan and Komi-Perm, Erzya and Moksha Mordvin or Mountain and Meadow Mari, which are still divided in its development, and, consequently, do not have a single national language. Among the Turkic languages ​​until recently in the same situation was the Chuvash language, consolidation dialects which ended in the last century in two main dialects, or dialects: Anatra or grassroots dialect and viryal or mount an adverb, which are now united by a single literary national language , a grass-roots basis in dialect, but using lexical resources and other dialects.

Some of the Turkic languages ​​(Uzbek, Turkmen and others) still have a certain gap between the norms of the literary and spoken language. Dialect basis of these languages ​​is unclear. For example, modern literary Uzbek language, which is based on the so-called «urban nesingarmonistiche cal-speak», was in some degree detached with respect to many popular language dialects. This isolation of the literary language is also due to clogging variety of alien Arab-Iranian and starouzbekskom lexical elements, it is not clear to the people. A clear indication of the partial settlement of the question of the attitude of the Uzbek literary language to the territorial dialects and jargons class is that modern poets and writers often supply their works sensible glossary explaining the meaning of some words of the literary language. The same phenomenon, but to a lesser extent, typical for languages ​​like Tartar district Turkmen, due to addiction of some writers to samples of the old literature.

There among the Turkic languages ​​and languages ​​such dialectal features which are not sharp and are expressed in the language poorly. An example is the Kazakh language, dialects that do not have sharp differences, although they have their own characteristics in the phonetic structure and vocabulary and grammar. Some Kazakh linguists tried on the basis of local characteristics of the Kazakh language to construct a classification Kazakh negotiations, based on the old division of the Kazakh people for three juz or three hordes — the senior or more, and junior or a small — but the data of the Kazakh language does not support this scheme Kazakh division can speak three dialects zhuzovskih. In any case, in order to resolve the issue of the presence of dialects in the Kazakh language — the dialect, characterized by a set of local phonetic, lexical and grammatical features which were known to the system and spread to a certain area, it is first necessary to collect relevant material. This material is allowed to set is whether those local peculiarities of the Kazakh language, for example, in areas adjacent to the Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, and so on. E., A certain system of phonetic, lexical and grammatical evidence to suggest the presence of dialects or sub-dialects, or they form only a border, transitional minor phenomenon specific to small areas.

Before linguists national republics is a large and important task — to determine the ratio of the standard language to dialect and says to install dialect basis of each national language and in accordance with the basic dialect normalize literary language, t. E. To determine its vocabulary, grammar, pronouncing and spelling rules , using all the wealth of all popular language. In determining the standards of literary language with the old traditions must simultaneously fight for the purists of the historically deposited elements of the old jargon of class against bourgeois nationalist attempts to impose a national literary language norm-people foreign to the spoken language. These trends are known to be expressed either in the imposition of artificial structures such audaryspats «revolution» (literally, «rollover»), or to use on a large scale Arab-Iranian language. Later, with the adoption of the Latin alphabet for the same bourgeois-nationalist elements characteristic were tendencies «fence» of the language of natural penetrating part of the national language spoken Russian and in Russian language international terms and borrowing «Europeanized» forms, such as social-leaf of «socialist» El Popular «popular» — in Tatar and some other languages.

In establishing the standards of literary language can not allow a large gap between the literary language and spoken language of the whole people. It is necessary to avoid overuse of borrowing new words in cases where they can be expressed by means of his tongue, but at the same time it is also impossible to protect the national language of artificial barriers which do not allow the introduction of a written literary language of Russian words that are widely used in the nation-wide spoken language, as well as the specific terminology, which is absorbed in the school together with the assimilation of the Russian language.

Russian language as a means of communication between the peoples of the USSR takes in this respect, a special place. As one of the largest and most developed languages ​​of the world, the Russian language has played and plays a huge role today means familiarizing the peoples of the USSR to the great Russian culture. It is therefore natural draft Peoples of the USSR to its exploration and development, and at the same time to attract his lexical resources to enrich the vocabulary of native YAZYK01

This convergence of the languages ​​of the USSR with the great Russian language is also one of the clearest indicators of convergence of national in form and socialist in content cultures of all the peoples of the USSR, I uniting all peoples around the great Russian people.

In developing the standards of national literary languages ​​of the peoples of the Soviet Union must be guided by the following main provisions stemming from the fundamental guidance of Joseph Stalin.

Each of the national literary languages ​​of the Soviet peoples must be based on the mass, the richest in respect of basic lexical fund, and the vocabulary of the grammatical structure of the dialect that best reflects the general patterns in the development of all language. However, we can not allow a literary language was divorced from popular language was not understood by the representatives of other dialects and dialects. Literary language must be cleared by clogging its elements of class jargons written (book) languages ​​of the past, as well as artificial borrowing obscure people (many Arab-Iranian words and terms, «Europeanized» form of word and so on. N.).

In developing, refining and polishing the rules of the literary language must be based primarily on the specifics of the particular language of the internal laws of its development, from its lexical and grammatical resources. However, it is also necessary to deal with the bourgeois-nationalist tendencies — to avoid borrowing from the neighboring, more advanced language and, above all, of the Russian language, avoiding a rapprochement with the Russian language.

The most important issue for further normalization of the literary languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR is to establish a correct and scientific principles of development of socio-political, scientific and technical terminology. It is known that the development and enrichment of the language is expressed primarily in the completion of their new vocabulary. Recharge it as in all other processes of normalization of literary languages, should be regulated. For each particular control language principles terminology should be developed separately, while at the same time can be in this direction and some common position.

One of the fundamental questions of the development and normalization of terminology in all languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR is a question of establishing the sources of terminology and their correct use. The main source of terminology must be first of all the vocabulary of these specific languages ​​and dialects. The vocabulary of the language forms a complex system of lexical semantic relations, and every new concept, approaching one of its main features with other concepts, and finds its verbal clearance. However, a new term created by either a semantic narrowing or expanding the old words, or by affixing, or through syntactic combinations of two or more words, or some artificial compounding — not always in English and is included in the lexical system of his vocabulary. Enrichment of the vocabulary of talking also by borrowing words from other languages. Languages ​​of the Soviet Union throughout the post-revolutionary era are widely used and are using a rich vocabulary of the Russian language from which they borrow also international terms.

This tradition should remain in the future. It is necessary to make rational use of both of these means of replenishing terminology. However, in respect of each equity specific language, and with respect to Russian language — the main source of borrowing terms — to be installed known mutual boundary. Terminology of the languages ​​of the Soviet Union must not be overloaded loan words in cases where the new term can be easily set up their own word-formation means, and at the same time, should wage a resolute struggle with incomprehensible to the masses of people with artificial translations into the native language of the terms, already known to the masses in their Russian design.

With regard to the unfamiliar and alien-people spoken language is artificially made at the early stages of the development of national literary languages ​​of the Arab-Iranian words and terms they use ‘can not be considered appropriate. At the same time it should not be carried away by the excessive «cleaning» of the language of the Arab-Iranian language where it is organically entered the vocabulary and basic lexical fund these specific languages.

These are the main principles for the development of terminology in the modern languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR, which in its basic features, and is now being implemented in most of the republics and regions.

One of the most important achievements in the field of culture of the peoples of the USSR, the revival of the Great October Socialist Revolution, is the development of alphabets and writing for the languages ​​of these peoples on the basis of Russian alphabet.

The Arabic alphabet, which was used by some people, and later Latinized alphabet could not fully ensure the development of the national languages ​​of the former backward peoples of Russia.

Transition of most languages ​​on the Russian plan promoted not only the development of all the languages ​​of the Soviet Union, but also had significant assistance in the successful development of the nationalities of the Soviet Union the Russian language and culture, thus ensuring a uniform and common foundation of literacy in two languages ​​- Russian and native.

The development of alphabets and writing based on Russian graphics was carried by a majority of the national republics and regions, taking into account the mutual exchange of experience and the recommendations of local and national research institutions. Thanks to this modern alphabets based on Russian graphics perfectly reflect the composition of the phonemic language, contribute to the successful assimilation of the native languages ​​in school and to a large extent help to assimilate the nationalities of the Soviet Union the Russian language.

This exclusive importance of the Russian alphabet and requires special attention, when it is used. Literacy problems simultaneously at the national and Russian languages ​​can be successfully solved only when the maximum value of the letters of unification. The Russian alphabet on the basis for each of the national language as far as possible there should be no oppositions common to him and the Russian language characters or letters, which are used only for the sounds of the national language — to others, as a total, which are used only for the borrowed words. This position, of course, does not apply to the specific characters that are absent in the Russian alphabet, which can be used only for the root word of the language.

Alphabets as a system of symbols, letters, reflecting as far as possible all the phonemes of the language should be, on the one hand, as simple as possible, and, on the other hand — differentiated to reflect on the letter all semantically distinct word.

From this standpoint, the existing alphabets based on Russian demand more substantial corrections and clarifications, which is one of the immediate tasks of our research institutions.

Further improvement of the alphabet is to go in the first place, through the establishment of a minimum number of values ​​for each, mark, and, secondly, to facilitate the assimilation of native and Russian languages ​​at school — through the harmonization and unification of the values ​​of each character of the alphabet of a particular language Russian alphabet. To do this in the first place can be put up for discussion the following issues relating to the designation of vowels: a) on the delimitation and designation of sounds and e Uzbek alphabet; b) on the division of the designation of sounds is, Tatar and Russian is, in borrowed words in the Tatar alphabet; c) reflect on the delimitation of the letter, on the one hand, to the type of vowel, and on the other — and diphthongs th rd in Kazakh and Karakalpak languages; g) the possibility, and even necessary convergence vowel sounds close together on the articulation, for example, sounds r and, on the one hand, and sounds y and, on the other — in Kazakh alphabet.

More well-designed modern Turkic alphabets to indicate consonants, although even here there are also some drawbacks. To eliminate them you must pay attention to the issues of further development of the alphabet, mainly in the following directions.

Firstly, to avoid, where possible, refer to the same sound with different letters within a single alphabet (Wed. such designation at (w) in the Tatar and Bashkir alphabet, where the consonant has three equivalent: in, y, y, and in different alphabets (Wed., for example, the designation of six ways consonant J: J, d, w, w, w, £).

Second, to avoid, as much as possible, the introduction of extra alphabet, characters that can be zameneny- spelling conventional techniques. Wed., for example, unnecessary signs c and d (and the corresponding graphical variants to, kb, rb) in languages ​​that kept the law of vowel harmony, for example, Kumyk, Nogay, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Bashkir, where the differentiation in the pronunciation of a and c, ek is achieved by the presence of either the rear or the front vowels in a word: Wed, for example, in the Karakalpak language: Quantity (tsol) «hand» and KWL (KWL) «lake» or sogu (plow) «fight» and Segou (sogu) » language «and so on. f. Identification of these pairs of consonants to x n, y and z are, as well as the sound of L and l in the majority of Turkic languages, with the exception of the Uzbek, Uighur, and some others are not smyslorazlichayuschimi sounds — connected yet with the traditions of the use of the Arabic alphabet, where the sounds of the Arabic language to represent different characters.

This reduction extra characters (for example, c and d), as shown in Tatarstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and the Altai, helps to simplify the rules of spelling, and, consequently, reduce spelling errors in students in schools in the native language.

Third, to avoid the possible ambiguity of certain letters of the alphabet denoting distant meanings. For example, the letter from the Kazakh and Karakalpak alphabets represents different sounds such as vowel u (as in Karakalpak, in addition, and at the front), according to y (w) and diphthongs y / y, yy.

Fourthly, it is necessary to bring together the maximum graphics and spelling national alphabets graphics and spelling of the Russian language, eliminating the existing contradictions here.

These are the results for the development of the alphabets of Turkic-speaking republics, the main disadvantages of these alphabets and basic ways and tasks of their further development and improvement.

One of the biggest practical problems in the development of national literary languages ​​of the Soviet Union is also the task of further refinement of existing rules spelling.

When clarifying the rules of spelling, their simplification and approximation to the existing norms of the spoken literary language must be based on the specific laws of each particular language. Recently, representatives of the so-called «new doctrine» of language qualified typical for all Turkic languages ​​the laws of vowel harmony as the laws of the reaction, preventing the alleged development of these languages, and clarify the rules of pronunciation and spelling, while this feature Turkic languages ​​are largely helping to establish a very precise and clear rules of a pronunciation and spelling.

The rules spell many modern Turkic languages ​​ignore reflected in a letter to all the cash in the word phonemes allow passage in the letter of narrow vowels (Karakalpak, Khakassia and some other languages) or inconsistent reflection, and sometimes full admission in writing long vowels (Turkmenistan, Altai, etc. .).

One of the major drawbacks of modern rules of spelling for the majority of Turkic languages ​​is the lack of clear rules and fused separately spelling. The nature and specifics of the Turkic languages ​​as languages ​​agglutinative require in this regard, we believe, maximize the use of the principle of separation of writing and only as an exception for difficult words phonetically merged with each other, the principle of fused their writing.

Difficult is the question of spelling affixes and reflected in the letter of phonetic phenomena that occur at the boundaries between the base and the formants. It is here that there are different patterns of assimilation and dissimilation of vowels and consonants, to which must be established and the relevant rules of spelling. The greatest difficulty in this case cause the borrowed words with unusual for many Turkic languages ​​combination of vowels and consonants. Obeying the laws of the language, they often get the spelling forms that do not coincide with the pronunciation.

When clarification is necessary to consider the rules of spelling vocabulary and terminology borrowed through the Russian language, as well as those new sounds, enriched phonetic structure of languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR. Borrowing new sounds and the possibility of expanding the scope of registration spelling words and allows you to set common rules for spelling loan words. The question of the principles of design Russian loanwords in accordance with existing specific characteristics of specific languages ​​was raised recently in an article by E. Mohr-DIN and GD Sanzheeva.

These articles establish the general principle of subordination loanwords phonetic rules of national languages ​​while retaining their original mark within these standards and taking into account the input in alphabets other letters for the newly borrowed through the Russian language sounds and indicates the need for the abandonment of the old Russian loans in their It is fully adapted to the norms of language forms and the maximum approach to the Russian original Russian words borrowed again in the aftermath of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

The design borrowed through the Russian language words in most languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR were established already well-known tradition in which old loans are issued in accordance with their pronunciation in the phonetic rules of each national language term is borrowed from the Great October Socialist Revolution in these languages ​​are made taking into account trends rapprochement spelling appearance of borrowed words in this period and, in particular, technical terms and proper names with their Russian faces.

Violation of these established traditions spelling borrowed words would involve breaking the current spell and would have led to the separation of languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR by the relevant people’s spoken language. However, there is another danger — the separation of the languages ​​of the USSR of the Russian language — if the national spelling have been developed without taking into account borrowing with new words and phonemes borrowed from Russian. Such a separation would be harmful responded primarily to the assimilation of the Russian language in the non-Russian school.

However, registration of borrowed words can not set general and universal rules for all languages. Existing domestic laws of language, on the one hand, and a long tradition of assimilation of Russian words — on the other hand, dictate the establishment of various rules of registration of loan words in each language.

Meanwhile, in setting the rules of spelling for languages ​​that use an alphabet based on Russian, it is necessary that these rules came from the phonetic patterns of the structure and the grammatical structure of the national language and at the same time would not have had sharp differences with the existing conventions of Russian spelling. The establishment of such a spell largely avoids the difficulties of teaching the Russian language in the National School, which emerged and can occur in the event that a single schedule for these languages ​​will be used in the spelling without the establishment of the relevant principles.

Therefore, all questions of spelling of indigenous and borrowed words should be addressed specifically, on the basis of common principles and taking into account both phonetic and lexical and grammatical norms of particular languages, and the needs and requirements of the methodology of teaching native languages ​​in the Russian and non-Russian school.

*

In addition to developing basic and urgent practical questions of national literary languages, which are the establishment of the principles of normalization of languages, the determination of their dialect base and right relationship of literary language with other dialentami, questions of terminology development, the alphabet and spelling before linguists of the Soviet Union there are also problems of establishing orthoepic standards for most of the national languages ​​of the USSR, questions of style and improving technology transfer. All of these tasks is provided by the software and methodological instructions given in the brilliant works of Stalin.

Like this post? Please share to your friends: