The collective farm named after Lenin (village Goryachevodskaya) Mineralovodskogo production department annually planting fruit trees, strongly increases the yield of the gardens. Yes, and how not to develop this important and profitable crop if it gives up to 40% of the farm cash income. In the best years we get from gardening 1400-1500 rubles. But not only that guided the farm, increasing fruit plantings. We see our duty to fully meet the needs of tourists on the Caucasian resorts.
Most mistakes are farm managers, who are afraid of the cost of the development of gardens. In part, this is probably due to the fact that young plantations during the first years after planting, do not give a «return.» But after a few years, gardens are beginning to bear fruit, and the cost recouped with interest. We have seen this and boldly expand the area of perennial plants. Over the past 10 years the garden has increased by 700 hectares.
Of course, the high profitability of gardening depends on good organization of work, timely care for the plants. We basically eliminated the periodicity of fruiting gardens. In this great merit of specialists: chief agronomist AA Samoylenko, Brigadier I. D. Rott AA Chuprynin NI Nevreeva, farmers NI Dobrovolsky, NE Shvets, M. Rakitin KA Tarasenko, LA Khripunova and many other enthusiasts.
In 1960, the farm has grown apples to 113 quintals per hectare, in 1961, under adverse weather conditions — of 52 -7 quintal in 1962 — at 84.2 centners from every fruit-bearing plants. We get a good crop of pears and stone fruits.
Up to 1953 the gardens catered to integrated teams. That was a mistake. The fact that the team leaders of teams have concentrated on field and livestock. In these industries they directed most of the manpower and equipment. For poorly tended gardens, in some areas we do not even plowed the soil between rows, slightly struggled with pests and plant diseases. As a result, yields are low. Such a provision was s other farms of Stavropol.
Now take care of the gardens three specialized teams of 80-100 farmers each. They were fastened on 270-300 acres of gardens, the required number of tractors, a set of machines.
Brigade headed by experienced workers, mainly agronomists. They each have an assistant on mechanization. In teams of three executives, there are fruit storage, dryers and other household.
Now, the team focuses mainly on the care of gardens. In between the rows of young plants grown vegetables and fodder crops. All work to care for the plants, including pest and disease control, carried out in a timely manner. Status gardens are much improved, their yields rose. We are convinced that specialization — a decisive condition for the successful development of horticulture. The newly created another specialized team, which transferred 270 acres of gardens that come into fruition.
We grow 28 varieties of apple, 17 — pears, 5 — apricot, cherry-11, 13 — peach 9 — cherry, plum varieties 8. We get fruits and berries early, middle and late ripening. It is beneficial to the farm and consumers, who can buy fruits all year round.
To ensure the highest yield, gardeners work year-round. In the fertile garden of autumn plow aisle, with 1 / z area are making organic fertilizers 30-40 tons per hectare. In mid-summer on the square on pelyushku sow green manure. In May, under cultivation are making 1.5 quintals of ammonium nitrate per hectare. After falling off the excess of the ovary give a second fertilizing. During the growing season the soil in the garden is contained in the loose and clean condition.
We pay more attention to the care of the crowns. Young trees are cut off, taking into account the proper formation of crowns. Bearer cut off the age, type and condition of the tree. About 35% of the trees cut the pome crops detail. Two years reduce the crown of the method developed by the candidate of agricultural sciences NP Don. Inside the crown remove excess branches, cut out the old part of the fruit of education, shorten the fat shoots in order to transfer to fruition. On the periphery of the crown shorten annual increments. At the same time clear the trunks and skeletal branches of dead bark. During the summer in the apple and pear spend two pintcirovki young shoots. This speeds up the growth of leaves and allows you to translate shoots on fruiting.
Timely are fighting pests and diseases of the garden. The first spraying is carried out until the swelling of the kidneys 7% solution of carbolineum against overwintering stages of pests. On the green cones treated with 3% solution (blue spraying) Bordeaux fluid with the addition of 1% emulsion of DDT.
After flowering, the trees sprinkle the combined solution consisting of 1% liquid Bordeaux, 0.2% in Paris and 0.1% green thiophos, after three weeks of treatment repeat the same drugs.
Now the gardens occupy 1036 hectares. By the end of the seven-year period, there should be more than 1,400 hectares. Due to what we will expand the area of plantations? You can, of course, to allocate 364 hectares of land and the field lay the garden. It’s the easy way, but unfavorable for the economy. The fact that we have more than 7000 head of cattle, about 10 thousand pigs, 50,000 laying hens. Therefore, in field crop rotations cultivate peas, corn, beet, cereals.
The problem of increasing the production of fruits solve primarily due to the sealing of existing gardens. To do this, we use the semi-dwarf rootstocks on plant and tall with small crowns. Fruit trees planted in slopes, mounds along roadsides.
Along the road there will be more than 18 thousand, on mountain slopes and mounds — 24 thousand, in the order sealing — more than 43 thousand trees and all — more than 85 thousand trees. Even if we will plant 75,000 trees and obtain from each of them by 50 kilograms, the economy will have an additional 37.5 thousand quintals of fruit.
In the garden between the rows farm sows pelyushku, this lovely food, especially in the form of silage and a wonderful fertilizer. Since we have little manure and use it mainly for corn, sugar beet and vegetable crops, the sowing pelyushki in gardens for fertilizer will increase.
Gardens locate large arrays — 250-300 hectares. This allows better use of technology, to concentrate in one place labor, to establish better service the people, it is easier to exercise control over the progress of work, the state of the gardens.
We have some successes in the development of horticulture. But there are drawbacks that hinder the work. In 1962, the unit RM Bakaeva received 130 quintals of pears per hectare, and a link KA Tarasenko 150 quintals of apples. All the units worked under the same conditions. However, the average yield on the farm is: pear-78.7 quintals, apples — 84 tons per hectare. Difference is considerable. If all the gardeners worked as advanced units, the economy would have received an additional lot of fruit. But we have not been able to use the available opportunities. There are omissions.
There are drawbacks, get rid of them, we ourselves can not. The collective farm does not have a small-sized tractors, small tillers. Sprayers fallen into disrepair, and the department «Soyuzselhoztehnika» these machines do not.
Until now, sorting, grading and packaging fruit perform manually. It’s time to really do mechanization of labor-intensive processes of gardening.
Few get pesticides. Always there is a shortage of copper sulfate, and replace it with nothing. We need large quantities of pesticides and other.
I want to believe that these claims will be taken into account, and in turn we will do our best to give the country more fruit.